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# Environmental Fluid Dynamics

Lecturer : Prof. Koji Asai (YU) [Report 1] Name : Benita Nathania NIM : 1291261018 Udayana University, Bali

HOMEWORK Assigned: 11th October 2012 Due: 2nd November 2012 √ Udayana University □Yamaguchi University

u  v w    0 is valid. x y z

1. Show that the continuity equation for fluctuated velocities

 The velocities (u, v, w) is separated into the averaged components, denoted by an over bar, and the fluctuations, denoted by the prime symbol, as follows: 𝑢 = 𝑢 + 𝑢′ ; 𝑢′ = 𝑢 − 𝑢 ̅ 𝑣 = 𝑣 + 𝑣′ ; 𝑣 ′ = 𝑣 − 𝑣 𝑤 = 𝑤 + 𝑤′ ; 𝑤 ′ = 𝑤 − 𝑤  Substitute the above values into continuity equation: 𝜕𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤

𝜕𝑧

=0 + 𝜕
(𝑤+𝑤′) 𝜕𝑧

̅+𝑢 𝜕(𝑢 ′ )

+ 𝜕

(𝑣+𝑣′) 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧

=0 𝜕𝑤
′ 𝜕𝑧

̅ 𝜕𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣

+ 𝜕𝑢

′ 𝜕𝑥

+ 𝜕𝑣

′ 𝜕𝑦

+

=0

…………… (1.1)

 Taking the average of equation (1.1) and using the rule of averaging we can get equation (1.2) :
̅ 𝜕𝑢

+ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤

𝜕𝑧

+ 𝜕𝑢

′ 𝜕𝑥

+ 𝜕𝑣

′ 𝜕𝑦

+ 𝜕𝑤

′ 𝜕𝑧

=0

𝑤 ′ ) into equation (1. 𝑢 = 𝑢 . the averaging of ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 =0 =0 the averaged value is the same value as the averaged value.2)  Substitute equation (1. therefore: 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 = 0 substitute ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 =0 + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 +0=0 = 0 ……………. 𝑣 ′ . (1.2) into equation (1. 𝑢′ = 0.3) : ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 = 0 substitute + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 =0 0+ 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + =0 + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 = 0 …………… (1. 𝑢 = 𝑢 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 Based on averaging rules.1) we will obtain equation (1.3) we will obtain: 𝑢′ = 𝑢 − 𝑢 𝑣 ′ = 𝑣 − 𝑣 𝑤 ′ = 𝑤 − 𝑤 𝜕(𝑢−𝑢 ) 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 + + =0 + 𝜕(𝑣−𝑣) 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕(𝑤−𝑤) 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑣 =0 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 =0 In averaging rule. the averaging of the fluctuation is zero.𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 + + + 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑢′ 𝜕𝑥 + + + 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑣′ 𝜕𝑦 + + + 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤′ 𝜕𝑧 =0 In averaging rule.3)  Substitute the value of (𝑢′ . the averaging of =0 =0 the averaged value is the same value as the averaged value.

ρ’e-z/h. x y z 2. so the value of C = 0. Therefore: ρ’=5 kg/m3 ρ0 = 1013 kg/m3 h =30 m z = 500m g = 9. calculating the static pressure p0(z)=ρ0gz at z=500m depth in the ocean. Therefore: ρ0 = 1013 kg/m3 z = 500 m g = 9. 97 x 10-6 Pa 2 1 𝑘𝑔⁄ 𝑁 𝑚𝑠 2 = 1 ⁄𝑚2 = 1 𝑃𝑎 C is the constant of the integration. In this case. Here ρ0 is given as 1013kg/m3.̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − − 𝜕𝑥 − 𝜕𝑦 − ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 =0 =0 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥 ̅ 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑣 − 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑦 − 𝜕𝑦 + ̅ 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑣 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 − 𝜕𝑤 𝜕𝑧 =0 If we calculate this equation the result will be zero (0). What do you conclude? Write your conclusion. Calculating the pressure ρ(z)=ρgz at z = 500m and compare it with the result obtained in the above question 2. where ρ’=5kg/m3 and h = 30m. atmospheric pressure is neglected ρ0 = 0. The constant integration is determined with the boundary conditions in which the pressure is atmospheric pressure ρ0 at the water surface (z=0).968.765 kg/ms = 4. The dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest of density ρ= ρ 0 .81 m/s2 P = ………… ? Answer: P = ρgz + C .81 𝑚⁄𝑠 2 𝑥 500 𝑚 = 4. 3. Neglecting atmospheric pressure. C =0 P = ρgz 𝑘𝑔 = 1013 ⁄𝑚3 𝑥 9.81 m/s2 P = ………………? . so that the continuity equation for fluctuated velocities u  v w    0 is valid.

= 1013 kg/m3  The dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest of density 1013 kg/m3.81 m/s2 x 500 m = 4.ρ’e-z/h equation. =1013 𝑘𝑔⁄ −7 𝑚3 − 2. we can neglect it. Show that the geostrophic flow components ug and vg are satisfied the twodimensional continuity equation. So the value of the dynamic pressure is: P = ρgz = 1013 kg/m3 x 9. ρ= ρ 0 . So we get the same number for the water density at both conditions.  The velocity components of the geostrophic flow ug and vg .888874 𝑥 10 it won’t make any significant differences so we can neglect it. can be written as follow: 𝑢𝑔 = − 𝑓 1 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝑦 𝑣𝑔 = 𝑓 𝜕𝑥 1 𝜕𝑃  Substitute components of geostrophic flow into the two dimensional continuity equation: 𝜕𝑢 + 𝜕𝑦 = 0 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑣 . 97 x 10-6 Pa  The conclusion if we compare with the result we obtained in question number 2. the dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest = static pressure. Because the value of ρ’e-z/h is very small. we assume that the water depth is the same z = 500 m.Answer:  First we find the value of dynamic pressure of an ocean at rest of density with this ρ= ρ 0 .ρ’e-z/h −500 𝑚⁄ 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 30 𝑚 ) = 1013 ⁄𝑚3 − (5 ⁄𝑚3 𝑥 𝑒 This number is very small. 4. In this case we assume that the water depth is the same.

.𝜕 𝜕𝑥 (− 𝑓 1 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝑦 ) + 𝜕𝑦 (𝑓 𝜕 1 𝜕𝑃 𝜕𝑥 )=0 −𝜕2 𝑃 1 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 𝑓 = 0 𝑓 𝜕2 𝑃 1 If we calculate this equation the result will be 0. so that geostrophic components ug and vg are satisfied the two-dimensional continuity equation.