Running Head: WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDRREN

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Working Mothers and Their Children

Group Members: Alia Haider Arslan Latif Rawn Eema Azhar Raja Hasaan Sikandar Zoya Baig

Submitted to: Dr. Tayyab Tammim 01.12.2012 Lahore School of Economics

WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN Introduction

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Throughout history women have been regarded as the weaker gender, both physically and intellectually. As a result women‟s roles tended to center around the home and raising children, whereas men on the other hand were assumed to be the families‟ only breadwinners. Over time, this perception has been changed as women, now days have gradually entered the workforce and have gained increasingly prestigious positions and now besides fathers, mothers also go outside to make a living in order to improve the quality of life of their family. Thus, some cultures adapted to women working while other cultures were more hesitant in embracing change as women managing both career and home in an equally proficient manner. Working mothers can be classified as:   Full-time working mothers; during regular business hours. Mothers working having part-time or schedule their shifts around a spouse's workday to minimize the need for childcare.  Working mothers can also be professionals such as lawyers and doctors, who work for personal and financial advancement.   Working mothers, who have jobs as an utter necessity such as a single parent. Some mothers even work from home.

Thus, working mothers that we are taking into account "refers to women who are mothers and who work full-time outside the home for income in addition to the work they perform at home in raising their children.” (Frey, 2009) “A woman who has a full-time job in addition to a family.” (Financial dictionary) The significance of this research was to create awareness among the working mothers about the affects of their job on their children. Moreover, this would help society as a whole, in identifying whether mothers should consider working full-time or not working at all.

WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN Literature Review

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DeJong in his research paper, “Working Mothers: Cognitive and Behavioral Effects on Children” analyzed the cognitive and behavioral effects on children that result from having mothers in the workforce during children‟s early developmental years. He took a sample of 32, consisting of 28 females and 4 males, ranging in age from twenty-six to fifty-nine years. Participants were asked if they were parents and then if they would complete a questionnaire. Participants in the study were asked a series of questions including the amount of time they spend at work and the amount of work that they bring home, how many hours per week their child spends in out-of-home child care and were also asked to explain the effect of their work on the support and discipline that their child receives. Moreover, questions about cognitive and behavioral issues that children may have experienced at school and extracurricular activity participation were also asked. Some of the findings were that 50% of participants stated that outof-home care affected the discipline their child received, while 50% reported that it did not. 42% of working mothers reported behavior problems with their children. Moreover, working mothers reported both positive and negative impacts on their children. McMunn et al in their research paper, “Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behavior in the UK: longitudinal evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study” examine the effects of maternal employment and parental working arrangements in the early years on child socio-emotional behavior at the age of school entry. They took a sample of 18,819 children and collected data across three sweeps; when children were infants, age 3 and age 5 years and the research was restricted to white children only. Children's socio-emotional behavior was measured by using Parent-fill version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) which composed of 25 items and was further divided into five domains: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems and pro-social behavior. Moreover, the mothers were categorized into dual-earner households, traditional households, briefly unemployed households, chronic unemployed households, female breadwinner households. Thus, some of the findings showed that there was no evidence of detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years on subsequent child socio-emotional behavior. Moreover, boys in femalebreadwinner households were significantly more likely to have difficulties at age 5 years than boys in dual-earner households while the same was not true for girls. Difficulties in relationships

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increased with the amount of time mothers had spent out of the labor market and this was much stronger for girls than for boys. Almani et al in their research paper, “Effect of working women and its effect on children” analyzed the effects of mother's job on their children. The research included mothers, students and teachers of Pakistan. Purposive sampling was used and a sample of 1200 mothers, 1600 students and 800 teachers from the four provinces of Pakistan were included in the research. The survey method was used for the collection of data. The questionnaires for mothers, students and teachers were designed to check the cognitive, social and emotional development differences in children of working mothers and non-working mothers. Some of the findings were Attachment of employed mothers with children suffers badly and children who lack early attachment are emotionally disturbed and face difficulties in building relationships. Mothers Employment and the self confident in their children was greater than of non-working mother's children as they were given responsibility at a young age and are more competent. Moreover, no significant differences were found between children of employed and unemployed mothers.

Research Questions Q1. What is the perceived impact of working mothers on teenagers? Q2. To what extend impact of working mothers is different on daughters and sons?

Research Variables:     Academic Performance - means the grades of a student and their consistency since school. Social Circle - means number and type of friends and their impact on ones personality. Family Relations - means attachment with mother, time spent with her and considered as role model or not. Personality - is a very broad term, so we have categorized it into three major aspects: responsibility, attitude/behavior and confidence.

WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN Methodology Sample:

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12 teenagers, aged between 17-19 years were used as a sample for the research and they were selected through stratified sampling. Six children were of working mothers (3 boys and 3 girls) and six were of non-working mothers (3 boys and 3 girls).

Data Collection and analysis procedure/Research tools: The data was collected through primary resource such as in-depth interview with teenagers; 6 of the working mothers and 6 of the non-working mothers. Secondary resources through which data was collected were published research papers. Moreover, after the collection of information, qualitative research techniques were used for the analysis of results.

Analysis of Data and Discussion

Academic Performance: Academic performance matters a lot in a student‟s life and according to our research topic, since we are focusing on teenagers, it is important to analyze the effect of a working mother on their children‟s academic performance; where, by children we mean the teenagers. And for the better analysis, we would compare the results with those of the non-working mothers. As the interviews were taken, we could see that those youngsters whose mothers adopted professions like doctors, or teachers showed better performance in their studies. Three of our respondents claimed to be good in studies. One of them, daughter of a gynecologist, said "I‟ve been a brilliant student throughout my educational period till now" along with which she said "My mother always helped me in studies, and though she doesn‟t know much about the subjects now but still she tries to put in the maximum she can, regarding my studies." Another respondent, a son of a teacher said that though his mother never actually sat with him and specifically helped him in studying, but as a teacher she always helped him in how to study effectively, and taught him the tactics like how to gain the maximum marks, or how to attempt the paper in the best way etc. One of the respondents, whose mother is a gynecologist, said that his grades have been consistent and average and not so good. But the reason he gave was not because of his mother. He said that since his father was in army, before he could settle himself in

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a new school and new people, his father already got transferred to a new place and the process carried on till a few years back. So the base of his education had already been disturbed. Along with this he also said that his mother has never pressurized him to get A grades but she does ask him to maintain decent grades. Three of the other respondents, one boy and two girls, of which one‟s mother works as a store manager and the others‟ as dress designer told that they have been really poor in studies. Two of them said their mothers just used to scold them only in the case of bad grades or just tell them to study occasionally. Whereas, the son of a store manager said his mother never bothered about his grades. He even had to repeat grade seven. However, in addition to this he said his mother left her job for a while and started giving attention towards his studies and he then gradually started getting stabilized, but as she continued her job again, his studies got disturbed once again. And now he only studies while she is near or helps him with the studies. So the results even showed that those mothers who worked as a professional who somehow had link with studying environment (doctors, teachers etc.) were not only concerned about their children‟s studies but also helped them in every possible way they could as compared to those who worked in other sectors that belonged more to creativity or general management jobs. Bringing attention towards the answers of the non-working mothers‟ children, four of the respondents, two boys and two girls, said their mothers give a lot of attention towards their studies. They would specially sit with them and help them in their college work. One of the respondents also gave special credits to her mother for her good grades. She also said "All the credit goes to my mother, for my grades have been really good. Whether she knows about the topic or not, she always tries helping me in one way or the other. She even helped me choosing the right field for myself." Similarly another boy said that his mother always ask him about his studies, tries adding new knowledge to what he already knows, and even now she treats him like a school boy and help him in assignments and projects. So, though it might depend upon the educational background of the mother as well, like one of the respondent clearly said in her interview, daughter of a designer, „My mother never bothered much about my studies and never even helped since she has been so busy. But I think even if she would have been at home, she could have never helped me because she herself is not highly educated. She has just done B.A.", we can still say, according to the results that four of the people whose mothers are housewives

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claimed to have an additional support by their mother in their education and academic performance. Whereas, two of the respondents completely denied and said that their mother never helped them in studies; not even in school. Although we could also see that it may lead to other diverse effects on a person; as one of our respondents said, "I could never get to socialize with people or even make many friends. My mother always used to keep me busy in books and school or college work. I never had time for socializing". But however, the socializing factor will be discussed in the next section, and shall it be categorized as good or bad depends on the person himself. One of the respondents said that her mother always helped her with her studies till grade 5. From then onwards, she never bothered about her academic performance, but her grades have been really good and consistent from the past two years. But that is because she herself is fond of studying. It might be because her mother initially made her study hard and it eventually became her nature but however, the results said that even though her mother stays at home, she doesn‟t help her with the studies. The reason might be that since she already is quite good in studies and her mother might not had felt the need of getting bothered but the respondent also added to it that she started scoring poor in high school lately, for a few years, but her mother never said anything to her and later she herself thought of improving them. Another respondent, whose mother is a housewife, said his grades have been poor and his mother never even talked to him about studies. So, only one of the respondents showed the poor result that though his mother stays at home, his grades have been average. Otherwise, the other five respondents claimed to be really good in studies and gave special credit to their mothers for it. It can, therefore, be said that non-working mothers‟ children tend to be good in studies as compared to working mothers‟ children, unless their mother‟s profession belong to a studying or research work. Some of the respondents also indulged the factor of „independency‟ along with their academic performance. They said that with the time, since they have become more independent, it has somehow affected their academic performance. Like one of the respondent, whose mother is teacher, said that his grades have slightly gone bad from the past one year because he has now become more independent and hangs out more with friends and his concentration from studies is diverged somehow. He also added to it, "after entering the university, selection of new friends is one of the reasons for me not scoring that well. Previously my social circle used to be really good and of smart students but now, my new friends are different, have different personalities, good or bad, they are one of the major reasons why I can‟t concentrate on my studies like

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before." Similarly most of the respondents who claim that their grades have gone bad said that it was mainly because of the reason that with the time, they have gotten more independent, especially those who now go to universities. They all said that as soon as they entered university, they got more independent; their parents had no strong control over them anymore, whether it is about hanging out with friends or their grades. They now had no such worries that their parents would scold them on getting bad grades but however, social embarrassment among the friends demands them to somehow maintain their grades up to an average line like the son of nonworking mother, whose grades have been poor said "My grades have improved from the past one year not because of my mother but you feel embarrassed in front of your new friends. So, I had to study enough to maintain a decent grade where I could, so that the people here in the university won‟t call me a failure or Nalaeq student." Summarizing it, we could derive that those students and teenagers whose mothers are housewives, perform well in studies. That is because, though getting back at home after university, both the groups get almost equal number of hours to be spent with their family and especially mothers, working mothers tend to be less energetic due to routine hard work that they do at their respective jobs; housewives more easily get to spend time and help them with the studies. Other than that an interesting result could also be seen that those mothers, who work as a doctor or teachers were more concerned about their child‟s studies as compared to those who run a boutique or work as a manager. And if compared to non-working mothers, their children claimed to be more brilliant. In other words, in general, non-working mothers‟ teens showed better academic performance than the working mothers‟ teens. But working mothers, who belonged to fields like doctors and teachers; their sons and daughters were much more brilliant than the non-working mothers‟ children. The results might not be very accurate due to limitations like lesser time and small sample size due to which geographical and age restrictions took place.

Social Circle: By social circle, we mean the number and type of friends and their impact on ones personality. Social circle plays an important role in developing one‟s personality. In growing age, children

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not only learn different things from home but also from the kind of people, he/she interacts with. This domain is trying to link both the learning entities (Mother and friends) and trying to derive a perceived impact which mothers have on child‟s social circle. 3 of the respondents, whose mothers work, said that they were introvert. One of the boy said “I couldn‟t make much friends because I didn‟t get permission to get out of house for long and I had a severe check on me by my mother though she is a gynecologist but she kept on tracking me by different means till my high school. But things are pretty different now as I am in university and I have to go out for field work and interaction is the demand of my education.” According to him, the check and balance system proved to be good in his interest since he didn‟t adapt any bad habit like smoking etc. One of the respondents (working mothers; introvert) said that she was so much attached to her mother though she is a working lady but she finishes her work and gets home by the time respondent reaches back from university. The respondent is introvert in nature and has limited number of friends as she prefers sharing her personal stuff with her mother. She is fond of reading novels and watching TV. One of the respondents exclaimed that she is proud of the fact that her mother works. She said “ I have always been at advantage due to her job but one potential disadvantage of her job is that I could never meet friends frequently, since she takes car with her and I have to stay back home”. She is fond of writing pieces of creativity and also loves to read novels. She said that she inherited the reading habit from her mother. 3 of the respondents, whose mother work, said that they are extrovert. One of the respondents said that he has variety of friends but he doesn‟t meet them much. He explained," I am so much dependent upon my mother for everything even academics. Despite of the fact she worked, she always remained with me. I interact with those people much whom my mom knows. She takes me to her colleagues and other relatives”. According to him, his family values were very strong that‟s why he didn‟t adapt odd habits like smoking etc from his friends. One of the respondent said she has diversified group of friends. Few friends differ from her personality and few share common interests with her. She said that she hasn‟t been restricted by her mother and she goes where ever she wants to but she hadn‟t been affected by the bad habits of her friends because she never let anyone influence her. She explained, “There is vast difference between my thinking and her. I am not much attached to her because she is somehow busy all the time and has a lot to do. So, I seek refuge in my friends but I am glad that she is using her potential and working”. One of

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the respondents said that he has numerous friends and there has been no check by her mother. He explained, “I have not been given much attention by my mother but I always know what my boundaries are and what kind of friends I have to make friendship with”. He said that he is much into cricket and besides performs other house chores like grocery, cooking etc. Another group of sample consisted of 6 people (3 girls, 3 boys) whose mothers were not working. 2 of them said that they were extrovert. One of the girl said that she had been really attached to her mother and her mother always supported her to make new friends. She explained, “My mother believes that a person should have a large group of friends so that he/she can get maximum moral support and emotionally stability during bad and crucial times”. She also adapted the same habits like her mother and interacted with various contacts of her mother which boosted her confidence level. Another boy who considered him to be extrovert explained, “I have various different interests which don‟t match the ideologies of my mother. This thing is a bit problematic but to some extend I am independent now and go where ever I want to. I have a large pool of friends and interacting with people who share the same interests as I, is my best hobby”. 4 of the respondents said themselves to be introvert. Two of the girls said that they were much into house chores and read novels in their leisure time. They only had limited number of friends since they had to face restrictions from mother from their early childhood. One of the respondent said that the prime reason of his introvert personality was his studious nature. He said, “I had always been forced to study and get high grades. My mother never let me play sports or hung out with friends much because she thinks I will waste this precious time. This is the only reason I could achieve A grades at school” . Another boy said that his mother always feared that he would adapt the bad company that‟s why she didn‟t let him interact or play with friends. He explained, “I have reached university but still my mother gives me pick and drop to university and keep an eye on my all activities. I get irritated by such kind of attitude. All my tutors used to come to home to teach me while my others mates went to academies. The only reason of arguments between us is her check system.” Summarizing all this, the children of working mother had equal ratio of extrovert and introvert personalities. Girls constituted majority of introvert sample and somehow shared the similar activities. The probable reason for such nature can be responsibility factor in girls which they showed by staying back at home in absence of their mothers. Majority of boys were extrovert

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due to the contacts of their working mothers and confidence given by mothers to their children to make friends. By viewing sample of children who belonged to non-working mothers, it can be seen that only two children were extrovert. Majority were introvert due to the restrictions imposed on them by mothers. Since, mothers had less exposure to outer world; they feared that their children might adapt bad company. Non working mothers don‟t have many contacts so their children were also found to be introvert. On comparing, both the groups, it can be stated that children of working mothers are more social than children of non working mothers. Results might not be accurate due to time constraint and small sample size.

Family Relations: Family Relation incorporates three major aspects. Time spent with mother, Role models and Attachment with mothers. Children of working mothers had limited time in a day to spend with their mothers. That was usually on dinner or after the mother was back from work, like a respondent said that “the timings of her mother matched with his so they sat on the dinner table, had dinner and discussed their daily activities” so in the limited time the kids shared everything with their mothers as they know that was the only time they are getting after the whole day, so they would talk to her and tell her the slightest of the details of events that happened during the day. Whereas the mother who aren‟t working are with their children all day so the kids can talk to their mother „s whenever they want, so the bonding is not that strong as compared to that of a child‟s whose mother is working. Due to the mother‟s job the children get to spend limited time with her and due to that they are more indulged in activities with her which might not be of the child‟s interest like going for grocery. A few of the respondents said that they have adapted qualities like cooking, going grocery from their mother. Mothers are role models for everyone; by role models we mean that someone to look up to, someone whose steps could be followed. The children whose mothers work believe that their mothers have always supported the family whenever there has been a financial crunch, and due to that they feel proud of their mothers and have never taken their job in a negative way because

WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN they know it always helps in the rainy days when one income is not enough to support the family. One positive aspect which both if the groups of the respondents showed was attachment with

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mother. Attachment means the time spent with the mother, sharing stuff with the mother and the mother ensuring her availability for her child whenever he/she needs her. Despite the working hours of the mother, the children said that they are attached with their mother. Like one of the respondents said that one thing she learned from her mother was prioritizing stuff. Her mother told her and she quoted ;“If you are focusing on studies, give your hundred percent there, and when you are with family, forget everything else and focus on family” Children of working mothers just said that they have to wait for their mothers to be free before they talk to her, like a respondent said “her mother usually had clients over and she use to sit in the stairs looking at her mother and waiting for her to get free so she could talk to her” whereas the non-working mother category said that they could talk to their mother at their own ease, but the children also said there mothers ensured her preference whenever the child needed her despite she‟s working or staying at home.

Personality: Personality is a very broad term, so we have categorized it into three major aspects, which are responsibility, attitude/behavior and confidence. The respondents were first asked about responsibility. Responsibility here means having the duty to deal with something. This means being responsible at home while the mother is away for work, and can also mean fulfilling the expectations others have from you. Whereas confidence means how to deal with situations and have faith in owns ability. The respondents gave mixed answer while they were asked about the impact on then whose mothers were working and whose mothers were non-working. Children of working mothers and non-working mothers were asked a series of question so that the impact of the mother‟s going out of house for work or staying at home and not working could be analyzed. A good chunk of the respondents whose mothers are working believed that they are confident and possessive great exposer because they learn to do things at an earlier age. Just like one of the previous research paper “Effect of working women

WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN and its effect on children” These things include looking after the house, managing time and

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prioritizing things in life. One of the respondent said “both of my parents are working, so it was my duty to pick and drop my younger sister from university. This made me more responsible and it taught me how to manage multiple things at once.” On the contrary the respondents whose mothers were non-working had confidence issues. They believed that they had been spoon fed their entire life because their mothers always had an impact on the decisions they made; either selecting subjects for O levels or selecting clothes for their farewell. These respondents believed they had poor selection skills and lacked will power. But this is not true in all cases. One of the respondents from the working mother category said whose mother is a doctor that “my mother‟s dominating nature at home has affected my self confidence in a negative way. My mother manages people in the hospital and the same way she behaves at home.” The respondents who were children of working mothers proved to me more responsible most of the time as they looked after the house while the mothers were away. Next the respondents talked about their attitude and behavior at home. This means how do that what do they do, and how to they behave at home. One of the respondents from the working mother‟s category said “My mother never kept a check on me when I was young, and because of that I‟m very quiet at home. If my mother gives me attention now and asks me to come and sit next to her I feel that she‟ll talk to me about something I did wrong.” The mother not giving the child attention in her early ages makes it as a burden for her to sit with her mother. Majority of the other respondents also said that they usually spent time in their rooms. But the respondents from the non-working mother category said that their attitude and behavior at home is very positive. This shows that due to the mother‟s working the personality of the child is disturbed.

Impact on Daughters and Sons: In gender differences the main emphasis was laid on three important aspects namely; academic performances, the nature of the children and the social activities carried out, further more each aspect would explain the effects, academic performance looks at the grades, social activities highlight what type of friends are made according to the environment and the nature of children

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depicts the whether the child is responsible and the work or task assigned is done in a responsible way. In the case of working mothers, daughters seem to have a more responsible attitude. As one of the respondent said her mother was a doctor by profession and she clearly mentioned, that she looks up to her mother for guidance and assistance and despite her mother is away for work, she has become more responsible in handling everyday issues, such as house chores etc. This trend was prevalent throughout the cases that were examined, on the other hand it was observed that sons did have some responsibilities issue, this was because of the fact that boys felt they needed more attention. Academic performance can be seen as one of the most important factors, this factor not only affects the initial upbringing of the children, but it was also noted that grades and performances did linger on at later stages if academics were not kept considered. Better grades meant that the children are not deviating from the responsibilities they are given and also they are given due attention. Most of the respondents had different point of views, one of the interviewee even stated that despite the fact, her mother had very tough working hours in a hospital, she still managed to get very good grades. Another respondent said that, that the experience her mother gets from teaching at a college is very helpful whenever he needs assistance, he clearly states that “ my mother directly links the experience she gets from her work to my academics, this helps me a lot in understanding the subject, sometime real world examples help me understand complex examples”. Performance in academics in case of sons was noticeably better than daughters, when the mothers did not work, however this factor changed in case of working mothers especially for daughters, improved grades and better academic performances were associated to them. Social activities determine the type and nature of friends that are made as well as the type of activities carried on. These activities eventually shape the life on an individual, daughters usually have larger social circle when the mothers are working, on the contrary sons had a symbolic representation duty i.e. they represented the mothers in case of their absence. Sons were seen to more independent irrespective of whether the mothers worked or not. Greater attention

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surrounded the sons especially when the mothers worked; sons had more freedom of enhancing the social circle. Most of the interviewees were on the same platform regarding the social circle issue, they stated their ability to be more social and interactive had to do with the situation. One of the girl mentioned that her mother works in a company, although her job timings are appropriate but at times she has to visit other cities as well, often unannounced. She states that “the nature of my mother‟s job has made me more responsible, most of the time I take my own decision and do what I feel is right”. Mothers also kept a watchful eye as to what type of friends are made and what social activities are carried out. Some issues were also brought in the lime light, such as children adopting bad habits such as smoking and other activities. In one case the respondent said that her mother is at home most of the time and rarely goes out, this is creating problem as I am growing up. “My mother is keeping a lot of check and balance on me, sometimes she even spies and become suspicious if I go at some odd time, despite the fact that the work I am doing for is my mother‟s own work”. This habit was mostly prevalent in boys and was developed as a result of over attention or blind trust. Daughters were also seen to develop some bad habits, when the social circles expanded beyond a certain limit, with the passage of time they become more independent when the mothers were away for work. Mothers that had their activities contained to the household were more attached to the daughters, their constant attention and assistance molded the daughter‟s character in a more responsibly, more time spent also meant that the mothers were a constant guiding factor and clearly drew out the boundaries and the limits and what activities one should refrain from. Discrimination in both the genders was evident; however it cannot be defined precisely because in some events or scenario sons are given more attention while in other cases daughters were preferred, the attention to any gender is more related to the type of work or the prevailing scenarios at that moment of time.

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Extroversion and outgoing are traits that are often associated to boys or sons, like wise daughters are generally looked upon as individuals who do the house chores and spend most of the times at home, the interaction often exceeds when the mother and daughters both spend the time together. In one of the interview, the interviewee stated that her mother is a designer by profession. She said “ the interaction my mother makes with the clients, has made me more responsible and confident, at times when I see her dealing with various people, I look up to her with great inspiration and its very motivating for me as well”. The confidence level in any gender can be assessed by the way an individual represents him or self and also by the way he or she speaks. Generally sons are more confident because of the daily interactions bonded with the various genres of life. Daughter‟s confidence level varies according to the type of environment they have been brought up, some say they are confident as a result of their mothers working and also because of the experiences they share. Another claim by daughters is that they have to act responsibly when the mothers are away for work; at times the decision power revolves around their verdict, this way they gain and become more responsible. Attitudes towards doing a certain task is somewhat the same in both the genders, if it does vary, it will change according to the situation.

Conclusion As the analysis states, we can safely conclude that

WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN References  Alamni. A (June 2012), Study of the Effects of Working Mothers on the Development of Children in Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_11_June_2012/18.pdf 

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DeJong. A, Working Mothers: Cognitive and Behavioral Effects on Children. Retrieved from https://www.sdstate.edu/jur/2010/upload/Working-Mothers-Cognitive-and-BehavorialEffects-on-Chidren.pdf

McMunn. A (January 2011), Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behavior in the UK: longitudinal evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Retrieved from www.unav.es/.../b/top/2011/McMunn_Maternal-employment.pdf

WORKING MOTHERS AND THEIR CHILDREN Interview Protocol

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Profession of Mother ____? (Asked from Working Mothers‟ Teens) Academic Performance:    Grades Consistency Time spent on studying

Social Circle:    Vast or Limited Type of friends (their Habits and Personality) Activities with friends

Family Relations:    Time spent with family (especially with mother) Attachment with mother Role model

Personality:    Confidence Attitude/Behavior Responsible

Gender:    Discrimination Who consider working mother as a role model Better impact on daughters or sons