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SUMMER PROJECT REPORT

ON TO STUDY THE ABSEENTISM AND OVERTIME AMONG THE EMPLOYEE ON TATA MOTORS WORKSHOP EMPLOYEES AND THE DETERMINANTS CAUSES
Submitted by Abhimanyu Singh Poonam Chaudhary Rashi Srivastava Vaishali Ojha Rinki Srivastava Chetan Deepak Under the Guidance of Ms. Shilpi Saxena in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMNISTRATION

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT LUCKNOW

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A large number of individuals have contributed directly and indirectly in this project. I am thankful to all of them for their help and encouragement. MY sincere gratitude to PROF. SHILPI SAXENA (FACULTY),and all the M.B.A. faculty of IIPM, LUCKNOW for their support in completion of this project.

I express my sincere thanks to my parents & friends for their constant support and suggestions to accomplish my goals.

Last but not the least I thank God for his love and grace that enabled me to complete this project.

Thank You.

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PREFACE
This Research is a part of my summer training without my M.B.A is incomplete. Summer training is an integral part of every M.B.A course. We can’t rely merely upon theoretical knowledge. It is to be complemented by practical know how for it to be fruitful. A positive and correct result of the classroom learning needs realities of practical situation. The training enables the management students to themselves see the working conditions under which they have to work in the future. It gives them real feel of corporate world, which helps them to better equip themselves with the required skills. I got the opportunity to do the training at “TATA MOTORS” and did a study on EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM survey. In particular I was lucky enough to be part of study and I was assigned to do some research regarding the reasons for absenteeism and helping in solving the problem of absenteeism and finding out preferences and priorities of employees to adopt suitable strategies attract them to work more and regularly. It has been a great learning experience for me. The study would not have been possible without the unconditional guidance and support of all at this branch of MUL. I would like to thank all the members of the company besides all others who have been helpful to me for completing the study.

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PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

SECTION-1 • COMPANY PROFILE SECTION-2 • INTRODUCTION • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY • SCOPE/SIGNIFICANCE OF DATA

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SECTION-3 • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • DATA COLLECTION • ANALYSIS OF DATA/INTERPRETATION SECTION-4 • PROBLEM AREAS AND FINDINGS SECTION-5 • RECOMMENDATIONS SECTION-6 • RESULT SECTION-7 • CONCLUSION • LIMITATIONS OF STUDY REFERENCES • NET SECTION 8 • ANNEXURE 62S • QUESTIONNAIRE

34 35 40 56 58 59 60 61

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COMPANY PROFILE
COMPANY’S STATEMENT VISION STATEMENT “To be a world class corporate constantly furthering the interests of stakeholders.” MISSION STATEMENT
SHARE HOLDERS: To consistently create share holder value by generating return in excess of weighted average cost of capital [WACC] during the upturn and at least equal to weighted average cost of capital [WACC] during the downturn of the business cycle. CUSTOMERS:

all its

To strengthen the TATA brand and create lasting relationship with the customers by working closely with business partner, to provide superior for money over the life cycle.
EMPLOYEES: To create a seamless organization that incubates and promotes innovation, excellence and the TATA core values COMMUNITY: To proactively participate in reshaping country’s economic growth. To take a holistic approach towards environmental protection. TATA MOTORS Limited is India's largest automobile company, with revenues of Rs.20, 483 crores (USD 4.7 billion) in 2004-05. It is the leader by far in commercial vehicles in each segment, and the second largest in the passenger vehicles market with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments. The company is the world's fifth largest medium and heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer.

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The company's 22,000 employees are guided by the vision to be “best in the manner in which we operate best in the products we deliver and best in our value system and ethics.” Established in 1945, TATA MOTORS' presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over 3 million TATA vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954. The company's manufacturing base is spread across Jamshedpur, Pune and Lucknow, supported by a nation-wide dealership; sales, services and spare parts network comprising about 1,200 touch points. TATA MOTORS, the first company from India's engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock Exchange (September 2004), has also emerged as a global automotive company. In 2004, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company, Korea's second largest truck maker. The rechristhinied TATA Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company has already begun to launch new products. In 2005, TATA MOTORS acquired a 21% stake in Hispano CARROCERA, a reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer, with an option to acquire the remaining stake as well. Hispano’s presence is being expanded in other markets. These acquisitions will further extend TATA MOTORS' global footprint, established through exports since 1961. The company's commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, South East Asia and South Asia. It has assembly operations in Malaysia, Kenya, Bangladesh, Spain, Ukraine, Russia and Senegal. The foundation of the company's growth over the last 50 years is a deep understanding of economic stimuli and customer needs, and the ability to translate them into customer-desired offerings through leading edge R&D. With 1,400 engineers and scientists, the company's Engineering Research Center, established in 1966, has enabled pioneering technologies and products. TATA MOTORS, which developed the first indigenously developed Light Commercial Vehicle, India's first Sports Utility Vehicle and, in 1998, the TATA Indica, India's first fully indigenous passenger car. Within two years of launch, TATA Indica became India's largest selling car in its segment. The pace of new product development has quickened. In 2005, TATA MOTORS created a new segment by launching the TATA Ace, India's first indigenously developed mini-truck. The years to come will see the introduction of several other innovative vehicles, all rooted in emerging customer needs. Besides product development, R&D is also focusing on environment-friendly technologies in emissions and alternative fuels.

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Through its subsidiaries, the company is engaged in engineering and automotive solutions, construction equipment manufacturing, automotive vehicle components manufacturing and supply chain activities, machine tools and factory automation solutions, high-precision tooling and plastic and electronic components for automotive and computer applications, and automotive retailing and service operations. True to the tradition of the TATA Group, TATA MOTORS is committed in letter and spirit to Corporate Social Responsibility. It is a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact, and is engaged in community and social initiatives on human rights, labor and environment standards in compliance with the principles of the Global Compact. Simultaneously, it also plays an active role in community development, serving rural communities adjacent to its manufacturing locations. With the foundation of its rich heritage, TATA MOTORS today is etching a refulgent future.

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MARKET SHARE OF TATA MOTORS

Tata Motors market share & Sales chart

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Domestic Sales

TATA MOTORS have shown a continuous growth in commercial vehicle segment. There is a growth of 34% in MHCV and 46% in LCV in 2006-07. A total growth of 3% growth is achieved in total CV.

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COMPETETIORS:

Ashok Ashok LLeyland Leyland

EICHER EICHER

MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA MAHINDRA

SWARAJ SWARAJ

The above companies are the leading manufacturers in heavy & medium commercial vehicles which are operating in JAMSHEDPUR. In Jamshedpur TATA is the leading vehicle and has a greater market share.

SWOT ANALYSIS FOR TATA MOTORS STRENTHS • Tata Motors has major share in HMCV segment (60%) and second largest in passenger vehicle market. • The company is the world's fifth largest medium and heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer. 10

• • • •

Tata Motors is the first company from India's engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock Exchange (September 2004). The company has made major mergers and acquisitions in the recent past viz. Ford and Land Rover (U.K.), Daewoo commercial vehicles company (Korea). The company's commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, South East Asia and South Asia. It has assembly operations in Malaysia, Kenya, Bangladesh, Spain, Ukraine, Russia and Senegal.

WEAKNESSES • There is a need for more service stations for its authorized dealers. • The recent mergers and acquisitions were too expensive. • Maintaining the good quality product at a comparatively low cost is becoming tough for the company. OPPORTUNITIES • There has been a continuous increase in the exports of both commercial and passenger vehicles of Tata Motors. • Government has provided the companies with SEZ’s and EEZ’s with flexible policies and also providing concessions for manufacturing plants meant for export. • Though the urban market has been penetrated, the rural market is still open for penetration. • The average annual income of people in India has increased which ensures the demand for both passenger and commercial vehicles. THREAT • The biggest threat for the company is the increasing prices of the raw material, most important among them is steel. • The interest rate on vehicle loans has been increased by the government several times during the past few years which has lead to fall in the demand. • Since the government has allowed 100% FDI in automobile sector lot of foreign players have entered into the Indian automobile sector e.g. Hyundai, Toyota. • There is also a rise in the number of domestic competitors in the recent years.

4.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE: Automobile put the horses on rest and changed the way of living for mankind, is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. The term 'automobile' is derived from Greek and Latin words. 'Auto' in Greek means 'self' and 'mobiles' in Latin means 'movable.' The phrase refers the fact that it 'moves by itself.' Automobile used to be also addressed as 'motorwagen' or 'horseless carriage'. The first automobile rolled in India in 1897 in Bombay (now Mumbai). Soon the number of cars increased on the roads and it became the status symbol until ‘MARUTI UDYOG’ entered the market in 1980s with cars at economical price and high fuel efficiency. Maruti800 had ousted the outdated model of ‘HINDUSTAN MOTORS’ best seller brand Ambassador. Today, the Indian automobile industry has matured greatly. It has become one of the largest industries in India, witnessing impressive growth during the last two decades. Worldwide, the industry is getting recognition and vehicles as well as components are 11

making good progress in the export market. . In India there are 100 people per vehicle, while this figure is 82 in China. It is expected that Indian automobile industry will achieve mass motorization status by 2014. INDIAN AUTOMOBILES CURRENT SCENARIO • • • • • Largest two-wheeler manufacturer in the world. 2nd largest tractor manufacturer in the world. 5th largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world. #1 global motorcycle manufacturer is in India. 4th largest car market in Asia - crossed the 1 million mark.

PRODUCTION SCENARIO The bar diagram given below compares the figures between 1998-99 and 2004-05 (Apr-Dec).

1. Among the two-wheeler segment, motorcycles has the major share in the market.

Hero Honda TVS makes 82%

contributes 50% motorcycles to the market. In it Honda holds 46% share in scooter and of the mopeds in the country.

2 40% of the three-wheelers are used as goods transport purpose. Piaggio holds 40% of the market share. Among the passenger transport, Bajaj is the leader by making 68% of the passenger vehicles. 3 Cars dominate the passenger vehicle market by 79%.

Maruti Suzuki has 52% share in passenger Mahindra holds 42%

cars and is a complete monopoly in multi purpose vehicles. In utility vehicles share. 12

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In commercial vehicle,

Tata Motors

dominates the market with more than 60% share. Tata

Motors is also the world's fifth largest medium & heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer. India has witnessed a sudden and sharp twist to its earlier staggering political and business scenario. With the influx of F.D.I, the economy has seen the sensex soaring thanks to the young working population from the various strata of the society, who are sincerely contributing to the G.D.P of the country. The young population has become extremely mobile in terms of conducting business and serving the society. The sales of commercial and passenger vehicles has thus witnessed a sudden increased demand which is expected to grow in leaps and bounds in the following months to come. The average working population has increased, and with the B.P.O sector tagged to provide employment to thousands there has also been an increase in the passenger car market.

T E D IN T E A TO O IL S C R R N S H U M B E E TO
Po u tio o a to o ile r d c n f u mb s
C G A R

PRODUCTION IN

to l ta 8 .5 7 .2

MILLION

1 0 8 6 4 2 0 2 0 -0 00 1 4 .8

15.4%

5 .3

6 .3

2 0 -0 01 2

2 0 -0 02 3

2 0 -0 03 4

2 0 -0 04 5

India's automobile sector - Trends
Number in million 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Autom obile production Autom obile domestic sales Autom obile exports 2001-02 5.32 5.23 0.18 2002-03 6.28 5.94 0.31 2003-04 7.24 6.91 0.48 2004-05 8.46 7.9 0.63 2005-06 9.74 8.91 0.81

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GROWTH PATTERN COMPARISON FOR 6 YEARS Liberalization and Globalization has contributed largely to the sudden entry of new players in various segments of the automobile industry. With the dawn of the new millennium and the introduction of new vehicles with extended features, better quality product and after sales services in the commercial and passenger vehicles, the market had seen a tremendous rise in the demand for new vehicles. The above graphs show a sudden rise in the production of automobiles. It shows a rise of 77% in 5 years from the year 2000 to 2005. Last fiscal saw the production touching 9.74 million units from the automobile sector. The trend is predicted to prevail in the coming 5 years and the production is expected to grow by another 15 % in the next few years to come.

SEGMENT WISE MARKET SHARE
G th R row ates of different segm ents 4 year CAGR 25 20 15 10 5 0
Com ercial m Vehicles Passenger Vehicles Two wheelers Three wheelers total A utom obiles
23.5 14.3 11.3

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14.2

Segm ents

The Automobile Industry has not experienced much change in its structure over the last 6 years because the two-wheelers continue to form the major share of domestic sales in the Indian market whereas the passenger vehicles lead the export market with a 57.4% share. The growth of the 2 wheeler and the sudden demand for the 4 wheeler cars, the passenger vehicle market is being probed by the danger of losing its market share. It is witnessing competition from the 2 wheeler manufacturers who are now providing vehicles to the customers with minimum down payment options and easy repayment schemes.

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Private financers have mushroomed into the cities and are fundamental in the increased sales of the new vehicles. New customers are constantly being lured by the best quality automobiles from various parts of the globe and from the local competitors. The current market share but belongs to the commercial vehicles in which TATA motors holds a major market share.

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INTRODUCTION

ABSENTEEISM:

-

Absenteeism in layman language means taking a holiday

without permission.when any employee does not inform their supervisor or boss for taking the leave comes under absenteeism.

LEAVE: -Leave is the preplanned holiday where the employee informs their boss
either by phone or writing a letter to their boss in advance.

There is difference between absenteeism and leave and it might be clear from above definition.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ABSENTEEISM AND LEAVE

ABSENTEEISM
1. It is not a preplanned holiday. 2. Here the employee does not inform their supervisor. 3. Here the responsibility of taking a holiday solely depends upon the employee.

LEAVE
1. It is a preplanned holiday. 2. Here the employee informs their supervisor. 3. But in preplanned leave, supervisor plays a vital role because ultimately he has to sanction the leave.

PLANNED HOLIDAY

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When an employee asks from the supervisor for taking the leave it comes under planned holiday. Because it was planed is advance and it depend upon the wish of employer whether he is in a condition to provide leave to the employee or not. Here both the employer and employee know the situation and reason for taking a leave. Both are aware of this planned holiday. Here sanctioning of leave is totally depend upon supervisor whether he want to give leave or not.

UNPLANNED HOLIDAY
When an employee does not ask from the supervisor for taking a holiday here supervisor is not at all aware that a particular person is taking a holiday with their permission. Supervisor does not know the reason why the employee is taking the leave. Here not at all any method is applied for informing Neither telephone calls nor e- mail nor letter etc Here topic of my project is employee absenteeism survey so I should have an in depth knowledge regarding absenteeism. Firstly I should be known to fact of reasons of absenteeism.

REASONS OF ABSENTEEISM: Job Dissatisfaction:

-

It may be possible that reasons for absenteeism come due to

job dissatisfaction. When a person is not at all satisfied from his job, how can he give his best to the company and frustration arises during his work and which will lead to frequent absenteeism.

Work Overload:

- Sometimes work overload comes as main reason for absenteeism.

Due to heavy work overload, employees get over burdened with their work and in their day to day life they need rest in spite of one holiday in a week and this lead to
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absenteeism. Even if there is not any provision for any holiday in a week it will lead to more absenteeism.

Overtime: - Overtime if not properly planned will lead to more absenteeism overtime
should be in accordance with the capacities of employees. If the overtime is of long hours they will feel tired if they do not overtime continuously for two- three days or more which will lead to absenteeism.

Shift Time:
absenteeism).

-

Shift time should be set by taking into consideration the employees

work. Some persons do not feel comfortable in other shift (which serves as reason for

Family Reason:

- It is an important reason towards absenteeism. Any emergency can

arise in the family whether it can be family sickness or urgent work can occur. Due to this family reason more frequent absenteeism occurs.

Personal Problem:

-

personal problem is also important reason of absenteeism.

Personal problem on the part of the employee is an important reason of absenteeism.

Health & Sickness:

- Health & sickness is the major problem of absenteeism. Here

always unplanned holiday occurs because sickness never occurs in a preplanned manner.

Work Environment:

- If the working environment is not coordinated the employees

are not satisfied, they will be frustrated from the working conditions of the company which will lead to absenteeism.
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Now after finding out the reasons for absenteeism we will proceed towards the factors influencing the absenteeism.

FACTORS INFLUENCING ABSENTEEISM

Salary:

- The old saying is quite right “ you get what you pay for “ salary is not at all

a motivator, but even then it should paid fairly otherwise it will lead to dissatisfaction among employees, frustrated employees not give their best to the company. So salary is a major factor influencing the absenteeism.

Working Conditions:

-

The environment in which people work has a tremendous

effect on their level of pride for themselves and for the work they are doing. You should do everything that will ultimately lead to betterment of working environment and better the environment, better will be general working condition. Overall employee will be satisfied and will take less leave.

Work Itself:

-

The work itself is a major determinant for absenteeism. How an

employee is recognizing his work and what outcome he is giving to the company. If an employee is enjoying his work, then reason for absenteeism will ultimately finished.

Achievements:

- Set clear, achievable goals and standards for each position and make

sure employees know what those goal and standards are individual should also receive regular, timely feedback on how they are doing and should feel they are being adequately

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challenged

in their job and all these achievements lower down the absenteeism.

Achievement is a major factor influencing absenteeism.

Recognition:

-

Recognition is one of the important factor influencing absenteeism

Individual at all levels of organization want to be recognized for their achievement on the job. Their successes do not have to be monumental before they deserve recognition, but your praise should be sincere.

Responsibility:

- Employee will feel motivated if equal job responsibility is assigned

to employees. They will feel motivated if they have ownership of their work. This requires giving employee enough freedom and power to carry out their task so that they feel they own the results. All these were the major factor influencing absenteeism which determines how frequently a person is absent or present.

SELECTING THE METHODOLOGY FOR EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM SURVEY.
There are two primary methodologies for conducting employee absenteeism survey.

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 Internet  Paper and pencil Choice of methodology should be based on what is best for respondent’s best in terms of convenience, ease of use and trust in the method. There is a little difference in price between either method until the sample size number in thousand, in which case internet is more cost effective if all employees or substantially all employees have access to the internet form work, internet is our recommended methodology. It generally a result is a higher response rate and is faster than paper and pencil. It is also a but more control in terms of how the questions are presented and gives the ability to require that certain questions must be answered. We have a secure serves, so there is no issue with regards to confidentiality of sending results an internet is done them. If only a small% age of employees have internet access from work, we recommend using the traditional paper and pencil methodology even if cost savings could be realized by forcing employees to a central location to complete the survey it is better to use paper and pencil in this circumstances to avoid user errors caused by a lack of familiarity with the internet medium on the part of some users. In some cases, it is appropriate to use maximum methodologies. This is a preferred approach when there are large contingents of employees with internet access and large contingents without the mixed method generally will yield a higher response rate than with the paper and pencil.

OBTAINING A HIGH RESPONSE RATE IN YOUR EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM SURVAY
Here are the steps to take to obtain a high response rate,

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 Market the employee absenteeism survey to the employees and managers before the survey begins.  Make it clear that the survey can be completed on company time, and make sure all supervisors support this. (we have seen complaints in employee comments when this is promised but one or more supervisors do not support it)  Make sure employees understand their responses will be confidential. Support your statements to the best extant possible, e.g., “Your questionnaires will be received directly by the research firm doing the tabulations. Nobody in our organization will see your ratings and comments.”  Let employees know how many people have responded at various point in time.  Establish an overall response rate goal and give all employees “something extra” if the goal is reached.  Send reminder messages.  When the results come in, let the employees know what they were. This will help the next survey’s response rate.  Act on the results. This also will help the nest survey’s response rate.

INVITING THE EMPLOYEES TO PARTICIPATE IN THE ABSENTEEISM SURVEY
The invitation to employees to participate in the survey can be done via either email or memorandum.

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In both cases, certain key information must be communicated.

What is happening? E.g.,” we are conducting an employee satisfaction survey”. Why it is happening. E.g., “…as our changes and faces new challenges, it becomes increasingly important to gauge the level of absenteeism of our employees.” The survey is anonymous and confidential; assure employee that their responses will be held in the strictest confidence. If using an outside supplier, mention that only the supplier will see the completed responses. How the results will be used. Anything you can share with the employees in this regard will make it more likely that people will respond. How long the survey will take to complete. Most survey of this type, if properly designed, will take only 15 or 20 minutes to complete. If this is case with your survey, be sure to mention it.

 Give a deadline.  Thank the employee for their time. If the invitation is email for an internet survey, the email should contain the URL. Care must be taken to ensure that the URL is hot link (employees should simply be able to click on the link to go to the survey) and that the link actually lead people to the correct URL. The message should appear with in text of the email itself, rather than in an attachment If the invitation is a memorandum inviting people to participate in a paper and pencil survey, the questionnaire and a return envelope should accompany it. The memorandum should tell people how to return their completed questionnaires. Optional information to consider including in the invitation:  Tell people the survey can be completed on company line.  If there is some sort of group incentive for a high response rate, mention what it is.
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 If it is internet survey and your research supplier is using a secure server, mention this. To maximize response rate, the invitation should come from within the organization itself, and should be signed by a senior manager (the CEO if possible). For a paper and pencil survey, the questionnaire packet should be delivered to people at their places of work instead of mailing it to their homes.

ACTING ON THE RESULTS OF AN EMPLOYEE
Absenteeism Survey
Your company has committed the resources to survey its employees, employees were enthusiastic about participating in these surveys so it a necessity to distribute the results of the survey.

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Distribution of the Survey Results
From the beginning, senior executive must determine how to distribute the survey results and by whom this distribution is done. For this, once the survey results are distributed, an action plan must be created to decide which areas are most important to employees and how best to important those areas.

Communicate Survey Results and Action Plan to your Employees
One of the biggest mistake organization can make in the survey process is to fail to communicate to every one the finding of the survey and plans created to improve weak areas. While we do not suggest distribution of complete survey report to everyone, we do recommend an open and honest discourse of both organizational strength and areas for improvement at department level if possible.

SHARING THE FINDINGS OF AN EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM SURVEY
It is critical to share results in a timely manner for at least two reasons: 1. Everyone must know where the organization as a whole and their individual areas stand if you are going to fully leverage and efforts of the employee base. 2. Employee need to know that the time they spent in completing the survey was worthwhile.

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Each organization has its own information-sharing culture in place. While in some cases, particularly if the survey showed communication to be the problem, the process will need some adjustment, we recognize that each organization will have an approach to information dissemination that it typically leverages. As such, modifications to our recommended approach may be order to account for an organization’s informationsharing culture.

The basic principles of sharing employee absenteeism survey results Be honest. An organization must be willing to share both its strengths and its areas in need of improvement. Employees will see through attempts to hide or “spin” information. Be Timely. The sooner you release results, the sooner the organization can begin to move toward positive change. Share Appropriate Information At Each Level. Senior management will need encapsulated results and access to detailed results for the organization as a whole and differences between divisions/departments. Division managers will need to how their division compares to the organization as a whole and how departments in the division compare to each other. Department managers will need to know how their results compare to the organization as a whole and to the division to which they belong.

Do Not Embarrass People In Front Of Their Peers. Teamwork and morale can be harmed if, for example, a division manager shows all department scores to the department managers in a group setting. Rather than pointing out low-scoring department to all department managers, let all department managers know how that fared compared to other departments via one-on-one meetings. Discuss What Happens Next. After the results have bee presented, let the audience know what steps will be taken to improve those items in need of improvement.

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Respect Confidentiality. Does not present information that would make people feel that their responses are not confidential? For example, it would not be appropriate for anyone in the organization it have access to comments for a small department. Since come people may be able to accurately guess who made what comment your research supplier should assist in this by providing information that could be perceived confidentially.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
 To understand about the absenteeism in the company.  To find out the reasons of absenteeism  To reduce the problem of employer.  To analyze the need of the employer.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
It is having a very broad concept. It is a way to systematically solve the research problem. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. It include the research methods/techniques as well as its methodology.

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Thus when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular methods or techniques and why we are not using others. So that research results are capable of being evaluated either by research himself or by others. The method of the research used here is descriptive Descriptive research includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. It is used to portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group.

This research include survey and fact finding enquiries of different kind. Basic purpose of this type of research is that it describes the state of affairs in current scenario. It is being generally used in social science and business research. This study is also termed as “ex post facto” Main characteristic of method are that research has no control over the variables he can only report what happening. Here in descriptive research we have prepared questionnaire and done surveys of different individuals

COLLECTION OF DATA

In dealing with any real life problem, it is often found that data at hand are inadequate and hence, it becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate. The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design has been formulated.

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There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in the context of monetary cost, time and other resources, so it becomes necessary to collect data in a manner which is appropriate. While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz. • • Primary Secondary

Primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else which have already been passed through statistical process.

FORMAL INFORMATION SOURCES
These are the source of information which are authentic and reliable, obtained though proper channel in the organization by adhering to a systematic and structured procedure.

For example

Through company manuals, journal, brochures and other published material like balanced sheet, annuals report etc. Questionnaire Personal interview and mails.

 

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Through the company person.

INFORMAL INFORMATION SOURCES
These are the sources of information which are obtained through our interpersonal relationship with the employees of company.

For example
 

Employees of same deportment External persons.

Primary data
Data which is collected for the first come for a specific purpose is generally known as primary data.

For example
 Personal interview and mails  Questionnaire  Telephone enquiry  Feedback form

SECONDARY DATA
Data which is collected for some other purpose but which can be used either partially or fully for the present study is known as secondary data.

For example

Published article

 Internet

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 Annual report of company like annuals sales report, annual H.R. report etc. Here in my research I have used both the primary as well as secondary data for research topic. Primary data that I have used is the structured questionnaire. I have designed a structured questionnaire as they are simple to administer and relatively inexpensive to analyze Provision of alternative replies, helps to understand the meaning of questions clearly. There were dichotomous as well as multiple choice questions. The data was collected by conducting personal interview of respondents with the help of questionnaire.

Along with the primary data obtained through use of questionnaire. I have used secondary data from various sources like financial websites, business magazines, newspapers, journals etc

ANALYSIS OF DATA
The data after collection has to be processed and analyzed in accordance with the outline laid down for the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. Here the data I have collected through survey it needs editing, coding, classifying and tabulation. There are many steps involved in processing and analyses of data. These are as follows:
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1.

Totaling of all the survey conducted for temporary, permanent and staff employee separately.

2. Calculating the number of employees giving the same answers for the question having different options available for questions (Separately for temporaries, permanents and staff) 3. Calculating the percentage of each question having different answers provided by different employees.
4.

Now prepare the pie chart for these questions for the all questions included in survey having dichotomous as well as multiple choice questions separately(for temporaries, permanents and staff)

Management at Tata Motors
  

General manager(MUL)- Mr Lalit Taneja SS DM HR Executive(MUL) - Mr Sukhjeevan Singh Garewal HR manager (Tata Motors)- Ms Palvi Goel
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TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES- 117 For this survey I had to interact with all the with the permanent employees..

SURVEY OF PERMANENT EMPLOYEES
1. Are you satisfied with your job?

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2. If no, then what step do you take?

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3. What are your main reasons for absenteeism? Rate these reasons from 1 to 7 according to you.

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4.

Are you satisfied with your boss?

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5 .Are your suggestions always welcomed by the supervisor?

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6. Do you receive recognition from your supervisor for doing good work?

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7. Are you happy putting in extra hours at work?

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8. Do you receive some benefits from overtime job?

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9 Does the work stress add to your absenteeism?

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10. How much does the work suffer when you are absent?

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11. You feel happy and satisfied after a days work.

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12. If your leave applications are not sanctioned by the supervisor, then you take leave?

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13. In your point of view from which of the family reason you take leave?

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14. In case of emergencies do you inform your supervisor by phone?

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15. Are your talents and abilities fully utilized in your job?

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16. How would you rate your general health?

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17. Have you ever faced any accident?

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18. Are you satisfied with your work surroundings?

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19. Is your working environment coordinated?

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20. How do you rate the following factors in your work environment?

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21. Do you always submit leave applications in time?
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22. Is your leave application processed/sanctioned in time?

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23. How is absence dealt with?

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COMMON PROBLEM AREAS

 Temperature Problem.
 

Unhygienic Wash Rooms. Poor Quality and Unhygienic Food.

 Transport Problem  Overtime Problem  Rewards and Recognition  Learning and Development

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FINDING OF THE SURVEY
 Overtime provided to the workers is not properly planned which lead to more absenteeism among the workers.

Temperature problem is more acute in some areas of SBU IX and SBU XII due to which associates feel tiring and unenthusiastic.

 Unhygienic washroom problem is very critical.  Quality of food is very poor and unhygienic food problem is very acute.  Overcrowd transport problem.  No recognition of qualification.

Learning and development.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
 Provision of rest rooms should be there in the plant for the associates who may not feel well while working.  Overtime should be properly planned it should not be so harsh that it lead to absenteeism.  Overtime is the main reason for absenteeism which leads to overtime for other associates.  Washrooms should be cleaned regularly.

Overcrowd Transport problem in buses can be solved by increasing the number of buses.

 Poor quality food should not be provided to associate which results in demoralization of employees.  Temperature problem can be avoided by cross ventilation.  Providing the fans at every stand.  For learning and development more training programs should be there may get aware of the latest technologies. Training management, stress management, motivational management.

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RESULT IN CASE OF ASSOCIATES:
Main reason for absenteeism is health & sickness and family problems. Out of total percentage of absenteeism, percentage due to health & sickness is quite high. Temporary associates take less holiday because they want to become permanent.

IN CASE OF STAFF:
Main reasons for absenteeism are work overload and conflicting demand. Here absenteeism is mainly occurring due to not completing their work on target time and they used to do that work by taking holidays.

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CONCLUSION
I got very good experience while working in Sub Unit of Tata Motors Kaithal,. During my summer training program I got a chance to update my knowledge related to all the H.R. activities like quality circle work smite, suggestions scheme, competition policy, satisfaction survey, training and development survey and also absenteeism survey.

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LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
As nothing is perfect except the efforts. This study too has its limitations that limit the applicability and validity of study. The limitations that limit the effectiveness of research are like. Time- Foremost of all the constraints was the limited time. The time to do the research was limited so present study is the results of whatever efforts I could put in within time limit.

Limited validity- The business environment factor and variables underlying the study belongs to a very dynamic category. As the only thing that is constant exchange so the study can be obsolete as soon as a major change in environment taken place. Sample Size- As the survey was taken from the sample of whole population, it can not give exact results like censes survey.

 Lack of knowledge on the part of employees.

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ANNEXURE Questionnaire I used for the employees

1 Are you satisfied with your job? 2 If no, then what step do you take? 3 What are your main reasons for absenteeism? Rate these reasons from 1 to 7. 4 Are you satisfied with your boss? 5 Are your suggestions always welcomed by the supervisor? 6 Do you receive recognition from your supervisor for doing good work? 7 Are you happy putting in extra hours at work? 8 Do you receive some benefits from overtime job? 9 Does the work stress add to your absenteeism? 10 How much does the work suffer when you are absent? 11 You feel happy and satisfied after a days work. 12 If your leave applications are not sanctioned by the supervisor, then you take leave? 13 In your point of view from which of the family reason you take leave? 14 In case of emergencies do you inform your supervisor by phone? 15 Are your talents and abilities fully utilized in your job? 16 How would you rate your general health?

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17 Have you ever faced any accident? 18 Are you satisfied with your work surroundings? 19 Is your working environment coordinated? 20 How do you rate the following factors in your work environment? 21 Do you always submit leave applications in time? 22 Is your leave application processed/sanctioned in time? 23 How is absence dealt with?

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