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Interconnection of two or more computers and peripherals Allows user to share and transfer information


Networks are classified depending on the geographical area covered by the network
Computer Networks

Local Area Network (LAN)

Campus Area Network (CAN)

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN)


 

Covers a small area Connects computers and workstations covering a local area like, office or home


Advantages of LAN:  Improves productivity due to faster work  Provides easy maintenance  New systems can be installed and configured easily Disadvantages of LAN:  Limited number of systems can only be connected  Cannot cover large area  Network performance degrades as number of users exceeds

LANs are classified depending on the techniques used for data sharing
LAN Types


Token Ring

Token Bus



  Made up of multiple LANs within limited area Connects different LANs in a campus 7 .

  Interconnects networks within a city Supports data and voice transmission 8 .

Internet 9 . Covers a wide geographical area which includes multiple computers or LANs e.g.

Client and Server Server:  A centralized element which provides resources to client  Manages data. CPU and peripherals 10 . printers or network traffic Client:  Manages local resources used by users such as monitor.   Consists of two elements. keyboard.

    Also known as ISO-OSI Reference Model Developed by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Describes flow of information from one computer to another Consists of seven layers 11 .

12 .

13 .

  Topology refers to physical or logical arrangement of network Physical topologies are ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Single Node Bus Star Ring Mesh Tree Hybrid 14 .

  Single device. at times device called dumb terminal is connected to the server Devices operates on files from server and returns them back after completing task 15 .

 Advantages: ◦ Easy to install. configure and manage ◦ Least expensive ◦ Single cable is required  Disadvantages: ◦ Network consists of single device ◦ Dumb terminal is dependent on server 16 .

   All devices are connected to a common cable called trunk Maximum segment length of cable is 200 m Maximum of 30 devices per segment 17 .

      Server is at one end and devices are at different positions 50 ohm terminator is used Devices are not responsible for data transmission Number of collisions are more Usually uses Thinnet or Thicknet Performance degrades as more computers are added to the bus. 18 .

entire network gets down ◦ Difficult to isolate problems ◦ Limited number of devices 19 . Advantages: ◦ Installation of devices is easy ◦ Requires less cable compared to star topology ◦ Less expensive and works better for smaller networks  Disadvantages: ◦ If backbone breaks.

the network functions normally.   Each device is connected to a central device called hub through cable Data passes through hub before reaching destination If a computer goes down. 20 .

 Advantages: ◦ Easy to install. manage and expand  Disadvantages: ◦ Requires more cable ◦ Failure of hub affects entire network ◦ More Expensive ◦ Centralized management ◦ Addition or removal of device does not affect the whole network 21 . configure.

   Devices are connected in a closed loop All devices have equal access to media Most common type is Token Ring  Each computer acts as a repeater and keeps the signal strong 22 .

 Advantages: ◦ Data travels at greater speed ◦ No collisions ◦ Handles large volume of traffic  Disadvantages: ◦ More cabling is required compared to bus ◦ One faulty device affects the entire network ◦ Addition of devices affect network 23 .

used only when primary stops functioning  Chapter 2 24 . Consists of two independent primary and secondary rings Secondary ring is redundant.

   Used in WANs to interconnect LANs Every device is connected to every other device Use routers to determine the best path of communication 25 .

Some devices are connected to only those with whom they exchange most of the data 26 .Types Full mesh  Partial mesh  Full mesh topology – All devices are connected to each other Partial mesh topology .

 Advantages: ◦ Improves fault tolerance  Disadvantages: ◦ Difficult to install and manage ◦ Each link from one device to other requires individual NIC ◦ Very much expensive 27 ◦ Failure of one link does not affect entire network ◦ Centralized management is not required .

    Connects groups of star networks Devices are wired to root hub Root hub is connected to second level devices Lowest level devices are smaller computers 28 .

 Advantages: ◦ Easy to add new devices ◦ Point-to-point wiring for each device ◦ Fault detection is easy  Disadvantages: ◦ Difficult to configure ◦ If backbone breaks. entire network goes down ◦ More expensive 29 .

   Combines two or more different physical topologies Commonly Star-Bus or Star-Ring Star-Ring uses Multistation Access Unit (MAU) 30 .

 Advantages: ◦ Used for creating larger networks  Disadvantages: ◦ Installation and configuration is difficult ◦ More expensive than other topologies ◦ Handles large volume of traffic ◦ Fault detection is easy ◦ More cabling is required 31 .

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      Segment Length – Length of single wire Attenuation – Indicates loss of signal Bandwidth – Amount of data carried by cable Number of Segments – Maximum number of segments in network Cost – Copper cables are cheapest. fiber optic cables are expensive Interference susceptibility and crosstalk – Defines concept of electronic interference on cables 33 .

 Copper medium is the cheapest mode of data transfer Types of cables Coaxial cable Twisted pair cables 34 .

  Consist of a solid copper core surrounded by an insulator mainly made up of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) or Teflon Coaxial cables are less prone to interference (both internal and external) 35 .

 Coaxial cables are mainly divided into four categories Types of Coaxial cables RG58 RG8 RG6 RG59 36 .

     Maximum segment length is 200 (185) meters Interference protection is better than twisted pair cables BNC-T connector is used to connect this cable Used in thinnet (10BASE2) network Mostly used in changing environments 37 .

    Maximum segment length is 500 meters Interference protection is good compared to any copper cable BNC-T or Vampire Tap connector is used to connect this cable Used in 10BASE5 network 38 .

   Broadband quadshielded cable Provides lower attenuation characteristics Useful in cable TV. CCTV and satellite dish antenna 39 .

  Solid conductor is surrounded by a foam polyethylene dielectric Useful in security camera. cable TV and home theatre 40 .

 A pair of cables twisted around each other forms a twisted pair cable. Twisted Pair cables Unshielded Twisted Pair Shielded Twisted pair 41 .

 Pair of unshielded wires wound around each other Easily gets affected by EMI. RFI and crosstalk Maximum segment length is 100 meters   42 .

Cat 1 Cat 7 Cat 2 Cat 6 UTP Cat 3 Cat 5e Cat 5 Cat 4 43 .

RFI and crosstalk as compared to UTP Maximum segment length of 100 meters 44 .   Pair of wires wound around each other is placed inside shield Better protection from EMI.

   Consists of centre glass core surrounded by cladding Electrical signals are converted into light signals LED or laser is used to transmit signal 45 .

   Bandwidth – Carries large amount of data ranging from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps Segment Length – Transmits data signals over larger distance Interference – No electric signals pass through these types of cables thus providing security 46 .

 Fiber optic cables can carry signals in a single direction. Fiber Optic Cable Types Single Mode Multi mode 47 .

Chapter 3 48 . Fiber optic cables that use lasers are known as single mode cable.  A type of cable that has only a single strand of glass fiber with a thin diameter.

It is a 62.5/125 micrometer fiber cable. Chapter 3 49 .  A type of cable that contains a glass fiber with a larger diameter.

     Straight Tip (ST) – Joins individual fibers to optical devices Subscriber Connector (SC) – Attaches two fibers to send and receive signals Medium Interface Connector (MIC) – Joins fiber to FDDI controller Sub Miniature Type A (SMA) – Uses individual connectors for each fiber stand Fiber Jack – Attaches two fibers in snap lock connector Chapter 3 50 .




Coaxial Cables

Fiber Optic Cables


10 Mbps – 100 Mbps

10 Mbps – 100 Mbps

10 Mbps

100 Mbps - 1 Gbps

Maximum cable segment

100 meters

100 meters

200 – 500 meters

2 k.m. – 100 k.m.

Interference rating


Better than UTP

Better than twisted pair wires

Very good as compared to any other cable

Installation cost


Costly than UTP

Costly than twisted pair wires

Most costly to install

Bend radius

360 degrees / feet

360 degrees / feet

360 degrees / feet or 30 degrees / feet

30 degrees / feet







 

Networking devices interconnects networks Manage data flow and network traffic

Networking Devices







Other Devices


 Operate at Physical Layer of the OSI model   Reshape the weak signal Connect two segments of the same LAN 54 .

     Simplest and low cost device Also known as Multi-port Repeater Operate at Physical Layer like Repeater Data transfer to all the ports Hub types:    Active hub – Provides signal regeneration Passive hub – No signal regeneration Intelligent hub – Provides management of each port 55 .

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  Layer 2 devices as works at Data Link Layer of the OSI model Interconnect multiple LANs and manages data flow 57 .

Working of a bridge 58 .

    Capable of passing a frame Check Physical address Pass frame to the specified segment Perform error checking on the frame Bridges Transparent Bridge Translational Bridge Source-route Bridge 59 .

 Features ◦ Easy to use as just plug in device ◦ Helps in network expansion ◦ Divides large network into small segments ◦ Used for increasing network reliability Disadvantages ◦ Frames are buffered so provides network delay ◦ During high traffic may overload network ◦ Does not filter broadcast packets ◦ Expensive than Repeaters 60 .

    Provide signal flow management Replace slower hub Being a Data Link Layer device uses MAC address for data transfer Data transfer to specific port Switching Methods Cut-through Method Store & Forward Method Fragment-Free Method 61 .

  Operate at Network Layer of the OSI model Can connect nearer or far network segments 62 .

   Decide the best route with the help of network layer address Responsible for Source to Destination delivery of packet Route types:   Static route – Routing tables are manually configured Dynamic route – Routing tables are automatically configured 63 .

  Helps routers to learn network topology and network changes Routing algorithms are used by routing protocols for deciding the path 64 .

   Operate at all layers of the OSI model Act as gate to other networks A default gateway is on the same subnet as your computer Gateway Types Address Gateway Protocol Gateway Application Gateway Transport Gateway 65 .

    Address Gateway – Interconnects same protocol networks Protocol Gateway – Interconnects different protocol networks Application Gateway – Connects two parts of applications Transport Gateway – Connects networks at transport layer 66 .

Other Devices Multi-Protocol Routers Brouters Layer 3 Switches   Multi-protocol router supports multiple communication protocols Like router. it operates at Network Layer 67 .

Data Link and Network Can operate only as bridge or only as router High performance switch operating at network layer is Layer 3 Switch 68 .    Brouter provides combined functions of Bridge and Router Works at two layers.


  Set of predefined rules used by devices in network for data transfer Network Protocols: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ TCP/IP ARP/RARP ICMP/IGMP UDP IPX/SPX HDLC/SDLC 70 .

     Two layer communication protocol used by Internet TCP provides connection-oriented reliable transport service Divides the message into smaller packets called segments IP is a connectionless and unreliable datagram protocol and provides no error checking IP transfers data in the form of packets called datagrams 71 .

   Designed before OSI model Consists of five layers Provides independent protocols at each layer 72 .

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    Fragmentation refers to breaking datagrams into pieces Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) is maximum amount of data that frame can carry Datagram is fragmented when its size exceeds MTU of network Fragments follow different paths to reach destination 75 .

    To deliver packet both physical and logical addresses are necessary Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) provides physical address when logical address is known Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) maps logical address to physical address RARP is useful when device is booted for first time 76 .

   Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) provides error reporting and query management mechanism ICMP handles problems occurring while packet transmission Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) manages multicasting and group membership of devices 77 .

ICMP Messages Error Reporting Query Echo request and reply Timestamp request and reply Address Mask Request and reply Router Solicitation and Advertisement Destination Unreachable Source Quench Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Redirection 78 .

User Datagram Format: 79 .   User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides connectionless process-to-process communication UDP packets are called user datagrams.

    Novell NetWare system uses IPX/SPX as communication protocol within networks IPX operates at Network layer for connectionless communication SPX operates at Transport layer for connectionoriented communication Together. IPX/SPX provides same services as TCP/IP 80 .

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   High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) are bitoriented synchronous protocols in which data frames are interpreted as series of bits Both are useful for half-duplex and full-duplex communication Windows XP still support DLC 82 .

SMTP. NLSP. SAP.OSI Layers Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer No protocols defined HDLC. ARP. IGMP. SMTP. IPX Transport Layer Session Layer NetBEUI. SNMP. IP. FTP. ICMP. SNMP. NFS Application Layer SMTP. NFS. RIP. Presentation Layer NCP. TCP. DNS. SNMP. UDP. TFTP 83 . SPX NetBIOS. DNS. FTP. SDLC Protocols NetBEUI. RARP. DNS.


   Specifies how mail should be delivered from one system to another Standard protocol used for transferring email from one computer to another Makes connection between sender’s server and recipient and then transfer messages 85 .

 A two-way transmission channel established between the sender SMTP and a receiver SMTP  Commands are generated by sender SMTP and sent to receiver SMTP 86 .

   Set of rules used to exchange files on World Wide Web Users can exchange text. graphic images. video and other multimedia files Defines how messages are formatted and transmitted over the Internet 87 . sound.

  HTTP works on request and response between browser and server Web server is designated to handle HTTP requests then sends requested HTML page  Proxy servers is used with firewalls to monitor and direct HTTP traffic through proxy to external internet 88 .

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)    Used over Internet to exchange files Uses Internet's TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer Establishes two way connections between computers 89 .

    Machine that are involved in an FTP transaction – Client (local host) machine and a server (remote host) Client machine initiates transfer Get command used to copy files from server to client Put command is used to copy files from client to server Ch apt er 90 3 .

X-terminals and routers Start with a small amount of built-in software 91 .   Used to transfer files to and from a remote computer Used by servers to boot diskless workstations.

 Connection and Communication between Client/Server ◦ Communication and messaging different in TFTP when compared with FTP ◦ TFTP uses UDP ◦ Process of transferring a file:  Initial Connection  Data Transfer  Connection Termination 92 .

covering a wide range of topics NNTP provides connection-oriented service Communication takes place between a client and a server that keeps netnews on both the places 93 .    Used to transfer Usenet news from one machine to another machine Usenet news is a large collection of discussion groups.

   Framework for managing devices over Internet using TCP/IP protocol suite Provides set of fundamental operation for monitoring and maintaining devices in the network Agent is server process that maintains Management Information Base (MIB) database for host 94 .

retrieve all messages or store them on user's PC as new messages or delete them from server and disconnect POP3 is a TCP/IP client/server protocol Session States: ◦ Authorization State ◦ Transaction State ◦ Update State 95 .    Used to retrieve email from remote server to local client over TCP/IP connection E-mail clients using POP3 connect.

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    Enables the users to work with the mail on the server Does not download the mails Used to access e-mails from a local server Working with mails ◦ Accessing and deleting mails ◦ Attachments 97 .

the user is able to read email from any computer which belongs to the network ◦ To access more than one account from different locations. IMAP will be the most efficiently  Disadvantages:    Complicated Results in higher server loads than POP3 Utilizes a lot of server resources 98 . Advantages: ◦ As the e-mail folders are stored on the server.

 BOOTP – First automated configuration tool for IP hosts ◦ Bootstrapping – Provides the host with the capability of getting IP addresses while machine boots ◦ Requires two phases:  Client provided with address and other parameters  Client downloads softwares to function on network and perform tasks 99 .

    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) – Successor of BOOTP with different features Dynamically assign addresses to clients and centrally manage Consists of two major components – 1. Automatic and Dynamic 10 0 . Protocol that allows clients and server to communicate DHCP standard includes three different address allocation mechanisms: ◦ Manual . Address allocation mechanism 2.

   Network protocol used on internet or local area network connections Terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks Enables to control server and communicate with other servers on network 10 1 .

Program running on remote computer that has been set up to allow remote session Telnet runs over connection-oriented TCP TCP connection maintained for duration of Telnet session Client and server send information at same time over Telnet session because TCP is a fullduplex 10 2 .     Telnet client – Software that acts as interface to user. processing user commands and presenting output from remote machine Telnet server .

which support documents that are developed using HTML Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a language in which these documents are formatted Client-side ◦ Computer application – Web browser that runs on user’s local computer and connects to server ◦ Interpreter that interprets code in an HTML page ◦ Operations carried out on client-side 10 3 .   WWW is a network of Internet servers.

 Server Side ◦ Software program – Web server that runs on a remote server ◦ Manages and shares web based applications ◦ Operations include processing and storage of data from client to server 10 4 .


 Wireless networking allows you to establish:    Communication using standard network protocols Communication without the use of cables Technologies used for wireless access based on   Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) Home Radio Frequency (HomeRF) 106 .

 Peer-to-Peer(P2P) or Ad-Hoc ◦ Connected wirelessly with the use of wireless Network Interface Card (NIC) ◦ Computers can access printers and share files ◦ Wired LAN can be accessed using bridging 107 .

 Access point or Infrastructure wireless LAN ◦ Wireless device connects to the access point to connect to the network ◦ Access point acts as a hub to connect two wireless devices ◦ Wireless bridge used to connect wireless network to wired network 10 8 .

 Security ◦ Four methods of wireless network security:  Data encryption .WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)  Port based access control  Service Set Identifier (SSID)  Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering 10 9 .

 The important components required for setting up a wireless network are: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Medium Access point and Extension point Wireless bridges and Power line bridges Antennas Wireless adapters Wireless Station and Server Software 11 0 .

Infrared.   Wireless medium is an unguided form of networking medium Wireless transmission involves use of technologies such as Bluetooth. Radio signals and Microwave technologies Mobile computing allows users to do their work at any location 11 1 . Lasers.

 Access Point ◦ Device that bridges a wireless connection and a wired connection ◦ Two types of access points: Hardware access points and Software access points  Extension Point ◦ Used if single access point is not able to cover entire area 11 2 .

 Hardware access point is a physical device that is used to establish a connection between a wired network and a wireless network 11 3 .

 Software Access Points are computer which includes a wireless network interface card. 11 4 .

11 5 . Extension points are used if a single access point is not able to cover the entire area.

USB.  Antennas are used to increase the range of wireless network Types of antennas used:   Wireless adapters help to connect computer or PDA to a network Wireless adapters are available as PC cards. PCI and mini PCI.Used indoors and small in size ◦ Directional antennas . ◦ Omnidirectional antennas . and CompactFlash.High gain and used for long range outdoor use 11 6 .

  Wireless Local Area Network consists of wireless station and wireless server Wireless station .Connects wireless network into a wireless medium Wireless Stations Wireless Clients Access Points  Wireless server – The main server which controls all devices within the wireless network 117 .

 Wireless network adapter requires two types of software so as to function properly: ◦ Driver ◦ Configuration Utility  Windows XP has built-in tools for configuring network adapter settings 118 .