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052046386€ Is€Hegel€a€critic€of€liberalism€or€one€of€its€best€representatives?

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In€an€effort€to€force€these€speculations€on€Hegel’s€political€philosophy€into€some€sort€of€or lined€the€most€important€parts€of€Hegel’s€thought€and€then€sort€to€discover€where€there€might n€liberal€themes,€and€where€there€are€contrasts€(if€the€various€strands€and€variations€ of€“l ree€that€it€is€worth€further€comment,€I€have€obliged).€I€then€allude€to€other€ political€ideo gel€might€instead€be€better€related€to€one€of€these.€€Then€‐€while€ admitting€that€I€find€Heg tive€answer€to€the€set€question,€and€while€it€ seems€Hegel’s€style€and€his€objectives€themsel o€the€left/right€spectrum€‐€I€ nevertheless€conclude€that€we€can€place€Hegel,€albeit€tentativ hinker.€€

We€will€firstly€consider€Hegel’s€diverse€thoughts€on€economics.€On€an€initial€and€superficial s€here,€we€might€think€we€have€an€uncritical€proponent€of€the€classically€liberal€free€market ,€Hegel€was€a€product€of€his€time.€Being€greatly€impressed€and€influenced€by€those€figures€of ent€‐€Adam€Ferguson,€James€Steuart€and€Adam€Smith€‐€Hegel€“believed€,€as€they€did,€that€ the€ nge€of€contracts€and€open€markets€for€goods€and€services€led€to€ the€possibility€of€prosperit ulations€of€those€states€which€adopted€it.”T1€Published€in€ P PT

the€same€year€as€the€American€Declaration€of€Independence,€Wealth€of€Nations€(1776)€elaborate g€how€the€essentially€anarchic€activities€of€individuals€in€a€free€economy€comes€to€resemble€ pontaneous€order’),€and€that€by€allowing€people€to€follow€mere€self‐interest€the€ preferences ill€by€and€large€be€met,€resulting€in€an€indirect€altruism€(the€idea€being€ that€free€exchang ,€otherwise€it€would€not€take€place).€All€this€is€done€through€the€ metaphor€of€the€‘invisibl uite€convincing:€the€“beauty€of€the€commercial€ economy€is€that€it€allows€everyone€to€place€p nt€of€their€minds€without€at€the€same€ time€submerging€the€moral.€Thus€indirectly,€in€the€com l€interests€are€rendered€ virtuous.”T2 P PT €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ 1 TP 2 TP PT

€Howard€Williams,€‘Hegel:€Spirit€and€State’€in€Francis€Fukuyama€and€the€end€of€history,€p.€31 PT 1€|€P a g e € €

e.€using€for€instance€John€Rawls’s€‘maximin€principle’)€but€are€actually€part€of€us.€ I om€being€a€classical€liberal.€and€the€ s€of€this€existence€are€things.€€Marcuse€declares€ that€private€property€“has€rarely€been€ eloped€from€and€founded€in€the€isolated€individual’s€ nature…€property€exists€solely€by€virtu .€This€first€mode€of€freedom€is€the€one€ ty.€offering€at€times€really€quite€scathing€ denigration€at€the€eff arkets.€external€objects.”€The€result€of€this€is€that€Hegel€removed€“t tingent€connection€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ 3 TP €Philosophy€of€Right.€€To€put€it€differently.€and€indeed€free€ for€itself.€the€subject€which€is€free.€€For€this€ lism.€we€reach€a€higher€level€of€ freedom€when€we€come€to€the€realisation e€realise€that€all€is€mind€(Geist).€in€some€respects.€a e€in€the€realm€of€things.€the€free€will€must€first€give€itself€an€existence.€i.€the€sphere€of€formal€and€abstract€right.€§33€(Addition)€ PT 2€|€P a g e € € .€external€existing selves€ part€of€our€free€will.€modern€libertarian€ thinkers€like€Ludwig€von€Mises€ tify€their€economics€on€broadly€utilitarian€grounds)€ by€claiming€property.€(at€least€according€to€Herbert€Marcuse)€ mental€in€his€endorsement€of€the€market€‐€and€private€property€‐€than€Adam€ Smith.052046386€ Before€we€get€on€to€the€other€side€of€Hegel’s€views€here€–€his€profound€criticism€of€the€atom gements€‐€it€is€worth€noting€that.€after€Psalm€1 od€gives€property€“to€mankind€in€common”.€that€is.€It€is€derived€from€the€free€person’s€ essence.€According€to€Hegel.€and€by€extension€the€market€‐€both€recognised€e beralism€‐€are€not€merely€contingents€which€benefit€society€more€than€they€hinder€it€(and€can y€don’t.€property€in€its€mediated€shape€as€contract…€ [t] s€what€we€call€the€person.”T3 P PT The€€result€of€this€is€that€private€property.€and€so€it€is€‘negate zed€into€an€ evolving€notion€of€self‐consciousness.€ Yet€we€cannot€abolish€this€‘other’.€I€quote€Hegel€at€length:€€ “If€it€is€not€to€remain€abstract.€he€paradoxically€goes€much€deeper€than€classical€liberals€ (John€Locke.€contracts€and€mar sically€indispensable€for€freedom.

€and€yet€would€preserve€their€holdings€and€activitie P PT €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ 4 TP 5 TP PT €Reason€and€Revolution.€Hegel€still€considers€€ “private€property€relations€[to]€militate€against€a€truly€free€social€order.€and€universal€social€sche g€the€necessary€integration€devolved.€p.€While€considering€what€we’ve€sa ealization€of€freedom.€ Since€all€is€mind.€the€appropriation€of€external€objects€which€are€not€mind€must€be€ultimatel cause€we€still€need€something€with€which€to€differentiate€ourselves€(since€knowledge€of€one€t tion€of€another).€rational.€his€dialectical€method€works€by ther€the€essential€truths€of€mutually€exclusive€doctrines.€€ The€answers€then€to€Hegel’s€liberal€views€on€the€economy€are€his€proposals€to€bring€the€state sulting€in€civil€society€as€a€result€of€unfettered€economics.€which€is€the€new€thesis)€by€making€the€external€object€to€self‐ cons sciousness.€therefore.€The€anarchy€of€s wners€could€not€produce€from€its€mechanism€an€integrated.€p.€upon€an€institution€that€would€stand€above€t terests€of€their€competing€relationships.€This€is€the€new€antithesis€of€our€previously€solved€problem.052046386€ and€has€hypostatized€it€as€an€ontological€relation…€property€is€prior€to€the€contingent€needs bodiment€of€freedom€and€therefore€a€substantial€end€in€itself’”T4 P PT I€justify€going€on€this€slight€tangent€because€it€is€illustrative€of€one€of€the€primary€diffi question€like€‘Is€Hegel€a€liberal?’€His€Absolute€Idealism€can€be€puzzling.193€ €Ibid.€I€hold€to€the€view€that€there€is€a€certain€ fut er€his€interpreters€wish€him€to€be€–€but€even€accepting€this€we€can€certainly€ do€our€best€to d€give€them€some€title€or€other.€drawing€us€in€oppo ng€at€incompatible€and€often€starkly€contrasting€conclusions.€Herein€lies€the€crucial€social€aspect€of€Hegel’s€philosophy€(which€I€ believe€mak ian)€–€we€are€only€realised€as€persons€if€others€are€likewise€realised.201€ PT 3€|€P a g e € € .€meaning€that€any€attempt€to€say€He cular€doctrine€over€another€is€to€presuppose€Hegel’s€quest€to€end€philosophy€has€been€unsucce d€themselves€to€traditional€spectrum€placing.€and€it€is€abol h€our€previous€solution.

€€Similarly.€Hegel€also€realises€that€the€nature€of€economy€is€ consta ompletely€critically)€explains€why.€that€is€to€say..€Civi amily.€For€Hegel.€p.€ Next€we€should€take€a€look€at€civil€society..€some€technical€skills€will€capitalise€on€changes€in€demand€and dundant€–€leaving€otherwise€highly€trained€workers€out€of€jobs.€a€society€ is€led€to€colo lly.€the€father€and€husband.€as€sp es€as€modern€society€advances.€is€a€crucial€domain€for€the€exercise€of€a€distinctively€social€ mode€of€freedom.€p.€civil€society€is€a€process€or€‘moment e€family€and€preceding€the€state.€the€new€important€social€relations€being€between€the€‘people’€or€ P PT nation.€and€interest€groups)€and€the€police€(defined€as€public€institutions€–€I€agree€wi P PT in€saying€that€Hegel€is€inconsistent€here€with€his€own€claim€to€have€separated€civil€society€ ociety€together€and€protect€against€and€remedy€the€worst€effects€of€economic€life.€Some€ impo s€about€this.€is€integrated€into€the€world€of€ workT7)€a€larger rges.€the€free€economy€is€sometimes€susceptible€to€recession.€We€should€aim€to€see€it€in€this€light€–€as€the€nuclear€fami d.€leaving€excellence€in€certain t€the€detriment€of€general€culture.052046386€ Hegel€does€not€believe€that€economic€expansion€can€occur€without€the€possibility€of€poverty€f oes€he€anticipate€that€income€will€be€so€distributed€to€meet€the€universalising€of€wants.€being g€the€sort€of€freedom€that€sociability€generatesT9€‐€but€it€still€ P PT €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ 6 TP €Philosophy€of€Right.€Freedom€is€advanced€as€persons€are€increasingly€liberated€from€the€causality€of€self‐ easingly€act€in€accordance€with€the€ethical€life.€from€the€viewpoint€of€the€w iety€includes€corporations€(the€definition€of€which€also€includes€immediate€associations€like rade€unions.€keeping€in€mind€civil€society€as€a€‘moment’:€while€we€have€progressed€ beyond€t n€civil€society€persons€are€still€largely€concerned€with€advancing€ their€own€interests.€p.56€ 8 €Ibid.€§245€ €Dudley€Knowles.€upon€which€timely€ state€interve covery.€as€production€outstrips€demand.€qua€breadwinner.259€ PT 7 TP TP PT PT TP PT 4€|€P a g e € € .297€ 9 €Ibid.€€He cess€of€wealth€is€still€not€rich€enoughT6€–€meaning€that€an€increase€in€the€average€level€ P PT of€wealth€nevertheless€cannot€deal€with€the€most€hard‐hit€areas€of€poverty.

€€In€Hegel’s€final€dialectic.€who€ takes€Hegel’s roviding€him€with€“an€alternative.€ Hegel€understands€the€state€as€playing€a€similar€role€in€civil€society€that€civil€society€pla nterests.€It€is€with€this€explana rn€ourselves€with€how€Hegel’s€ideas€relate€to€the€ common€attributes€of€liberalism.€ Following€our€discussion€of€economics.€Certainly€Hegel€provides€here.052046386€ remains€only€the€second€home€through€which€persons€can€pursue€their€interests.€Hegel’s€conception€of€freedom€is€not€as€one‐dimensional€as€is€usually€found€in€that€tra es€not€see€freedom€‘negatively’.€with€the€state.€we€can€in€relative€safety€rule€out€any€description€of€ eral.€but€he€still€begins€with€the€idea€of€‘a pon€this€with€his€highly€influential€idea€of€the€need€for€‘recognition’.€the€freedom€of€content€without€form€(where€we€are€free€to€follow€our€private€ me€extent€Rousseau)€is€combined€with€the€freedom€of€form€without€content€ (where€freedom€is€r hrough€abstraction€from€and€transcendence€of€our€private€desires€–€ Kant)€which€results€in€on he€product€of€all€desires€taken€collectively.€A€greater€claim€to€Hegel€comes€from€the€modern.€The€interests€of€the d€in€Hegel’s€idea€of€taking€the€perspective€of€the€universal.€Hegel€also€celebrated€the€separation e€and€ welcomed€the€separation€as€one€of€the€great€accomplishments€of€modernity”€–€Steven€Smi TP PT 10 11 TP PT TP PT 5€|€P a g e € € .€as€the€simple€right€to€be€left€alone€(although€ironically€he ith€the€confusion€between€society€and€stateT11€and€anxiety€over€political€ P PT democracyT12).€the€desire ay€and€forgotten€but€purified).€Since€the€will€is€free.€the€two€major€and€opposing€c e€synthesized.€they€are€actualised.€There€is€lineage€here€to€Francis€Fukuyama.T10€The€true€re P PT freedom€can€only€come€at€the€next€stage.€through€his€account€of€civil€society€in€wh ations€and€immediate€associations€in€holding€society€together€is€coupled€with€a€concern€for€i l€criticises€the€atomistic€conception€of€individuals.€p.€account€of€ €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €Williams.€as€it€mediates€between€the€competing€claims€of€corporations€and€provides€for€the€ge e€civil€society€proves€inefficient.33€ €“like€the€libertarians€of€our€own€day.€and€in€his€view€superior.€pro‐intervention€liberal€schoo P PT similarities€start€with€the€modern€liberal€emphasis€on€finding€a€balance€between€the€values€o or€societal€duties.€ the€structures€compris nes€of€freedom€–€these€structures€are€the€institutions€of€the€ state.

€like€Burke’s…€[attempts]€to€synthesise€the€ ap lues€of€order€and€liberty”T15)€‘communitarian’€has€no€automatic€place€on€the€political€ P PT €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €Williams.€and€while€he€is€certainly€correct s€perhaps€reasonable€to€say€his€criticisms€blame€Hegel€unfairly€for€the€sins€of€ others€who€h n€bad€faith)€ Hegel€is.€if€it€is€taken€artificially€in€something€approaching Hegel’s€state€is€simply€too€great€of€an€obstacle€to€negate€for€any€theorist€who€may€wish€to€c (It€is€tempting€to€take€this€rejection€of€liberalism€and€leap€to€the€opposite€conclusion€–€He re€Karl€Popper’s€views€in€The€Open€Society€and€its€Enemies.€if€only€in€theor erence€of€power.€John€Stuart€Mill€and€John€Ra ar€too€much€stress€on€the€concept€of€the€individual.”T13€Hegel’s€agreement€with€the€market€ P PT and€private€property.€yet€it€is€not€a€construct€either€–€it€is€the€ culm sary.€it€is€only€governed€by€the€state.€in€my€opinion.€The€modern€liberal€school€is€close€ P PT enough€to€Hegel’s€idea€of€civil€society.€ There€is€however€a€split€between€Hegel€and€this€modern€welfarist€liberalism. cisions.€Hegel’s€ideas€here€are€extremely€d is€way:€the€state€in€not€entirely€organic.€But€as€Tony€Burns’s€attempt€to€appropr ive€course€shows.€p.€Hegel€sees€the€state€as€the€ realisation€of€freedom.€best€seen€as€a€communitarian.€p.7€ 15 €Burns.33€ €“Hegel€believed€that€liberalism€was€guilty€of€collapsing€the€state€into€civ erly€ abstract€and€limited€conception€of€the€state€which€resembles€most€of€all€the€night‐watc sed€by€Locke€and€Hume”€–€Steven€Smith.139€ TP PT 13 14 TP PT TP PT 6€|€P a g e € € .€p.052046386€ liberal€democracy€to€that€offered€by€writers€such€as€John€Locke.€as€our€being€at€ one€in€the€state.€A€typically€liberal€social€contract€sees€ government€as€contingent.€and€the€largely€concurrent€idea€of€the€social€contract.€are€a n€liberalism.€taken€alongside€his€opinions€on€the€need€for€a€regulated€economy.€ther tT14.€This€is€in€the€i s.€(“Hegel’s€political€thought.€Therefore€Hegel€is€hostile€to€any€(usually€liberal)€notions€of€the€ pre‐political€citiz is€argument€as€circular.€and€put€like€this.

052046386€ spectrum.€His€ famo nt€to€Hegel’s€insistence€of€his€own€methods€of€reasoned€argument.€I€feel€that€it€would€be€a mpact€to€reduce€interpretation€to€an€exercise€in€pinning€differently€coloured€rosettes€on€his it€of€Hegel€is€to€be€found€in€the€ways€he€argues€from€the€communitarian€standpoint.€dialectic.10€ TP PT TP PT 16 7€|€P a g e € € .€based€on€ P PT freedom€through€sociability.€Even€if€we€refuse€to€come€down r.€€€ The€ambition€and€scale€of€Hegel’s€project€is€breathtaking.€He€is€the€bourgeois€philosopher€who€inspired€Marx.€p.€others€argue€for€radical€and€reacti s€of€“what€is€rational€is€actual.€simultaneously€a€critic€and€defe sm.€As€such.€and€what€is€actual€is€rational”€ 17 €Steve€Smith.€we€can€surely€recognise€Hegel’s€contribution€to€theorising€politics€–€“the€central€tenet€o hinking€is€not€simply€about€the€world€–€it€is€something€that€takes€place€in€the€world”T17 P PT € € € € € € € € € €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ €While€Robert€Stern€tries€to€argue€for€a€neutral€reading.€and€immanent€critique.

€1945€ Russell€Bertrand.€Hegel’s€critique€of€liberalism.€2001€ Robert€Stern.org/reference/ /philosophy/works/us/stewart.€ e€Open€Society€and€its€Enemies:€Volume€2€–€Hegel€and€Marx.€Hegel’s€political€philosophy€–€problems€and€perspectives.€Routledge.jhu.€ http://www.€1997€ € General€Reference€ U Pelczynski€Z.€‘Hegel€Myths€and€Legends’.edu/journals/journal_of_the_history_of_phi losophy/v044/44.€ http://muse.A.€‘Hegel’s€Doppelsatz:€€ al€of€the€History€of€Philosophy.pdfU€€ HTU TH Jon€Steward€ed.€Cambridge.€Oxford.€Natural€Law€and€Political€Ideology€in€the€Philosophy€of€Hegel.€1996€ Heg he€Philosophy€of€Right.€Routl ven.€University€of€Chicago€Press.htmU€€ HTU TH 8€|€P a g e € € .€1989€ Williams€Howard€et€al d€the€End€of€History.€Routledge..€ed.€Introduction.marxists.€€(ed.€1946€ Singer€Peter.€Avebury. phy.€2006€ Knowles€Dudley.€Hegel€and€the€Philos dge.€2002€ Marcuse€Herbert.052046386€ € Bibliography€ € Cited€ U Burns€Tony.€Cambridge.€University€of€Wales€Press.2stern.€Reason€and€Revolution:€Hegel€and€the€rise€of€social€theory.€Allen€Wood.€Hegel.).