Ralf Weber/Matthias Albrecht Amann (Eds.

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Aesthetics and Architectural Composition
Proceedings of the Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004

Proceedings of the Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004 erscheint im pro Literatur Verlag.V..Juni in Dresden stattfand. We would like to thank both institutions for their help. 16 to 19 in Dresden and was supported by the Katholische Akademie des Bistums Dresden-Meißen im Kathedralforum Dresden and by the Gesellschaft von Freunden und Förderern der TU Dresden e.V. D-82291 Mammendorf Herausgeber: Ralf Weber/Matthias Albrecht Amann/ Lehrstuhl Raumgestaltung. TU Dresden. The Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004 took place from June. wurde freundlich unterstützt durch die Katholische Akademie des Bistums Dresden-Meißen im Kathedralforum Dresden sowie die Gesellschaft von Freunden und Förderern der TU Dresden e. © 2005 Aesthetics and Architectural Composition. das vom 16.Dank | Acknowledgment Das Dresdner Internationale Architektursymposium 2004. ISBN 3-86611-022-7 Printed in Germany Cover Design: Matthias Albrecht Amann .. bis 19.

Architektur und Aisthesis Chapter II | Principles of Proportion and Systems of Order in Architecture and Urbanism 32 41 45 50 59 Terrance Galvin.Content 3 Vorwort | Preface Chapter I | Keynotes 12 17 22 Ralf Weber. London (UK): The Entropic and the Formless . Masden. Thrake (Greece): The Mathematics of the Ideal Dome Luisa Rossi Costa/Elena Marchetti. Berlin (D): „Quelle est la règle qui ordonne. Wien (Österreich): Harmonik . Dresden (D): Betrachtungen zu Fünfeck und Pentagramm als Massfiguren im Städtebau und der Architektur der frühen Neuzeit Thomas Jäger. Baltimore (USA) Labyrinth as Pramana or Divine Proportion Nils Meyer. Wiesbaden (D): Erinnerungen an Otto Schubert (1878-1968) Gerd de Bruyn. Braunschweig (D): Calculated Beauty: A Mathematical Key to the Ideal Plan of Valetta 66 73 81 89 96 100 107 Aesthetics and Architectural Composition 5 . Stuttgart (D): Abwesende Schrift und Monströse Stille . San Antonio (USA): Virtual Uncertainty Christian Junge. México City (México): Form in Site and Perspective Iakovos Potamianos. Michael in München .On the Present Relevance of Arnheim and Bataille Gernot Weckherlin. Halifax (Canada): The Concept of Proportionality and Principles of ‚Good Fit‘ in Architectural Theory Kenneth G.Städtebauliche und gestalterische Aspekte zum Planwechsel von 1582/83 Jiyun Park.Objektive Architektur und künstlerisches Prinzip Marion Sauter. Milano (Italy): Mathematical and Historical Investigation on Domes and Vaults Klaus Hammer. Frankfurt (D): St. qui lie toutes choses?“ Tomás García-Salgado. Dresden (D): Aesthetics and Architectural Composition!? Paulgerd Jesberg.

Dresden (D): Die ‚Prägnanzdimensionen‘ der Farbe und ihr Bezug zur ‚Prägnanzhöhe‘ von Gestalten Axel Büther.Biasi. Dresden (D): Formt CAAD die Architektur? Möglichkeiten der Einflussnahme von CAAD auf die Bauwerksgestalt Douglas Spencer. Callaghan (Australia): Douglas Darden‘s Composite Ideogram as a Technique of Architectural Composition Ilija Vukorep/Petra Brunnhofer/Wolfgang Schück. A. and their Aesthetic Appreciation Holger Höge.Interaktion von Farbe und Form Claudio Greco/Sergio Lombardo/Carlo Santoro. V. Tübingen (D): Physical and Affective Correlates to Perceived Order in Open-Plan Architectural Space Katja Pahl. London (UK): Where is the Body in Digital Architecture? From Representation to Invention Robert J.Bonaiuto. Rome (Italy): Stochastic Architecture and Eventualist Theory Michael Chapman/Michael Ostwald. Porto Allegre (Brazil): Light and Shadow Symmetries Rosirene Mayer/Benamy Turkienicz. Rome (Italy): Cognitive and Emotional Elaboration of Architectural Visual Incongruities. Porto Allegre (Brasil): Generative Process of Oskar Niemeyer‘s Style 122 126 132 136 Chapter IV | The Notion of Order between the Poles of Ratio and Sentiment 146 Paolo Bonaiuto [with G.D’Ercole. Dresden (D)/Thomas Jacobsen. Krawczyk. Restorative and Ecological Value Gerald Franz. M. Saratov (Russia): Anthropomorphic Patterns as the Metalanguage of Architecture and Other Arts 155 162 174 182 188 197 202 209 217 222 229 .Giannini].Die Auswirkungen von Gruppierung und Raster auf die Ästhetische Beurteilung von Fassaden Eckhard Bendin. Chicago (USA): Exploring the Massing of Growth in Cellular Automata Monika Stumpp/Benamy Turkienicz. Kent (USA) The Third Skin Alexander Voloshinov. Poznan (Poland): Inner Basis of Proportion Systems 167 Yannick Joye. Oldenburg (D): Not Only the Golden Section: Empirical Research on the Aesthetic Pleasingness of Proportions Mieczyslaw Kozaczko. Harker. Cottbus (D): Bruno Taut .Chapter III | Digital Algorithms and Grammars of Form as Sources of Order and Harmony 116 Thorsten Lömker. Ghent (Belgium): Biomorphic Design: Perspectives on its Aesthetic. Kassel (D): Moikism Charles L. Leipzig (D): Fassadendesign .M.

) Jan Frohburg. Dresden (D): Criteria of Aesthetics and Use in Current Open Space Planning Examples from Chicago (USA) and Chengdu (China) Hisham Gabr.Über die Gegenwart des Erzählerischen bei Sir John Soane und Gordon Matta-Clark 280 287 294 299 304 313 Chapter VII | Architectural Composition as Problem of Education 322 Mine Özkar. Weimar (D): Towards the Model of Alienated Consciousness . Gestaltung als räumlicher Prozeß 329 334 337 Aesthetics and Architectural Composition 7 .Unscharfe Weite Markus Jatsch. Stuttgart (D): Körper . Cambridge (USA): Form Relations in Analyses by Denman Waldo Ross: An Early Modernist Approach in Architectural Education Ivan Reimann. Dresden (D): Ästhetische Theorie und Entwurfsarbeit Eva Oravcova/Pavol Nahalka. Weimar (D): Withdrawn Windows . Wuppertal (D): The Lacking Dynamical Path Model of Architectural Space Rainer Schönhammer.Moving Images and Architecture Matthias Albrecht Amann. Cairo (Egypt): Learning From the Past: Perceptual Aesthetic Principles in Historic Old Cairo Martin Prominski.Chapter V | Aesthetics of Urban Space and Landscape 236 241 Birgit Wolter. van Tonder. Dresden (D): Die Ansichtigkeit des Schnitts: Baukomposition für Schwache Heike Hanada. Dresden (D): Die Gestalt des öffentlichen Raumes Stefan Rau. Budapest (Hungary): The Gardens of Versailles: Analysis of a Spatial Experience Gert J.d.The Body/The Space Actuality of House Esters/Lange (m. Weimar (D): Mies van der Rohe .Bewegung. Bratislava (Slovak Republic): Perception of Connotation in the Creation of Architectural Space as a Methodological Basis of Introduction to Architectural Composition Education Erwin Herzberger.v. Halle (D): Human ‚Sense of Space‘ .Raum .r. Kyoto (Japan): Incomplete Infinity: Structure in a Japanese Garden 245 252 259 266 Chapter VI | Aesthetics and the Concept of Architectural Space 274 Kazu Blumfeld Hanada. München (D): Ästhetik der Unbestimmtheit Aleksandra Walter-Klonkowska. Hannover (D): Which Landscape? Which Aesthetic? Catherine Szanto.

a Nostalgia or the Need? 372 Index | Index .Aesthetics as an Episode in Guessing Human Perception Wojciech Kosinski. Dresden (D): Beauty is a Moving Target . Cracow (Poland): Urban Aesthetics and Composition Today .Chapter VIII | Aesthetics of a Politically/Economically/Functionally Determined Building Culture 342 362 367 Michael Mehaffy. London (UK): The Architecture of the New Modernity Niels-Christian Fritsche.

However.e. The description of this generative process constitutes an unexplored knowledge of Niemeyer’s architecture.. The investigation associates geometric relations present in Niemeyer’s buildings to the Shape Grammar model as proposed by Stiny & Gips (1975). accentuating the random or the original aspects of Niemeyer’s architecture. recurrent in Niemeyer’s architecture. led by Oscar Niemeyer. These features were usually related to inverted gable roofs. The existence of an architectural language implies the presence of patterns and possible mechanisms of shape control not referred by the existing literature on Niemeyer. the use of non orthogonal shapes. this research aims at the description of a possible generative structure for Niemeyer’s work.) the underlying commonality of structure and appearance manifest for the buildings in the corpus (. This eventually led to the description of an original architectural language present in Niemeyer’s buildings. Second. some important issues may arise from this simplification: the description based on the free form concept is not capable to depict the specific universe of Niemeyer’s free forms.) as the different ideas go .Rosirene Mayer/Benamy Turkienicz: Generative Processes in Oscar Niemeyer‘s Style ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to outline the structure of a possible grammar of Oscar Niemeyer’s architectural language.” The idea is to assess the extent to which it is possible to shed some light on the discussion of architectural freedom as used by many authors when describing the work of the Brazilian architect.. egg-crate sunshade and sunscreens. Brazilian Modern Architecture was worldwide acknowledged for the development of an original architectural language characterized by a set of stylistic features. hardly starting from a catalog of known shapes or pure shapes.. The denomination free form is used in a generic way by different authors to designate non orthogonal shapes. and sunshine devices such as the projection outward roof slabs.. It is precisely this identity that leads to the characterization of a Niemeyer’s architectural language. One of the paradigms of Niemeyer’s language . to recognize a building designed by Niemeyer among a collection of buildings designed by other architects. The consistent use of these elements may well serve as an evidence for a virtual school of thought.the almost limitless plastic freedom 2 is associated to the curve: “I am in favor of an almost limitless plastic freedom (. the approach fails to identify what is singular in Niemeyer’s work. it refers to the contradiction between the randomness and free expression associated to the term free form and an eventual formal identity present in buildings designed by Niemeyer. FREE FORMS Between the forties and the sixties. focusing on the so-called free forms. One of the most prominent features of this architecture is related to the use of curved lines: the so-called Free forms. The model made possible the depiction of consistencies in vocabulary.)” 1. i. At the same time. One might well say that he stood behind the formulation of one of the basic stylistic features of the Brazilian Modern Architecture. focusing on the so-called “free forms.In other words.. The characterization of a style or architectural language will enable the clarification of “(.. Assuming that the so called “free form” is most acknowledged characteristic of his buildings. descriptions based on compositional or morphological aspects usually lead to the idea of free forms. This clarity is possible through the analysis of the grammatical structure of a language that allows the identification of patterns beyond visible similarities. Generalizing Niemeyer’s forms as free forms. parabolic vaults. rules and operations deployed by Niemeyer. INTRODUCTION Buildings designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer are often linked to physical or historical contexts in which they emerged.

. the use of Shape Grammars. However. rotation and translation axes and a new point of view of the relationships among elements for the generation of complex shapes. Niemeyer refers to the proportion and scale relationships12 as one of the factors that distance of his architecture. Aesthetics and Architectural Composition 137 .). prevail the curves. Nowadays. The language of designs is seen as a formal equivalent of the traditional notion of style7. Ergonomic and economical aspects related to certain uses of materials lead to the use of curves.. Shape Grammars have been used thoroughly in the description of architectural styles of Palladio8. this study will try to explain the relation between the conceptive freedom present in the shapes designed by Niemeyer and the control expressed by the implicit patterns that in turn are related to a particular grouping of shapes. new generative elements such as generatrices and directrixes.” 3 .Fig. by other architects.. the conceptive freedom should take into consideration proportion rules: “(. However the freedom (or the curve) should not be used freely: “(. To put it short. as the upsurge of computational tools for production. even the artificial objects.. which graphically specify possible combinations of the vocabulary of shapes to compose complex shapes.. this plastic freedom that I prefer. SHAPE GRAMMARS AND CURVES Shape Grammars6 . new materials and constructive techniques enlarged the freedom and spread the use of curved and complex shapes. have curves and curved surfaces 11. This open up an interesting field of research as. 1 Twenty Buildings of Oscar Niemeyer emerging (. constitutes a model for the elaboration of design grammars. of his plastic vocabulary. that freedom cannot be used freely. adds to the existent grammar model. has been concentrated in the description of orthogonal shapes. Shape Grammars enables the description of architectural languages through grammars. To Niemeyer. structured by rules.“ 5 To describe Niemeyer’s style or his free form architectural language will require the description of possibly generated patterns within the limits as mentioned by Niemeyer. Of course.) we guarantee absolute freedom of conception. Wright 9 and more recently of Álvaro Siza10. The grammar of an architectural language describes its generative structure through a vocabulary of simple shapes and the corresponding syntax.) in all. however within the proportion rules that Architecture has always required. according to Gips. The use of Shape Grammars to describe an architectural language based on curved three-dimensional volumes. mainly in architecture. the frequent use attempts. the architectural languages of free forms are not limited to the Brazilian Architecture. In architecture. Another element added to the construction of the grammar of Niemeyer architectonic language refers to the analysis of the recursive relations of proportion and symmetry. In another words..” 4. almost all objects in life.

were only graphically represented. normally linked to the concept of free form. All of the buildings were analyzed based on. irrespective of functional aspects. Orthogonal projections were drawn of all of the buildings based on the availability of graphic material in the existing literature on Niemeyer. These variations. the selection of buildings was driven according to the availability of sources: during his career Niemeyer designed a broad variety of curved profiles but not all were available for the purpose of the analysis. However. THE GENERATIVE PROCESSES As the developed Grammar constitutes a Parametric Shape Grammar.These buildings have as a common feature the curve shape (mainly conic curves. The graphic reproduction of the works used in the analysis. SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE The model was applied on the description of the volumetry of twenty buildings designed by Niemeyer during 60 years between 1940 and 2003. taking into account the data’s imprecise origin. Considering this characteristic and the focus of this study in the so-called free forms. this study did not aim at the establishment of a complete grammar of Oscar Niemeyer architectural language. The sample choices didn’t establish restrictions as for the geographical location and chronology didn’t have direct influence upon the selection. . specially the parabola). Section 2 describes the study corpus. The analysis of the two orthogonal projections allowed describing the correlation among the forms of each building as well as among the set of buildings.Fig. Our grammar is therefore limited and minimally detailed following the main purpose of this study: the description of patterns related to a set of Niemeyer’s buildings. These schematic profiles supplied the base for the correlation between the curve and its three-dimensional development. The analysis of Niemeyer’s generative process is reported in section 3 and conclusions are retrieved in section 4 as well as some tentative unfolding steps for the present research. (Fig 1) Besides the curved volumetry. 3 Rotation or Translation inclination of directrix axis The association between Shape Grammars and the geometric relations present in Niemeyer’s buildings made possible the detection of consistencies in specific vocabulary of shapes. demystifying the notion of randomness usually related to the Niemeyer´s free forms. rules and operations. at least. 2 Rotation or Translation axis position Fig. the grammar only describes the volumetric features of buildings disregarding eventual architectural details. but in the relationship among the dimensions. in spite of accurate sources didn’t intend to be exact in the dimensions. The relationships among the dimensions are the base for the analysis of dimensional control mechanisms. parametric variation in the shapes and elements that constitute the rules is admitted. Schematic profiles of plans and elevations resulted from the simplification of the drawings. a plan and the respective elevation or section. however. The preliminary analysis demonstrated that the curve was present in most different typologies designed by Niemeyer.

Generatrix of the volume (g): curved or straight line segment. Fig. generates a cylinder. In the generative process the vocabulary elements have a set spatial relation between the generatrix and the directrix. For each generative rule there will be a graphic representation of the operation. generate the complex shape. the rotation. the generation process of the elementary volumetry of the building . Rotation or translation directrix (d): a fixed curve with which a generatrix maintains a given relationship in generating the volume. it generates a surface curved or parabolic surface. for example. As shapes can be decomposed in several ways. second a circular directrix. the directrix will serve as path for the generatrix. Three-dimensional unfolding is guided according to elements such as: axes. combined. The software has helped to generate parabolas preliminarily identified as the predominant curves in the study corpus.0). it generates a curved or parabolic cylindrical surface. volumetry and three-dimensional unfolding. The rotation and translation operations were classified according to the similarities of characteristics of three components of the operation: Rotation or translation axis (e): segment of straight line centralized in relation to the directrix that guides the movement. around the axis (e). The rotation. Niemeyer has deployed. The directrix or the generatrix can be any of the elements of the vocabulary: the curved line or the straight line segment.(without specific volume assignment) is described. The transformation resulting from the application of this operation will be represented through schematic orthogonal projections of the plans xy and xz. Each component of the operation . The goal of the analysis was to describe the volumetry according to the shape grammar model using the least number of rules and operations. the same operation with the same curve but positioned the axis (and its inclination angle of rotation) in different ways. In the first step of generation it is defined of the origin coordinates in order to characterize the setting of the volume base above or belowground. In the next item. VOCABULARY OF SHAPES Decomposition of a design or a complex shape help to specify primitive shapes which. As first step. around the axis (e). Other curves (composite and sinuous) were decomposed in parameterized segments as for instance. in other words. that can be parallel or oblique. with the vertex in (0.Exploration of Niemeyer’s generative principles initiates with the analysis of the relation among curves. 5 Subtraction operation Aesthetics and Architectural Composition 139 . around the axis (e) parallel. located in the plan xy (section or elevation). around the axis (e). the chosen way for adaptation is related to the object of the analysis13. directrixes and generatrices that end up by determining the building’s final shape according to the established relation with the curve. in relation to the axis e. Each one of the rules is represented and classified according to spatial and topological relations set among the primitive shapes such as position. RULES The definition of the rules was a starting point to determine the existing relationships between curves and straight lines. The curve and straight line shapes were defined as initial shapes of Niemeyer’s vocabulary. The rotation of the generatrix. Different unfolding in the plan xz (plan) was identified starting from a parametric shape F. The parabolas generator allowed a parametric description of Niemeyer’s curves through the specification of the parameters p (distance of the focus to the directrix d) and the height (coordinated y). the straight line segment and the circumference arch. The rotation of the oblique generatrix. each one of the stages of construction of the grammar is described. polygonal open or closed whose motion generate the surface of the volume.axis. 4 Addition operation Fig. To explore parametric shapes14 an AutoCAD script using Visual Basic was developed. If the axis (e) coincides with the axis (h) of the generatrix. Generatrix of the volume: classified according to its inclination. under a circular directrix generates a cone. internal or going by the axis of the directrix (h)) (Fig 3) and to the inclination (oblique. horizontal and perpendicular to the base) in relation to the plan xz.or of parts of the building . generatrix or directrix has a graphic description of its possible configurations: The rotation or translation axis is classified with respect to the position (Fig 2) (external. according to a curved or parabolic directrix. The rotation of the oblique generatrix. as a curved or parabolic directrix. inclination or direction.

The reflection operation is classified according to the reflection axis (R) that can be external or internal to the curve (that can be the generatrix or the directrix). volumes or surfaces. Partial Intersection produces complex shapes through the partial superposition and of the recursive initial volumes. Proportion relationships were preliminarily tested with the use of a proportional divider based on the golden section. The parallel translation is used to produce sequences of elements as in the project to the Swimming Pool of the National Stadium in Rio de Janeiro or to generate surfaces. The intersection operation uses the superposition of figures for the composition of new volumes.(Fig 7) Niemeyer´s buildings were described in twenty tables with the graphic description of all rules for the generation of the volumetry. The consistence of the presence of proportion relationships was then verified in all of the works through the drawing of regulative lines (Fig 6). Total Intersection determines the shape of the faces adjacent to the generatrices. subtraction is used generally to perforate the volume in order to generate windows (Fig 5). Niemeyer explore besides bilateral symmetries. Each index corresponds to one stage of the operation. The axis of the directrix d can be oblique. generates a paraboloid. The generative process. translation. other symmetry operations such as translation in Montreal Building. The translation direction can be parallel or perpendicular to the axis e. any curved surface. scaling. The generation was divided in two stages: the first stage corresponds to the generation of . Niemeyer´s buildings were parameterized through the retrieval of lines based on proportional relations. As for the shape of the directrix d. Niemeyer uses to explore possibilities of generated initial volumes with complementary operations. The rule cg corresponds to the rotation or translation with axis e external and horizontal. It is used in the composition of volumes. intersection addition and subtraction. the volume can be generated second two directrixes same or different in size and shape (for instance: a curve and a straight line or two curves same or different). The translation operation has an additional classification in relation to the rotation operation respect to the direction of the translation movement. These operations are described bellow. goes on with a series of complementary operations such as reflection. vertical (perpendicular to the base). Rotation or translation directrix: classified according to the inclination of its axis (h) and as for its shape and number. It has made possible the union of volumes as in the San Francisco Chapel in Pampulha or in the New Museum of Curitiba. for example. The scale operation transforms either the scale of the volume or the primitive form of the vocabulary. In Niemeyer’s language. It is for modeling of volumes through the section of parts of the initial volume as for instance in the Auditorium of the Employment Office of Bobigny (Fr). The main characteristic of this shape is the non-parallelism. For instance: the rule c summarizes the following rule: rotation or translation with axis e external. (Fig 4) The subtraction operation allowed Niemeyer to subtract elements. A comparative table of the analysis was elaborated relating the works to the generative principals. a cupola or according with the shape of the generatrix. after the above initial steps. This way. The intersection was classified according to the superposition of the figures that can be total or partial. The presence of proportional relationships was verified in more than one work.(Fig 8) The graphic descriptions of each one of the presented rules were classified in a descriptive table and they were summarized through the indexation of each one of the parts. Addition allowed Niemeyer to aggregate elements like platforms. This correspondence has allowed synthesizing the set of generative operations for each building. canopies or ramps to the building volume. Each letter summarizes an associated rule to a generative characteristic. horizontal or parallel or coincident with the plan xz or xy. In other words. Each additional characteristic increases a corresponding letter. The addition operation admits the union between volumes or the addition of elements to the generated volume. The perpendicular translation is used by Niemeyer to reproduce volumes as for instance in the Chapel of San Francisco in Pampulha. For each rule. represented by the index originated in the previous table a letter was assigned. for each rule there is a numeric correspondent (index) that summarizes up to five classification stages.Fig. a constituted generation code of letters resulted for each work. 6 Proportion analysis around a circular directrix. The table distributes the sample according to the incidence of each rule.

(3) The analysis has shown the predominance of the following generation rules: (a) Origin of the volume above the level 0. Two basic principals. at the same time that it is possible to obtain significant changes with the application of just one rule such as the operation of total intersection. are inherited in different levels: different stages of the generation correspond to different levels of differentiation in the shape. For example. Regarding the program. vocabulary and geometric consistencies that characterize the language (8) The buildings were produced according to similar control mechanism – regulating lines based in the golden section. Each differentiation stage adds a new characteristic to a building or group of buildings. clarified different aspects regarding the language or architectural style of the analysis corpus: (1) The analysis of the vocabulary allowed the depiction of the recursive use of parametric conical curves: among the twenty analyzed works.or architectural language . for the first time. And of the complementary operations to the generation: (a) Total Intersection (b) Addition As for the incidence of rules and vocabulary. vocabulary and place: the recursiveness of rules and vocabulary is independent of the places where buildings were built. in the first one. (d) Parallel Generatrix to the axis e.in the sense that they share the same set of rules. (b) External rotation axis.the characteristics that we could call genotypic that correspond to the vocabulary and the rules. Few new elements are added to the vocabulary. (6) The similarity of these principals does not depend on the apparent similarity of the buildings . When comparing the codes. there was a great modification of the initial volume in the complementary stage while in the second the modification happened through few rules. This process produces the degree of differentiation for the volumetric variety that characterizes Niemeyer’s style. It is noticed that. 7 Examples of symmetry in Niemeyer’s Buildings Aesthetics and Architectural Composition 141 . The characteristics that are inherited in the first stage of the process are shared by all of the buildings. (2) Among the twenty analyzed works it was possible to generate the volumetry of eighteen works. (4) The analysis doesn’t show correspondences among rules. as to configure what could be called a phenotypical characteristic of the volume. the generation of the analyzed volumetries. Fig. in the 70’s. it is possible to verify where they resemble each other and where differences are located in the generative process. the vocabulary and the program. RESULTS The description and classification of Niemeyer’s buildings based on the generative principles. in fact. The number of applied rules doesn’t necessarily correspond to alterations in the volume.buildings seemingly different can be described as belonging to the same style. (c) Axis of vertical rotation. and of two buildings throughout a translational operation. from the analysis of the volumetry of the twenty buildings. it was not possible to determine. The differentiation levels depend on rules that are added to the process in the different stages. throughout the operation of rotation.the initial volume and the second stage corresponds to the modification of the initial volume. In the generation code the stages are separated by a hyphen. Niemeyer applies new differentiation rules starting from the same rotation operation according to the period when the building was built. (7) The buildings belong to the same style . perpendicular to the base. (5) The buildings share similar generative principal (rules). the rotation and the translation govern. (11) The rules are much simpler than the drawings that they produce. the code adgiln-suwxz corresponds to the generation of the Chapel of San Francisco in Pampulha and the code adgjkm-vz refers to the monument Rui Barbosa. (9) It was clarified why and which peculiarities are inherited among Niemeyer’s buildings . (e) Parallel directrix or coincident to the plan xz. such as the sinuous line as the generatrix appearing. the parabola is used 11 times. (10) The difference in the generation code is reflected directly in the appearance of the volume. any relation among the rules.

for example. The knowledge of these relationships could mean significant progress in the study of the architectural languages and especially of Niemeyer’s language.Catedral.br TURKIENICZ. Brasilia CONCLUSION The study revealed some of the basic principles behind Niemeyer’s generative process. to an almost unexpected solution. The considerable economy of the operations was observed along with the significant differentiation among the twenty volumes. The method leaves open. Brazil | rmayer@portoweb. through the construction of a computational model for the generation of buildings according to Oscar Niemeyer’s architectural language. 6 Example of the analysis . he deploys a shape generation strategy that gives him an almost unlimited possibility with respect to original shapes. The success in the description of the free forms architecture through the use of the Shape Grammars model consequently leads to the exploration of the computability of this grammar type. cognitive aspects related to the decision-making during the creative process. One might well state that if Niemeyer’s forms are not absolutely free. The existing studies on Shape Grammars still don’t establish the connection between cognitive aspects and the design decision-making in the form of rules. Brazil | benamy@portoweb. to the context and its relationship with the definition of the rules. The exam of Niemeyer’s language and its generative stages suggests that other elements related. or with the generation stages are important in the description of the language. These differences seem to be more related to Niemeyer’s choices of vocabulary and to the second generative phase. This implementation could be extended to the development of a more generic tool for the production of free forms languages. Rosirene | SIMMLAB – Modeling and Simulation in Architecture | Faculty of Architecture | University of Rio Grande do Sul.com.br . MAYER.Fig.com. hence. Benamy | SIMMLAB – Modeling and Simulation in Architecture | Faculty of Architecture | University of Rio Grande do Sul. The identification of patterns in these relationships could constitute a new important element in the description of design languages.

Erratum p.138 Fig. 3 Rotation or Translation inclination of directrix axis .

(2003). (1993). Two exercises in formal composition. (1981). São Paulo: Campus. 7. 3.G. Pictorial and formal aspects of shape grammars: on computer generation of aesthetics objects. G.Environment and Planning B 8: p. (1994) Transformations in design: a formal approach to stylistic change and innovation in the visual arts.(2001).pt/~jduarte/malag/ acesso em 23/11/2003 11. (1975). & Eizenberg. 13 Stiny (1976). J. O In Corona.Gips. 5. H. T. O In Corona. (1999). (1978).4. 14 Celani. M.J. J. Niemeyer.utl. (1978).p. Apontamentos de uma aula que perdura há sessenta anos.REFERENCES: 1.Conversa de arquiteto. Basel: Birkhäuser.187-210. p. Aesthetics and Architectural Composition 143 . Mitchell.W.civil. Knight.Duarte. Rio de Janeiro: Revan. Invited paper.Koning.11. (2001) Malagueira Grammar: towards a tool for customizing Alvaro Siza’s mass houses at Malagueira. Shape grammars and their uses – artificial perception.83. shape generation. (1997) Arquitetura. Oscar Niemeyer: uma lição de arquitetura. and computer aesthetics. The language of the prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright’s prairie houses. Computer implementation of Shape grammars. 2. Niemeyer. Pereira. Disponível em: http://www. São Paulo: FUPAM.J. CAD criativo. P.W. Gips (1975). E.17. G. Apontamentos de uma aula que perdura há sessenta anos. 8. J. 295-323. O. Oscar Niemeyer: uma lição de arquitetura. Environment and Planning B 8. Stiny. Stiny. Stiny. E.(2001). London: Cambridge University Press. 12 Niemeyer. The Palladian Grammar. São Paulo: FUPAM. Environment and Planning B 3: p. Cambridge: MIT. Environment and Planning B 8: p. Workshop on shape computation. Basel: Birkhäuser. Mitchell. texto e contexto: o discurso de Oscar Niemeyer. A. G. Brasília: Editora Universidade de Brasília. The Palladian Grammar. 9.ist. 6. 10.

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