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Questions On GSM History Of GSM 1) Describe in short the evolution of GSM?

Year Mobile System 1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450 1983 American Mobile Phone System (AMPS 1985 Total Access Communications System (TACS) 1986 Nordic Mobile telephony (NMT) 900 1991 American Digital Cellular (ADC) Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Digital Cellular Systems (DCS) 1800 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) PCS-1900 Canada 1996 PCS- United States

1991 1992 1994 1995

2) What are the standard bodies for the development and nurturing of the GS M standard? CEPT (Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications) MoU (Memorandum Of Understanding) CCITT (Comite Consultatif International Telegraphique et telephonique) General Characteristics Of GSM Technology 1) What is Time Division Multiple Access? TDMA is a digital transmission technology, which wor s by dividing a radi o frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to each user within each c hannel. In this way, a single frequency can support multiple, simultaneous data channels. 2) What is FDMA? Frequency Divison Multiple access is a scheme in which the entire frequency band is divided into channels, each channel corresponding to a particular frequency range. With FDMA each channel can be assigned to one user at a time. 3) Give details of the uplin and downlin band of GSM? The uplin band of GSM is from 890MHz to 915MHz and the downlin band of is from 935MHz to 960MHz 4) What is the bandgap between the uplin and downlin carrier in GSM? 45 MHz. 5) What is the bandgap between 2 consecutive carriers? 200KHz 6) How many carriers are present in the GSM band and how many channels are there in each carrier? 124 carriers and 8 channels per carrier 7) What type of modulation is used in GSM? Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) 8) What is ARFCN? In cellular mobile communications the radio channels are identified b y their Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. In GSM ARFCN 1 to 124 are use d.








Base Transceiver Station (BTS) c. 11) Describe in brief the functionalities of the Base Station Controller (BSC)? The BSC is connected on one side to one or several BTSs and on the other         . Visitor Location Register (VLR) g. Mobile Station (MS) b. Mobile Switching Center (MSC) e.GSM Networ Architecture 9) What are the components of the GSM networ ? Draw a schematic diagram of the GSM Networ architecture? B Um C E F BSS D Abis H A The GSM networ architecture consists of the following components a. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 10) Describe in brief the functionalities of the Base Transceiver Station (BTS)? The BTS is a part of the Base Station Sub system and is in contact with t he MS through the radio interface. Authentication Center (AuC) h. Base Station Controller (BSC) d. The BTS is in charge of management of transmi ssion and reception on the radio interface. Home Location Register (HLR) f.

It contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the networ . where each mobile station is identified by International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). a sec ret ey for authentication. 17) What is the function of the TRAU? 18) What is SIM? What are the functions of the SIM? The Subscriber Identity Module is a card inside a mobile equipment which contains subscriber related data. the special services the MS is subscribed to and s o on. 16) What is the function of the Authentication Center (AuC)? The Authentication Center is a database that stores a copy of the secret ey stored in each subscriber's SIM card. The main function of the BSC is allocation and release of radio chann els and the handover management. and the Authentication Center (AuC). 14) What is the function of the Visitor Location Register (VLR)? The Visitor Location Register contains roaming information. It temporarily stores the last location area visited by the MS. the SIM card in the mobi le. Each subscriber is given a secret ey ( Ki). provide the callrou ting and roaming capabilities of GSM. The HLR contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the correspon ding GSM networ . the VLR of that system enquires the HLR to ma e sure you are a valid subscriber. 19) Describe how authentication is performed in GSM? Authentication involves two functional entities.side to the MSC. and other information. the AuC generates a random number (RAND) tha t it sends to the mobile. 13) What is the function of the Home Location Register (HLR)? The Home Location Register (HLR) together with the MSC.This is useful when searching for stolen mobile equipment or when monitoring misuse of mobile stations. along with the current location of the mobile. 15) What is the function of the Equipment Identity Register (EIR)? The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that stores data rela ted to the mobile equipment. 12) What is the function of the Mobile switching center (MSC)? The MSC performs the basic function of switching. Both the mobile and the AuC then use the random number                 . The main function of the MSC is to co-ordinate the setting up of calls to and from GSM users and the ext ernal networ The MSC has interface with the BSS on one side and the external ne twor on the other side. which is used for authentication and ciphering of the radio channel. the power the mobile uses. Once the visi ted system detects the mobile. The SIM card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) used to identify the subscriber to the system. one copy of which is stored in the SIM card and the other in the Authentica tion Center. During authentication.

Pagi ng Channel and Random Access Channel. 28) What is the function of the AGCH? The AGCH is used for sending access grant messages. 26) What is the function of the BCCH? The Broadcast Control Channel broadcasts general information about the ce ll viz. T he FACCH is transmitted in the burst by pre-empting a portion of the speech/user data information bits during active call. to generate a number (SRES) that is sent bac to the AuC. GSM Air Interface 19) What are the two types of logical channels? The two types of logical channels are Traffic Channels (TCH) and Control C hannels 20) What are the various types of Control Channels? There are three types of control channels mainly broadcast Control Channel s. the subscriber i s authenticated. Synchronization Channel and Frequency Correction Channel. 25) What is the function of the SCH? The Synchronization Channel is used for frame synchronization of the Mobi le Station. Common Control Channels and Dedicated Control Channels. 21) What are the various types of Broadcast Control Channels? The three types of Broadcast Control Channels are Broadcast Control Channe l. in conjunction with the subscriber's secret ey and a ciphering algorithm call ed A3. 22) What are the various types of Common Control Channels? The three types of Common Control Channels are Access Grant Channel. Handover commands. MS maximum transmit power on CCHs and local a rea identification.. which assign the MS to an SDCCH or directly to a TCH in response to a request placed on RACH by MS. 27) What is the function of the FACCH? The FACCH is used as a main signaling lin for the transmission of data e g. Fast Associated Control Channel and Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel 24) What is the function of the FCCH? This downlin channel continuously transmits unmodulated carrier frequenc y for frequency correction of the MS. The FACCH is required for every call set up and release. neighbor cell information. If the number s ent by the mobile is the same as the one calculated by the AuC. It contains information about TDMA frame number and the BSIC. 23) What are the various types of Dedicated Control Channels? The three types of dedicated control channels are Slow Associated Control Channel.   29) What is the function of the RACH? The RACH is used to transfer uplin messages in response to the call init         .

The security function is performed by the AuC. handovers. ciphering. 31) What is the function of the SDCCH? The SDCCH carries all signaling between the BTS and the MS when no TCH is allocated. the HLR and VLR. 34) What are the functions of the Mobility Management sub layer in GSM? The mobility Management layer manages the location updating. initiation. equipment validation and assignment to a TCH. 30) What is the function of the Paging Channel (PCH)? The PCH is used to page the MS during mobile terminated call setup. SMS). 35) What are the functions of the Communications Management sub layer in GSM? Communications Management sub layer terminates at the MSC and contains en tities that currently consist of CC including call-related supplementary service . subscrib er authentication. 32) Draw and explain the protocol layer between the Mobile Station and the BTS? Um 33) What are the functions of the Radio resource Management Layer in GSM? The main function of the Radio resource management layer is to establish and release stable connections between mobile stations and the MSC for the durat ion of the call and to maintain the connection despite user movements.iation request placed by the MS or in response to a paging request or automatica lly as part of a location update. It is used for service requests (eg. a nd registration procedures. Pagin g messages are sent to the area where the recipient MS is located. location updates. The machines concerned with mobility management are mainly the MS.

the Mobile Networ Code (MNC) which identifies the PLMN of the subscriber and the Mo bile Station Identification Number (MSIN) which identifies the subscriber within a PLMN. call towards that MS station cannot be completed. 39) What is IMSI/TMSI? Every Subscriber is assigned an IMSI associated with its SIM card. the IMSI attach and IMSI detach procedure is used. Many c ells bear the same BSIC and it is common for neighboring cells to have the same BSIC. 41) What is the structure of IMSI? 3 Digits 2 Digits cation Code Number Code 42) What is MSISDN? Mobile Station ISDN Number This is the subscriber phone number. Only the VLR stores the TMSI not the HLR.   Mobile Country Mobile Networ Mobile Subscriber Identifi             . The IMSI detach procedure will set the binary bit to â Not Useful To Tryâ whereas the IMSI attach procedure will do the reverse. Hence important resources a re consumed for nothing. The T MSI serves to identify the MS when it needs to communicate with the networ . 36) What is Idle Mode? A mobile is said to be in idle mode when it is active (powered on) but is not allocated any traffic channel. The subscribers record in the MSC/VLR contains a binary info rmation indicating whether or not it is useful to try to complete the call towar d the subscriber. The IMS I is nown only to the subscriber and is ept internal and transmitted as rarely as possible for security reasons eeping the identity of the subscriber confide ntial (in case some one is listening on the air interface).s. and call independent supplementary services support (SS). The IMSI consists of Mobile Country code (MCC) which identifies home country of the subscriber. In the idle mode the MS listens to broadcast channels in order to intercept paging messages. monitor the radio environment i n order to evaluate its quality and choose the most suitable base station. 37) What are layer 2 and 3 messages? 38) What is Base Station Identity Code? The BSIC is a color code which the MSs use to be able to discriminate be tween the cells transmitting their beacon channels on the same frequency. To alleviate this load. The MSISDN consists of the Country C ode (CC). National Destination Code (NDC) and Subscriber Number. SMS. ` The MSC/VLR allocates a TMSI temporarily to a subscriber present in the geograph ical area served by the MSC/VLR. It is the number dialed when s omeone needs to call the mobile subscriber. It is the identi ty of the subscriber nown by the external world. Several MSC/VLRâ s can us e the same TMSI 40) What is IMSI attach /Detach? When a MS station is switched off(or when the SIM is removed by the user ). It is used instead of the IMSI to avoid transmitting the IMSI.

BSSAP             .. SMS and call independent Supplementary Services (SS) support. thereby increasing the l ife time of the battery at the expense of a small increase in the delay for the setting up of incoming calls. MM sub Layer Terminated at MSC Messages from or to the MSC are relayed transparently from BSS c. TCAP and MAP These are the interfaces between the MSC and HLR/VLR e. demodulate and analyze when it is in idle mode. Power is conserved at t he mobile unit by appling Discontinuous Transmission. Communications Management sub Layer Terminates at MSC Contains entities that consist of CC including call related supplementary servic es. RR Management sub layer Manages the Radio Interface Terminates at BSS from MS b. 46) What is Location Updating? When a MS moves to a new location area or is switched on in a new location area. Therefore the downlin common control channel is divided into sev eral paging sub channels and all messages pertaining to a given subscriber are s ent on the same sub channel. it is important to minimize th e amount of information the MS has to receive. It is allocated by the MSC/VLR currently serving the subscriber on a call basis (temporary assignment) 44) What is discontinuous Reception? For the sa e of battery consumption in MS. 45) What is Discontinuous Transmission? Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a method that ta es advantage of the fact that a person spea s less that 40 percent of the time in normal conversatio n by turning the transmitter off during silence periods. 48) What is the structure of a normal Burst? 49) Draw and Explain the Protocol architecture of the GSM Networ ? a. and then sends the location information to the subscriber's HLR 47) What are the various types of bursts in GSM? Normal Burst Synchronization Burst Dummy Burst Frequency Synchronization Burst. d. which records the location area information. Whether DTX should be appl ied or not is decide by the MSC while its execution is controlled by the BSC.43) What is Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN)? The MSRN is used to identify a subscriber when routing the call from the GMSC t o the visited MSC for mobile terminating calls. A loc ation update message is sent to the new MSC/VLR. Such a scheme allows the MS to restrict the monitor ing of paging messages to their own paging sub channel. it must register with the networ to indicate its current location.

tilt and height of the antenna affect the coverage? Power increases the coverage. In GSM We have space diversity antenna and cross polorised antenna. 7) What is co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference? The interference caused by using same channels in a networ is called cocha nnel interference and interference caused by adjacent channels of is called adja cent channel interference. Beamwidth and tilt improves th e coverage of the planned area. orientation. 2) What are the different types of antennas used in a GSM networ ? Antennas of different types based on antenna beamwidth and gain.Nominal cell planning for the coverage .Used to implement all procedures between the MSC and the BSS that require interp retation and processing of information related to single calls and resource mana gement.frequency planning and interference study. Model tuning for proper prediction on the tool . How do you minimize adjacent channel interference?             . To minimize frequency interference problems.Frequency reuse pattern is used for capacity plannin g. 4) What is EIRP? How is it calculated? Effective isotropic radiated power is the total o/p power of Base station EIRP=BTS (O/P) power+Antenna gain-cablelosses-other (combiner)losses 5) What is frequency planning? Why is frequency reuse pattern used? Frequency planning is to be done for the GSM networ for a given operator with A set of GSM frequency band.Omni antennas .Automatic frequency planning can be done in planning tool. f.3/9 pattern . 6) What are all the patterns available? How is frequency planning done on p lanning tool? 4/12 pattern. 3) How do the power. GSM Networ Planning & Optimization 1) What is the basic procedure for RF planning using RF planning tool in GS M? Planning Tool Loading of digital map data of the city on the planning tool. Final system planning. Increase in antenna height improves the coverage . Proper Orientation. beamwidth. SCCP and MTP SCCP and MTP protocols are used to implement the data lin layer and layer 3 tra nsport functions for carrying the call control and mobility management signaling message son the BSS_MSC lin . 8) 9) How do you minimize co-channel interference? proper frequency planning and proper reuse pattern.

13) What is capacity planning? This is process of increasing traffic by adding Trxs traffic channels and proper use of frequency reuse pattern. changing frequency planning and proper no of rad io channels availability. Addition of BTSs 14) How is site selection done for planning and site acquisition? After nominal cell planning with the geographical coordinates identifying best s ite candidate in a geographical area is the process of site selection. 10) What is model tuning? Why is it used? O arama Hatta model? Model tuning is done for any planning tool to obtain proper prediction expected from planning tool as there will be difference in actual and predicted data for planning tool. 19) What is bench mar ing in GSM? Bench Mar ing used for comparing performance of different networ for quality an d call performance parameters. 12) How is path loss ta en into calculation? This is the total path loss occurred due to multipath propagation of the signal between transmitted signal and the received signal level. 20) What is Erlang table? This is the table for calculating Traffic in erlang for no of channels.Planning tool and Post proce ssing tools are Used for optimization. One of the model is O arama Hatta Hatta Model is used which considers the signal propagation losses. 16) How do we use the above antenna patterns for optimization? Proper antenna orientation and tilts and antenna types can be used for optimizing networ .Proper frequency planning. Drive test tool. C/A.                   (Transmitt           . 21) What is grade of service? Grade of service is the bloc ing for the given traffic channels.   22) How do you optimize a networ using OMCR performance data?   17) How do we handle poor C/I. handover problems and bloc ing?   11) What is lin Budget Analysis used for in GSM? Lin budget analysis is used for the path balance between both uplin er) Downlin (Receiver) part of the networ . 18) What is system information? System information is from BTS sent to Mobile for the idle mode and dedicated m ode of the call for call management. Chec ing proper neighbor list. 15) What is optimization? What are the tools used for optimization? Once GSM networ is integrated in order to achieve proper planning prediction RF parameters Optimization is done.

23) What is daily report and traffic? This is the report obtained in OMC for the performce of all BTS about traffic . 24) What is cell_reselect_hysterisis? This is process of handover done by mobile in idle mode from selected cell to an other cell. . and increase in handover success performance an d drop call reduction performance. 25) What is path loss criterion (C1)? How is it calculated? This is the signal strength measured in idle mode for selecting best serving cha nnel.Proper increase in call success.