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Lecturer : Prof. Koji Asai (YU) [Report 1] Name : Benita Nathania NIM : 1291261018 Udayana University, Bali

HOMEWORK Assigned: 11th October 2012 Due: 2nd November 2012 √ Udayana University □Yamaguchi University

**Your name: Benita Nathania
**

u v w 0 is valid. x y z

1. Show that the continuity equation for fluctuated velocities

The velocities (u, v, w) is separated into the averaged components, denoted by an over bar, and the fluctuations, denoted by the prime symbol, as follows: 𝑢 = 𝑢 + 𝑢′ ; 𝑢′ = 𝑢 − 𝑢 ̅ 𝑣 = 𝑣 + 𝑣′ ; 𝑣 ′ = 𝑣 − 𝑣 𝑤 = 𝑤 + 𝑤′ ; 𝑤 ′ = 𝑤 − 𝑤 Substitute the above values into continuity equation: 𝜕𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤

𝜕𝑧

=0 +
𝜕

(𝑤+𝑤′) 𝜕𝑧

̅+𝑢 𝜕(𝑢 ′ )

+ 𝜕

(𝑣+𝑣′) 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧

=0
𝜕𝑤

′ 𝜕𝑧

̅ 𝜕𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣

+ 𝜕𝑢

′ 𝜕𝑥

+ 𝜕𝑣

′ 𝜕𝑦

+

=0

…………… (1.1)

** Taking the average of equation (1.1) and using the rule of averaging we can get equation (1.2) :
**

̅ 𝜕𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤

𝜕𝑧

+ 𝜕𝑢

′ 𝜕𝑥

+ 𝜕𝑣

′ 𝜕𝑦

+ 𝜕𝑤

′ 𝜕𝑧

=0

𝑤 ′ ) into equation (1. 𝑢 = 𝑢 . the averaging of ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 =0 =0 the averaged value is the same value as the averaged value.2) Substitute equation (1. therefore: 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 = 0 substitute ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 =0 + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 +0=0 = 0 ……………. 𝑣 ′ . (1.2) into equation (1. 𝑢′ = 0.3) : ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 = 0 substitute + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 =0 0+ 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + =0 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 = 0 …………… (1. 𝑢 = 𝑢 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 Based on averaging rules.1) we will obtain equation (1.3) we will obtain: 𝑢′ = 𝑢 − 𝑢 𝑣 ′ = 𝑣 − 𝑣 𝑤 ′ = 𝑤 − 𝑤 𝜕(𝑢−𝑢 ) 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 + + =0 + 𝜕(𝑣−𝑣) 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕(𝑤−𝑤) 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑣 =0 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 =0 In averaging rule. the averaging of the fluctuation is zero.𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + + + 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + + + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + + + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 =0 In averaging rule.3) Substitute the value of (𝑢′ . the averaging of =0 =0 the averaged value is the same value as the averaged value.

ρ’e-z/h. x y z 2. so the value of C = 0. Therefore: ρ’=5 kg/m3 ρ0 = 1013 kg/m3 h =30 m z = 500m g = 9. calculating the static pressure p0(z)=ρ0gz at z=500m depth in the ocean. Therefore: ρ0 = 1013 kg/m3 z = 500 m g = 9. 97 x 10-6 Pa 2 1 𝑘𝑔⁄ 𝑁 𝑚𝑠 2 = 1 ⁄𝑚2 = 1 𝑃𝑎 C is the constant of the integration. In this case. Here ρ0 is given as 1013kg/m3.̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 =0 =0 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 − 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑦 − 𝜕𝑦 + ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 − 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 =0 If we calculate this equation the result will be zero (0). What do you conclude? Write your conclusion. Calculating the pressure ρ(z)=ρgz at z = 500m and compare it with the result obtained in the above question 2. where ρ’=5kg/m3 and h = 30m. atmospheric pressure is neglected ρ0 = 0. The constant integration is determined with the boundary conditions in which the pressure is atmospheric pressure ρ0 at the water surface (z=0).968.765 kg/ms = 4. The dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest of density ρ= ρ 0 .81 m/s2 P = ………… ? Answer: P = ρgz + C .81 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 𝑥 500 𝑚 = 4. 3. Neglecting atmospheric pressure. C =0 P = ρgz 𝑘𝑔 = 1013 ⁄𝑚3 𝑥 9.81 m/s2 P = ………………? . so that the continuity equation for fluctuated velocities u v w 0 is valid.

= 1013 kg/m3 The dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest of density 1013 kg/m3.81 m/s2 x 500 m = 4.ρ’e-z/h equation. =1013 𝑘𝑔⁄ −7 𝑚3 − 2. we can neglect it. Show that the geostrophic flow components ug and vg are satisfied the twodimensional continuity equation. So the value of the dynamic pressure is: P = ρgz = 1013 kg/m3 x 9. ρ= ρ 0 . So we get the same number for the water density at both conditions. The velocity components of the geostrophic flow ug and vg .888874 𝑥 10 it won’t make any significant differences so we can neglect it. can be written as follow: 𝑢𝑔 = − 𝑓 1 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝑦 𝑣𝑔 = 𝑓 𝜕𝑥 1 𝜕𝑃 Substitute components of geostrophic flow into the two dimensional continuity equation: 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 = 0 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 . 97 x 10-6 Pa The conclusion if we compare with the result we obtained in question number 2. the dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest = static pressure. Because the value of ρ’e-z/h is very small. we assume that the water depth is the same z = 500 m.Answer: First we find the value of dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest of density with this ρ= ρ 0 .ρ’e-z/h −500 𝑚⁄ 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 30 𝑚 ) = 1013 ⁄𝑚3 − (5 ⁄𝑚3 𝑥 𝑒 This number is very small. 4. In this case we assume that the water depth is the same.

.𝜕 𝜕𝑥 (− 𝑓 1 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝑦 ) + 𝜕𝑦 (𝑓 𝜕 1 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝑥 )=0 −𝜕2 𝑃 1 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝑓 = 0 𝑓 𝜕2 𝑃 1 If we calculate this equation the result will be 0. so that geostrophic components ug and vg are satisfied the two-dimensional continuity equation.

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