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chapter 02

True / False Questions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Minerals are organic elements extracted from the soil by plants. True False Molecules composed of two or more atoms are called compounds. True False Hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are three isotopes of hydrogen. True False Potassium, sodium, and chlorine are trace elements. True False Ionic bonds break apart in water more easily than covalent bonds do. True False A solution is a mixture composed of two or more substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined. True False Blood pH is approximately 7.4, which is slightly acidic. True False The high heat capacity of water makes it a very ineffective coolant. True False In an exchange reaction, covalent bonds are broken and new covalent bonds are formed. True False

7. 8. 9.

10. All the chemical reactions in which larger molecules are broken down to smaller ones are called catabolic reactions. True False 11. The opposite of a dehydration synthesis is a hydrolysis. True False 12. Unsaturated fatty acids have as much hydrogen as they can carry. True False 13. A dipeptide is a molecule with two peptide bonds. True False 14. All amino acids have both a carboxyl group and an amino group attached to a central carbon. True False 15. ATP is the body's most important form of long-term energy storage. True False

Multiple Choice Questions

16. The most abundant element in the human body, by weight, is A. nitrogen. B. hydrogen. C. carbon. D. oxygen. E. calcium. 17. Sodium has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic mass of 23. Sodium has A. 12 neutrons and 11 protons. B. 12 protons and 11 neutrons. C. 12 electrons and 11 neutrons. D. 12 protons and 11 electrons. E. 12 electrons and 11 protons. 18. The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its A. protons. B. electrons. C. neutrons. D. protons and neutrons. E. particles. 19. Sodium, which has an atomic number of 11, will react with chlorine, which has an atomic number of 17. When these two atoms react, both become stable. To become stable, sodium will , while chlorine will . A. accept one electron; give up one electron B. give up one proton; accept one proton C. share one electron with chlorine; share one electron with sodium D. become an anion; become a cation E. give up one electron; accept one electron 20. Consider oxygen, which has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic mass of 16. How many valence electrons does it have? A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8 E. 16 21. Oxygen has an atomic number of eight. When two oxygen atoms come together, they form a(n) bond. A. hydrogen B. nonpolar covalent C. polar covalent D. ionic E. Van der Waals 22. When table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), is placed in water A. Na+ and Cl- form ionic bonds with each other. B. Na+ and Cl- form polar covalent bonds with each other. C. Na+ and Cl- form hydrogen bonds with water. D. Ionic bonds between Na+ and Cl- are broken. E. Na+ and Cl- become separated by their Van der Waals forces. 23. The bonding properties of an atom are determined by its A. electrons. B. protons. C. positrons. D. neutrons. E. photons.

calcium. Consider a mixture of blood. Carbon. oxygen. oxygen. sodium. Carbon. cohesiveness C. potassium. Which of these is hydrophobic? A. you notice great resistance of water. free radicals 28. sodium. When you jump off a high diving board into water. A. oxygen. cations B. hydrophilic tension. solution D. hydrogen. ClD. A. This resistance is called and is caused by water's great . suspension. Which of these is the most appropriate to express number of molecules per volume? A. isotopes D. potassium. sugar B. What type of bond attracts one water molecule to another? A. and the cells are in a . which contains sodium chloride. molarity B. and chlorine D. colloid. sodium. hydrogen. Ca2+ E. emulsion. solution. and chlorine C. Varieties of elements called in atomic mass. anions C. suspension 31. suspension B. Which of these is a cation? A.24. A. solvent. and phosphorus differ from one another only in number of neutrons and therefore 27. K C. electrolytes E. nitrogen. oxygen. the protein is in a(n) . hydrophobic tension. adhesiveness D. protein. colloid. K+ C. water E. an ionic bond B. a hydrolytic bond 25. solution E. hydrophilic tension. nitrogen. percentage D. surface tension. surface tension. and potassium E. Carbon. fat 30. iron. cohesiveness E. a peptide bond C. solution. a covalent bond E.5% of the body's weight. hydrogen. O2 B. adhesiveness 29. A. nitrogen. account for 98. sodium. and cells or formed elements. a hydrogen bond D. colloid C. colloid. emulsion. milliequivalents per liter . potassium. The sodium chloride is in a(n) . suspension. volume C. hydrogen. adhesiveness B. Carbon. Cl26. Na D. Carbon. weight per volume E. and chlorine B.

condensation. chemical D. the chemical bonds of organic molecules. even death.8 34. metabolic bases are produced at the same rate by muscle cells to neutralize the acids. 39. You maintain a constant blood pH because A. 4 times D. exergonic B. 1/10.000 times E. E. B. Blood has a pH ranging from 7. D. B. anabolism. D. You are doing an intense workout. and your skeletal muscle cells are producing metabolic acids such as lactic acid. The breakdown of glycogen (an energy-storage compound) is an example of a(n) A.45.7 D. a buffer.32.2 C. electrolytes ionized in water. A solution that resists a change in pH when acid or base is added to it is A. household ammonia. the body contains chemicals called buffers that resist changes in pH. A solution with pH 4 has A. pH = 4. equilibrium reaction. exchange D. red wine. E. D. pH = 6. C. 38. tomato juice. an oxidizing agent. potential energy stored in bonds is released. pH = 2. E. electromagnetic B. A. 10. C. This energy stored in bonds is energy.3 B. D. kinetic . metabolic acids are neutralized in muscle cells before released into the blood. synthesis E. C. electrical C. Your blood pH does not drop significantly in spite of the metabolic acids released into the blood. endothelial cells secrete excess H+ to prevent a decrease in pH. heat E.000 the H+ concentration of a solution with pH 8. saliva. a reducing agent. 36. reduction. hydrolysis. ½ B. 35. C. a catalyst. Slight deviations from this can cause major problems. oxidation. B. When ATP breaks down to ADP. pH = 10. a colloid. radioisotopes. pH = 3. B.35 to 7. 37. The most relevant free energy in human physiology is the energy stored in A. the respiratory system removes excess H+ from the blood before the pH is lowered.6 E. E. Which of these has the highest H+ concentration? A. 33. lemon juice. free radicals with an odd number of electrons. twice C. Van der Waals forces. endergonic C. Any chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom is called A.

A. decrease in reactant concentrations 42.40. C. AB → A + B B. B. reductive 44. Which of the following equations depicts an exchange reaction? A. exchange D. molecule E. AB → A. anabolic or exothermic 41. Digestive enzymes breakdown the starch in a potato into thousands of glucose molecules. catabolic or exergonic C. AB + CD → AC + BD D. polymer B. oxidative reactions E. anabolic E. A. reductive reactions 43. reactants being more concentrated B. A. condensation. catabolic or endergonic E. and the energy currency of the cell called ATP. phosphate group 46. A(n) is a group of atoms that determines many of the properties of an organic molecule. hydrolysis. A. Which of the following words includes all of the other terms? A. polymer. Glucose is broken down in most of your cells to form carbon dioxide. molecule C. catabolism B. C16H18N3ClS Na2HPO3(H2O)5 CH4 C3H7O2N 47. A + B → AB C.+ B+ E. A + B → AB → C + D 45. functional group C. presence of an enzyme E. anabolic or endergonic B. polymer D. anabolism C. This exemplifies a(n) reaction. D. hydroxyl group D. dehydration synthesis. rise in temperature C. anabolic or exergonic D. carboxyl group B. What type of chemical reaction is this? A. decomposition C. is not an organic compound. amino group E. metabolism D. Which one of the following would not increase the rate of a reaction? A. oxygen. reactant . synthesis B. dehydration synthesis. A converts a to its monomers. presence of a catalyst D.

proteins C. maltose. -H2PO4. lactose C. Cellulose. -NH2.48. lipids D. -COOH. eicosanoid. glucose B. galactose B. -COOH. and are said to be A. bound to three . is a polysaccharide. Eicosanoids. fructose E. fat-soluble D. sucrose. Galactose. glucose. carbohydrates E. Steroids. glycogen D. Fructose. Bile acids. eicosanoid. are major components of cell membranes. Glucose. 49. have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. -SH. -OH. amphiphilic . Table sugar is a disaccharide called A. In general. galactose and fructose 50. steroid D. C. hydrophobic B. starch E. E. steroid. Proteoglycans are macromolecules that form gels. nucleic acids and proteins. A. glycogen. C. A. carbohydrates and fats. Which of the following is a disaccharide? A. E. lubricate joints. proteins and fats. Triglycerides. glucose and galactose D. B. Lactose. lactose. 54. -SH. glucose E. water-soluble E. -CH3. D. is a monosaccharide. fatty acids E. nucleic acids and fats. glucose whereas the formula of a carboxyl group is and is made up of the monomer(s) . glucose D. -NH2. Proteoglycans are composed of A. B. glycerol. fatty acids 55. which help hold cells and tissues together. enzymes B. hydrophilic C. amylose 51. maltose C. and account for the tough rubbery texture of cartilage. steroid. nucleic acids 53. D. fatty acids B. sucrose B. glycerols C. The formula for an amino group is A. 52. Phospholipids. -OH. glucose and fructose C. whereas A. carbohydrates and proteins. Triglycerides are molecules consisting of one 3-carbon compound called .

Which of these is (are) always hydrophobic? A. denaturation.56. polypeptides. contamination. The folding and coiling of proteins into globular and fibrous shapes determines the the protein. D. Sucrase. E. lactase D. lipids D. cofactors B. glucose B. macromolecules. A. lactose B. D. Glucose. 60. regulate transport of solutes into and out of cells. All enzymes are A. 58. disaccharides 57. glucose C. deconformation. catalyze metabolic reactions. quaternary E. C. carbohydrates E. A drastic conformational change in proteins in response to conditions such as extreme heat or pH will lead to loss of a protein's function. cholesterol C. 80 different amino acids. tertiary D. Proteins are built from A. 40 E. polymers. B. is the substrate of A. saturation. B. B. molecules. store hereditary information. proteins C. 62. E. 20 D. terminal amino acids. sucrose . receptors. secondary C. 59. proteins E. produce muscular and other forms of movement. Enzymes are specific to substrates because of the shape of their A. denatured 61. structure of 63. C. 10 C. nucleic acids . This drastic change in three-dimensional shape is called A. alpha chain. D. but not all of those are enzymes. active sites. lactose E. monomers. primary B. Lactase. Lactose. give structural strength to cells and tissues. Galactose. secondary structure. E. sedimentation. amino acids D. Proteins can serve all of the following functions except A. 10 B. C. .

ATP C. monosaccharides B. molecules. 65. polymers. nucleotides D. Nucleic acids are of A. reduces D. A. opposes B. cAMP E. links E. ATP endergonic and exergonic reactions. polymers. dehydrates .64. polymers. DNA . decomposes C. monomers.

Understand Learning Outcome: 02.01 Topic: Chemistry 7.4.02 Topic: Chemistry 9.01. Molecules composed of two or more atoms are called compounds.02 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 5. sodium.f Define the types of chemical bonds.01. Hydrogen.c State the functions of minerals in the body.01.01 Topic: Chemistry 4. FALSE Bloom's Level: 1. Evaluate Learning Outcome: 02. Section: 02.02.01 Topic: Chemistry 2. Section: 02.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds. Section: 02.d Explain the basis for radioactivity and the types and hazards of ionizing radiation. and chlorine are trace elements. Section: 02.03 Topic: Chemistry . FALSE 3. The high heat capacity of water makes it a very ineffective coolant. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. FALSE Bloom's Level: 1.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds. deuterium. TRUE Bloom's Level: 3.02. Section: 02. Potassium.01.01 Topic: Chemistry 5. Minerals are organic elements extracted from the soil by plants. TRUE Bloom's Level: 1.02.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions. FALSE Bloom's Level: 2. FALSE Bloom's Level: 1.b Describe the biologically important properties of water.01. Section: 02.chapter 02 Key True / False Questions 1.02 Topic: Chemistry 8. Blood pH is approximately 7. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. which is slightly acidic. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. Section: 02. and tritium are three isotopes of hydrogen. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. Section: 02.01 Topic: Chemistry 6. covalent bonds are broken and new covalent bonds are formed.c Show how three kinds of mixtures differ from each other. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. Remember Learning Outcome: 02.03. Section: 02. In an exchange reaction. TRUE Bloom's Level: 2. Ionic bonds break apart in water more easily than covalent bonds do. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. A solution is a mixture composed of two or more substances that are physically blended but not chemically combined.e Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale. TRUE Bloom's Level: 2.

12 electrons and 11 neutrons. FALSE Bloom's Level: 1.f Discuss protein structure and function. B. A dipeptide is a molecule with two peptide bonds.04 Topic: Chemistry 15.04 Topic: Chemistry 13. All the chemical reactions in which larger molecules are broken down to smaller ones are called catabolic reactions. 12 neutrons and 11 protons. Remember Learning Outcome: 02.e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions. oxygen. TRUE 12. All amino acids have both a carboxyl group and an amino group attached to a central carbon.01 Topic: Chemistry .04. TRUE Bloom's Level: 1. C. Unsaturated fatty acids have as much hydrogen as they can carry. Section: 02. production. by weight. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. E.04 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 2. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. Apply Section: 02. Section: 02.a Name the chemical elements of the body from their chemical symbols. Sodium has A. nitrogen. The opposite of a dehydration synthesis is a hydrolysis.03 Topic: Chemistry 11. TRUE Bloom's Level: 1.03. D. Section: 02. Section: 02. 12 protons and 11 neutrons.01.f Discuss protein structure and function. 12 protons and 11 electrons. Understand Learning Outcome: 02.04 Topic: Chemistry Multiple Choice Questions 16.10. D.04.01 Topic: Chemistry 17. FALSE Bloom's Level: 1. Section: 02. Bloom's Level: 1. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. The most abundant element in the human body. carbon. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. C.e Discuss the types and functions of lipids. is A. Sodium has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic mass of 23.03.04. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. FALSE Bloom's Level: 2. 12 electrons and 11 protons. Bloom's Level: 3.h Describe the structure. calcium. ATP is the body's most important form of long-term energy storage. Section: 02. B. hydrogen. Section: 02.04 Topic: Chemistry 14.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions. and function of ATP.04. E.

Section: 02.01.01 Topic: Chemistry .Learning Outcome: 02.a Name the chemical elements of the body from their chemical symbols.

Apply Learning Outcome: 02. 6 D. Section: 02. which has an atomic number of 17.01 Topic: Chemistry . share one electron with sodium D. C. When these two atoms react.are broken. share one electron with chlorine. protons and neutrons. nonpolar covalent C. B. neutrons. accept one electron 20. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its A. sodium chloride (NaCl). Section: 02. Na+ and Cl.01 Topic: Chemistry 22. D. they form a(n) bond. 8 E. give up one proton. D. while chlorine will . become an anion. particles. Na+ and Cl.f Define the types of chemical bonds. give up one electron B. Bloom's Level: 3.01. Section: 02.01 Topic: Chemistry E.01. which has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic mass of 16. electrons. When table salt. Bloom's Level: 3. Evaluate Learning Outcome: 02.01.01. ionic E. 16 Bloom's Level: 3.01. Van der Waals Bloom's Level: 5. E. protons. 4 C. hydrogen B. Bloom's Level: 3.01 Topic: Chemistry 21.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.form ionic bonds with each other. Consider oxygen.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds. will react with chlorine. is placed in water A. Section: 02. accept one electron.form hydrogen bonds with water. sodium will . Apply Learning Outcome: 02. both become stable. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. How many valence electrons does it have? A.f Define the types of chemical bonds. C. Ionic bonds between Na+ and Cl. give up one electron. A. 2 B.become separated by their Van der Waals forces. When two oxygen atoms come together. Na+ and Cl. B. To become stable. Na+ and Cl. Section: 02. which has an atomic number of 11.01 Topic: Chemistry 19. A. polar covalent D. Oxygen has an atomic number of eight.18. Sodium. become a cation E.form polar covalent bonds with each other. accept one proton C.

anions C. and potassium Carbon. electrons. D. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. photons. sodium. oxygen. sodium. sodium. cations B. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. a hydrogen bond D. hydrogen. calcium. free radicals Bloom's Level: 1. Section: 02. protons. and free radicals. a peptide bond C. electrolytes E. neutrons. sodium. B. What type of bond attracts one water molecule to another? A. isotopes D.01 Topic: Chemistry . Cl- Bloom's Level: 1. O2 B. a covalent bond E. Carbon.01.5% of the body's weight. potassium. hydrogen. and phosphorus Bloom's Level: 2. iron. Ca2+ E. nitrogen. positrons. and chlorine Carbon. a hydrolytic bond 25. Which of these is a cation? A. potassium.01 Topic: Chemistry differ from one another only in number of neutrons and Bloom's Level: 1. nitrogen. Section: 02. an ionic bond B. Section: 02.01. electrolytes. K C. A.e Distinguish between ions. D. E. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. Bloom's Level: 2. oxygen. Varieties of elements called therefore in atomic mass. B. nitrogen. Section: 02. A. account for 98.01 Topic: Chemistry 26.f Define the types of chemical bonds. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. hydrogen. C. and chlorine Carbon. Na D.01 Topic: Chemistry 24.01. potassium.f Define the types of chemical bonds. The bonding properties of an atom are determined by its A. oxygen. oxygen.23. Section: 02.01.01 Topic: Chemistry 27. hydrogen.a Name the chemical elements of the body from their chemical symbols. Remember Learning Outcome: 02.01. and chlorine Carbon. C.d Explain the basis for radioactivity and the types and hazards of ionizing radiation. E.

molarity B. hydrophilic tension. cohesiveness C. colloid. When you jump off a high diving board into water. suspension. colloid. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. surface tension.02.d Discuss some ways in which the concentration of a solution can be expressed. Which of these is the most appropriate to express number of molecules per volume? A. and cells or formed elements. colloid.000 times E. suspension B. protein. twice C. hydrophobic tension. solution. Section: 02. adhesiveness D. Consider a mixture of blood. This resistance is called and is caused by water's great .02. which contains sodium chloride. solvent. you notice great resistance of water. ½ B.b Describe the biologically important properties of water.02 Topic: Chemistry 31. A solution with pH 4 has A. cohesiveness E. A. suspension.b Describe the biologically important properties of water. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. Section: 02. solution D.02. emulsion. and explain why different expressions of concentration are used for different purposes. Evaluate Learning Outcome: 02. adhesiveness B. ClD. 10. colloid C.02 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 1. Which of these is hydrophobic? A. surface tension.02 Topic: Chemistry . 1/10. the protein is in a(n) . emulsion.02. volume C. solution E. K+ C. water E. hydrophilic tension. and the cells are in a .02.02 Topic: Chemistry 29. The sodium chloride is in a(n) . Section: 02. Bloom's Level: 5. A. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. adhesiveness Bloom's Level: 3.e Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale. weight per volume E. suspension Bloom's Level: 3. percentage D.28.000 the H+ concentration of a solution with pH 8. fat 30. Apply Learning Outcome: 02.02 Topic: Chemistry 32. Section: 02. 4 times D. sugar B. Section: 02. milliequivalents per liter Bloom's Level: 3. solution.c Show how three kinds of mixtures differ from each other.

free radicals with an odd number of electrons.e Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale. reduction. 35.6 E. pH = 3. household ammonia.e Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale. E. Section: 02.02. Your blood pH does not drop significantly in spite of the metabolic acids released into the blood. B. Any chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom is called A. a reducing agent.02 Topic: Chemistry 37. endothelial cells secrete excess H+ to prevent a decrease in pH. pH = 4. anabolism. You maintain a constant blood pH because A.e Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. hydrolysis.8 Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. C. the respiratory system removes excess H+ from the blood before the pH is lowered. C.7 D.03. Section: 02. a colloid.03 Topic: Chemistry . the chemical bonds of organic molecules. Section: 02. a catalyst. metabolic bases are produced at the same rate by muscle cells to neutralize the acids. B. E. Blood has a pH ranging from 7. saliva. Section: 02. C. metabolic acids are neutralized in muscle cells before released into the blood. Bloom's Level: 1. E. A solution that resists a change in pH when acid or base is added to it is A.2 C.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.03. The most relevant free energy in human physiology is the energy stored in A. Bloom's Level: 5. a buffer. pH = 10.02. radioisotopes. and describe some types of energy. Slight deviations from this can cause major problems.a Define energy and work. Section: 02. pH = 2.3 B. B.02 Topic: Chemistry 36. Van der Waals forces.45. red wine. an oxidizing agent. C. pH = 6. oxidation.33. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. even death. Evaluate Learning Outcome: 02.02. B. D. D. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. the body contains chemicals called buffers that resist changes in pH. D. D. tomato juice. electrolytes ionized in water. Which of these has the highest H+ concentration? A. Bloom's Level: 1. condensation. You are doing an intense workout. and your skeletal muscle cells are producing metabolic acids such as lactic acid.35 to 7.03 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 3. lemon juice.02 Topic: Chemistry 34. E.

decrease in reactant concentrations Bloom's Level: 3. metabolism D. Section: 02. exergonic B.03 Topic: Chemistry 40. oxidative reactions E. Which one of the following would not increase the rate of a reaction? A. potential energy stored in bonds is released. Section: 02. anabolism C.d Identify the factors that govern the speed and direction of a reaction. heat E. electrical C. rise in temperature C. and the energy currency of the cell called ATP. reactants being more concentrated B.03. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. presence of an enzyme E.3 Topic: Chemistry . Glucose is broken down in most of your cells to form carbon dioxide.03. electromagnetic B. The breakdown of glycogen (an energy-storage compound) is an example of a(n) A. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. This energy stored in bonds is energy. What type of chemical reaction is this? A. Which of the following words includes all of the other terms? A. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. exchange D.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions. kinetic Bloom's Level: 2. equilibrium reaction.03.03. endergonic C. When ATP breaks down to ADP. synthesis E. catabolic or exergonic C. presence of a catalyst D. anabolic or exothermic Bloom's Level: 1.e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions. Apply Learning Outcome: 02.38.03.03 Topic: Chemistry 42.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions. Section: 02. anabolic or exergonic D. Section: 02. catabolic or endergonic E. anabolic or endergonic B.03 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 3. 39.03 Topic: Chemistry 41. oxygen. reductive reactions Bloom's Level: 2. catabolism B. chemical D. Section: 02. A.

D. Section: 02. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. Digestive enzymes breakdown the starch in a potato into thousands of glucose molecules. AB → A. hydroxyl group D. A. hydrolysis. A(n) is a group of atoms that determines many of the properties of an organic molecule. AB + CD → AC + BD D. C.03. Apply Section: 02. is not an organic compound. A + B → AB C. reductive Bloom's Level: 2. polymer dehydration synthesis. Section: 02. anabolic E. B.03 Topic: Chemistry 46. A. exchange D. D. synthesis B.b Identify some common functional groups of organic molecules from their formulae. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. converts a to its monomers. molecule condensation. C16H18N3ClS Na2HPO3(H2O)5 CH4 C3H7O2N Bloom's Level: 1.04. phosphate group Bloom's Level: 2. E.03 Topic: Chemistry 44. AB → A + B B. reactant Bloom's Level: 3. decomposition C.a Explain why carbon is especially well suited to serve as the structural foundation of many biological molecules.+ B+ E. functional group C.03. A A. C.04 Topic: Chemistry 47. This exemplifies a(n) reaction. molecule dehydration synthesis. carboxyl group B.b Understand how chemical reactions are symbolized by chemical equations.43. polymer polymer. A + B → AB → C + D 45.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions.04. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. amino group E. B. Section: 02.04 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. A. Which of the following equations depicts an exchange reaction? A.4 Topic: Chemistry . Section: 02.

04. Section: 02.c Discuss the relevance of polymers to biology and explain how they are formed and broken by dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.5 Topic: Chemistry .Learning Outcome: 02.

Apply Learning Outcome: 02. whereas Fructose. -CH3. In general. fructose E. Which of the following is a disaccharide? A. C. Remember Learning Outcome: 02.d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. is a monosaccharide. -H2PO4. E.04 Topic: Chemistry . lactose C. -COOH. -NH2. A. Section: 02. Section: 02. Section: 02. Table sugar is a disaccharide called A.f Discuss protein structure and function. carbohydrates E. C. B. glucose D. glycogen Glucose. The formula for an amino group is A.d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates.48. glucose. starch Cellulose. D. glucose E. 50. -OH.d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates. Remember Learning Outcome: 02.04 Topic: Chemistry 51. Understand Learning Outcome: 02. -NH2. galactose and fructose and is made up of the monomer(s) Bloom's Level: 1. sucrose.04. glucose is a polysaccharide. -OH. lactose.04 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 2.04. lipids D. nucleic acids Bloom's Level: 3. galactose B. -COOH. maltose Lactose. sucrose Galactose.d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates. glycogen. enzymes B. Section: 02. D. glucose and galactose D. have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. proteins C.04 Topic: Chemistry . whereas the formula of a carboxyl group is 49.04. Section: 02. B. glucose B. amylose Bloom's Level: 1.04.04 Topic: Chemistry 52. Bloom's Level: 1. E. glucose and fructose C. -SH. -SH. A. maltose.04.

Section: 02. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. catalyze metabolic reactions. are major components of cell membranes. fatty acids E. E. hydrophilic Bile acids.04 Topic: Chemistry 57. Proteins can serve all of the following functions except A. amphiphilic Bloom's Level: 1. C. store hereditary information. steroid. glycerols C.04. A. carbohydrates and fats. proteins and fats. B. eicosanoid. 56. amino acids D. Bloom's Level: 1. eicosanoid.53. Proteoglycans are macromolecules that form gels. D.04. Proteoglycans are composed of A. A. E. E.04. Triglycerides are molecules consisting of one 3-carbon compound called .04 Topic: Chemistry . and are said to be Triglycerides. fatty acids B. C. steroid. glucose B.04 Topic: Chemistry 54.04 Topic: Chemistry Section: 02. and account for the tough rubbery texture of cartilage. Which of these is (are) always hydrophobic? A. D. nucleic acids and fats.e Discuss the types and functions of lipids. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. carbohydrates and proteins. B. disaccharides Bloom's Level: 3. B. lubricate joints. glycerol. fat-soluble Eicosanoids. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. C. Section: 02. water-soluble Phospholipids. steroid D. which help hold cells and tissues together.04. fatty acids bound to three 55. hydrophobic Steroids. produce muscular and other forms of movement. Section: 02. Bloom's Level: 3. nucleic acids and proteins. Section: 02. D.d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates.e Discuss the types and functions of lipids. regulate transport of solutes into and out of cells. proteins E.04 Topic: Chemistry . give structural strength to cells and tissues. cholesterol C.e Discuss the types and functions of lipids.

Section: 02.f Discuss protein structure and function.04 Topic: Chemistry .04.Bloom's Level: 1. Remember Learning Outcome: 02.

terminal amino acids.f Discuss protein structure and function. A. polymers.58. primary B. Section: 02. contamination. C. Bloom's Level: 1. denatured Bloom's Level: 1. Bloom's Level: 1. saturation. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. glucose Lactose.04. Section: 02. B. lactase Galactose. polypeptides. denaturation.04 Topic: Chemistry structure 61. B. Section: 02. E. 10 C. A drastic conformational change in proteins in response to conditions such as extreme heat or pH will lead to loss of a protein's function. C.04. Bloom's Level: 1. The folding and coiling of proteins into globular and fibrous shapes determines the of the protein. is the substrate of Glucose.04 Topic: Chemistry 59.04 Topic: Chemistry 62.f Discuss protein structure and function. Proteins are built from A.f Discuss protein structure and function. lactose Sucrase. Section: 02. lactose Lactase. D. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. secondary structure.04. receptors.04. B. sucrose . active sites. alpha chain. sedimentation. macromolecules. 80 different amino acids. 10 B. deconformation. This drastic change in three-dimensional shape is called A. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. 60.g Explain how enzymes function. tertiary D. Enzymes are specific to substrates because of the shape of their A. secondary C. 20 D.04 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 3. E. D. molecules. E. Apply . 40 E. C. D. quaternary E. monomers. Remember Learning Outcome: 02. A.

.g Explain how enzymes function.04.Learning Outcome: 02.

production. nucleotides D.63.04. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. proteins C. ATP endergonic and exergonic reactions. 64. Nucleic acids are of A. Section: 02. Section: 02. dehydrates Bloom's Level: 3. polymers. cAMP E. Apply Learning Outcome: 02.04 Topic: Chemistry . nucleic acids . polymers. monosaccharides B. and function of ATP. Bloom's Level: 3.04 Topic: Chemistry 65. decomposes C.04 Topic: Chemistry Bloom's Level: 3. polymers. reduces D. opposes B.j Identify the principal types of nucleic acids.g Explain how enzymes function. Apply Learning Outcome: 02. lipids D. cofactors B. ATP C. monomers. carbohydrates E. Section: 02.04. A. All enzymes are A.04. molecules. DNA . links E.h Describe the structure. but not all of those are enzymes.

d Identify the factors that govern the speed and direction of a reaction.g Explain how enzymes function.03.02. 7 Learning Outcome: 02.h Describe the structure.02. 5 Learning Outcome: 02. Learning Outcome: 02. Apply 22 Bloom's Level: 5. 3 Learning Outcome: 02. 1 Learning Outcome: 02.a Define energy and work.04.03 11 Section: 02.04.01.b Understand how chemical reactions are symbolized by chemical equations.e Define acid and base and interpret the pH scale. 2 Learning Outcome: 02.e Distinguish between ions.01 17 Section: 02. 5 Learning Outcome: 02.02.03.d Explain the basis for radioactivity and the types and hazards of ionizing radiation. electrolytes. 1 Learning Outcome: 02. 2 Learning Outcome: 02.e Define metabolism and its two subdivisions. 5 Learning Outcome: 02.04.02 11 Section: 02.01.c Discuss the relevance of polymers to biology and explain how they are formed and broken by dehydrat 1 ion synthesis and hydrolysis.01.b Identify some common functional groups of organic molecules from their formulae.04.01. 2 Learning Outcome: 02.04. 3 Learning Outcome: 02. 1 Learning Outcome: 02.04.03.04.e Discuss the types and functions of lipids.c Show how three kinds of mixtures differ from each other.03. 1 Learning Outcome: 02.f Define the types of chemical bonds. 3 Learning Outcome: 02.04.01.a Name the chemical elements of the body from their chemical symbols.03. Remember 27 Bloom's Level: 2.04.02.c List and define the fundamental types of chemical reactions. 3 Learning Outcome: 02. and free radicals.04 26 Topic: Chemistry 65 Category . and explain why differe 1 nt expressions of concentration are used for different purposes.a Explain why carbon is especially well suited to serve as the structural foundation of many biological m 1 olecules.b Distinguish between chemical elements and compounds. 1 Learning Outcome: 02. 5 Learning Outcome: 02. Learning Outcome: 02. Learning Outcome: 02. and function of ATP. 4 Learning Outcome: 02. Evaluate 4 Learning Outcome: 02.chapter 02 Summary # of Questions Bloom's Level: 1.d Discuss some ways in which the concentration of a solution can be expressed.j Identify the principal types of nucleic acids. 1 Section: 02.b Describe the biologically important properties of water.c State the functions of minerals in the body. production.d Discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates. Understand 12 Bloom's Level: 3.01. and describe some types of energy. 6 Learning Outcome: 02. 1 Learning Outcome: 02.f Discuss protein structure and function.