Definition: Permutation -A permutation of a set of distinct objects is an ordered arrangement of these objects.

-An ordered arrangement of r elements of a set is called a r -permutation. -The number of r -permutations of a set with n elements is denoted by P(n, r ).
THEOREM 1

If n is a positive integer and r is an integer with 1 < r < n, then there are P(n, r) = n (n - l)(n - 2)··· (n - r + 1) r-permutations of a set with n distinct elements. Proof: We will use the product rule to prove that this formula is correct. The first element of the permutation can be chosen in n ways because there are n elements in the set. There are n - 1 ways to choose the second element of the permutation, because there are n - 1 elements left in the set after using the element picked for the first position. Similarly, there are n -2 ways to choose the third element, and so on, until there are exactly n - (r - I) = n - r + 1 ways to choose the rth element. Consequently, by the product rule, there are n(n - 1)(n -2)··(n - r + 1) r-permutations of the set. Note that P (n, 0) = 1 whenever n is a nonnegative integer because there is exactly one way to order zero elements. That is, there is exactly one list with no elements in it, namely the empty list.

(n .1 ways to choose the image of a2. EXAMPLE 2: if = {1. and so forth. . < 1 2 4 5 > is not a permutation of nor < 1 2 3 4 5 7 >. .and so on. • There are | B | ways to choose the image of a1.1)(n . • | B | . 1 in the second position.2.r) = n(n . The number of permutations of n things taken r at a time P(n.3. . {a1. After selecting the objects. . whithin the permutation < 2 1 3 5 4 6 > we say that 2 is in the first position. } and assume the urn contains the set B.1) ways. 3 in the third position.2) . By the rule of product.5. Otherwise we do not construct an injection.r + 1) Note: P(n. • the rth object (n . then < 1 2 3 4 5 6>. • Choose the second object (since selection is without replacement) (n . Selection is without replacement. | A | ) injections: We order the elements of A. .Order matters. < 2 1 4 3 6 5 >.r + 1) ways. r) n!_ (n r)! Example 1: Let A and B be finite sets and let | A | | B | . • Choose the first object n ways. Note there are no injections if | A | > | B | (why?) There are P( | B |.4. Count the number of injections from A to B. however . .6}. neither is < 1 2 3 4 5 5> permutation of I6. and < 1 3 5 2 4 6 > are three . two different orderings or arrangements constitute different permutations. a2.

Notice there are 6 = 3! Such permutations. < _ _ _ --. and < 5 2 1 3 4>. 4. we may count the ways to fill in the n blanks. <3 1 2> .2. 2. <2 3 1>.} The multiplication shows us why the factorial function counts permutation of an n-set. After that we have only ( n – 1 ) choice for the entry in the second position. < 3 2 1>._ > First we see that we have n choices for the element to place in the first position of the permutation. . EXAMPLE 4: List all 4! Permutation on the four numbers {1. <2 5 1 3 4>. Thus the number of permutation on n elements is n(n-1)(n-2)-----2.3}: < 1 2 3>.<2 1 5 3 4>. 3. <1 3 2>. Since a permutation is an order list.1 = n! EXAMPLE 5: Suppose that we start with the permutation < 2 1 3 4 >. <2 1 3 5 4>. and so on. < 2 1 3>.EXAMPLE 3: Here are all permutation on {1. At the next to last position we have two choices remaining and then one choice for the last position. We can insert the element 5 in any one of five different position to obtain < 2 1 3 4 5 >. then ( n -2 ) for the third position.

an r -combination is simply a subset of the set with r elements. The number of r -combinations of a set with n distinct elements is denoted by C(n. equals The number of combinations of n things taken r at a time Other names for C(n.Definition: Combination A combination of a set of distinct elements is an unordered selection of elements from the set. r ). where n is a non negative integer and r is an integer with 0 < r < n. Thus. THEOREM The number of r.combinations of set with n elements. An r -combination of elements of a set is an unordered selection of r elements from the set. r): • n choose r • The binomial coefficient Definition: Binomial Coefficient An other usual notation to compute the number of r -combinations from a set of n elements is .

In how many ways can this be done? Answer: We are to select 4 students from 32. Hence the number of unsuccessful attempts is 153-1= 3375 -1 = 3374 EXAMPLE 2 Given five different green dyes. 6R). Find in how many ways it is possible to make an unsuccessful attempt to open the lock. four different blue dyes and three different red dyes. each marked with fifteen different letters. Maximum number of dyes that a combination can have is 12 (5G. 1st and 2nd ring can be attempted in 15 x 15 = 152 ways 1st and 2nd and 3d ring can be attempted in 15 x 15 x 15 = 153 ways Among these 153 attempts. 4B. The number of ways is After selecting atleast one green dye and atleast one blue dye.EXAMPLE 1 A letter lock consists of three rings. (one blue and one green). at least one red dye or no red dye can be selected in = 1 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 8 ways The total number of combinations (31)(15)(8) = 3720. one attempt will be a successful attempt. The number of ways is After selecting one or more green dyes. Answer: 1st ring can be attempted in 15 ways. EXAMPLE 3 From a class of 32 students. how many combinations of dyes can be chosen taking atleast one green and one blue dye? Answer: The least number of dyes that a combination can have is 2.This selection can done in . we can select atleast one blue dye out of 4 different blue dyes. Atleast one green dye can be selected out of 5 green dyes. 4 are to be chosen for a competition.

in how many ways can the team be constituted? Answer: Number of students in each class is 20. one unit in the positive y direction. there are C(8.3) = 27.3) ways to choose which of the other steps will be in y direction.720.0) to the point (4. So. so that no backtracking is allowed). 3 steps in y direction and 5 steps in z direction.EXAMPLE 4 A sportsteam of 11 students is to be constituted choosing at least 5 from class XI and 5 at least from XII.k) is a number of simple combinations of k elements from n. There are C(12. or one unit in the positive z direction? (Moving in the negative x. . Once they are chosen.3. The 5 left steps are automatically assigned to z direction. y. a total of 12 steps.4) ways to choose which steps will be in x direction.0. C(n.5) by taking steps on unit in the positive x direction. Answer: notation remark: C(n.4) * C(8. If there are 20 students in each of these classes.k) = n! / ( k!(n-k)! ) We have to make 4 steps in x direction. or z direction is prohibited. Total number of selections = 2 x 600935040 = 1201870080 EXAMPLE 5 How many ways are there to travel in xyz space from the origin (0. the answer is C(12.