Introduction

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. He was the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP), which is one of the largest political parties in Pakistan. His daughter Benazir Bhutto has also served twice as prime minister. Bhutto is often addressed as the Quaid-e-Awam.

History and Background
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born to Khursheed Begum and Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto in their residence near Larkana in what later became the province of Sindh. His father was a wealthy landlord, businessman and a prominent politician in Sindh. In 1949, Bhutto transferred to the campus at Berkeley, where he earned an honours degree in political science then in June, 1950 Bhutto travelled to England to study law at the Christ Church College in Oxford. Finishing his studies, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1953.

Political career
In 1957, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the youngest member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nations. He addressed the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression on 25 October 1957 and led Pakistan's delegation to the first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea in 1958. That same year, Bhutto became the youngest Pakistan cabinet minister, on appointment to the Ministry of Water and Power by President Ayub Khan, who had seized power and declared martial law in a successful coup d'état. In 1960, he was promoted to Minister of the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Communications, and the Ministry of Industry. Bhutto became a close and trusted political advisor to Ayub Khan. Bhutto aided Ayub Khan in negotiating the Indus Water Treaty in India in 1960. In 1961, Bhutto negotiated an oil exploration agreement with the Soviet Union, which agreed to provide economic and technical aid to Pakistan.

PPP
Falling out with Ayub after the war, Bhutto founded the Pakistan People's Party on November 30, 1967. Following Ayub's resignation, his successor, General Yahya Khan promised to hold parliamentary elections on 7 December 1970. Bhutto's party won a large number of seats from constituencies in WestPakistan.However, Sheikh Mujib's Awami League won an absolute majority in the legislature, largely because an electoral reform had given East-Pakistan a substantial majority of the seats in the chamber. Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League government and famously promised to "break the legs" of any elected PPP member who dared to attend the inaugural session of the National Assembly. Capitalising on West Pakistani fears of East Pakistani separatism, Bhutto demanded that Sheikh Mujib form a coalition with the PPP According to terrorism expert Hamid Mir, Bhutto sent his most trusted companion to East Pakistan to meet with Mujib and his inner circle, played a major role convincing Mujib to meet Bhutto. After Dr. Hassan achieved this task, Bhutto and Mujib agreed upon a coalition government for the sake of keeping Pakistan united. Under the terms of the deal, Mujib would have become prime minister and Bhutto would have succeeded Yahya as president. Yahya was unaware of these talks, and both Bhutto and Mujib kept substantial pressure on Yahya Khan. After his own talks with Sheikh Mujib failed, Yahya postponed the opening session of the National Assembly and ordered an

[37] In spite of all the criticism—and subsequent media trials—Bhutto still remains the most popular leader of the country. Bhutto was duly elected by the House to be the Prime Minister.000 Pakistani prisoners of war. Abdul Qadeer Khan also joined the nuclear weapons program. a psychological setback and emotional breakdown for Pakistan. Bangladesh got separated from Pakistan on December 1971. his daughter was . while the rest of the program being run in PAEC and comprising over twenty laboratories and projects was headed by Munir Ahmad Khan. Pakistan changed from a presidential system to a parliamentary one. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan. headed the Kahuta Project. heavy electrical. a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti). After the 1973 Constitution was promulgated. Balochistan. Amidst popular outrage in East Pakistan. Father of the Nuclear weapons program Pakistan began focusing on nuclear weapons development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. They worked day and night for this project and at last finally. The two leaders signed the Shimla Agreement. Conclusion Bhutto's international image was more of an Internationalist with a secular image. By the end of 1978. the Baloch. these nationalist organizations were brutally quelled by Pakistan Armed Forces. with Zahid Ali Akbar. At an internal front. Sheikh Mujib declared the independence of "Bangladesh" And finally after the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. including iron and steel. The TwoNation Theory — the theoretical base in which Pakistan was found and established – was brutally failed. and the Pakhtun nationalism was at its peak point. Founding as difficult as to keep remaining Pakistan as united. In 1976. Bhutto visited India to meet Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and negotiated a formal peace agreement and the release of 93.[36] Since her creation. the physical and moral existence of Pakistan was in great danger. Sindhi. and Pakistan's foreign policy collapsed when no moral support was found anywhere. As a Leader of Pakistan As President. calling for their independence from Pakistan. Bhutto launched full-fledged intelligence and extensive military operations.The trauma was severe in Pakistan. and he was sworn in on 14 August 1973.Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology is named for him. including from her own long standing allies. Bhutto faced with mounted and eminent challenges in both internal and foreign fronts. Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Chagai Hills in the Chagai district.army action against Mujib. petrochemicals. On 2 January 1972 Bhutto announced the nationalization of all major industries. cement and public utilities. particularly the United States and the People's Republic of China. heavy engineering. which committed both nations to establish a new yet temporary Cease-fire Line in Kashmir and obligated them to resolve disputes peacefully through bilateral talks. and. on 28 May 1998. who delegated the program to the Chairman of PAEC Munir Ahmad Khan.

Under his democratic premiership. in the world. Bhutto. is often and commonly regarded as the Father of Pakistan's nuclear deterrence program.Because of his administrative and aggressive nature to lead the nuclear weapons program.chairman of its board of trustees. Bhutto was responsible for supervising the promulgation of Pakistan's third 1973 constitution for which he successfully obtained approval from all of political parties in Pakistan. .