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tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

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q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

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tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

q&m OD;omatmif

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

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q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

rmwdum
eHygwf
taMumif;t&m
pmrsufESm
1/ yPmred'gef;vuFm
2/ tb,frnfaom pum;jzihf aqG;aEG;wkdifyifMuoenf;[k
bk&m;&Sifar;jref;awmfrljcif;
1
3/ Zmwfvrf;ukd arQmfvGrf;vsuf bk&m;&Siftm; awmif;yefjcif;
2
4/ t&dE´rmrif;ESifh ok0PÖ*AÇmwkdY wkdif;jynfukd pkd;ykdiftkyfcsKyf
rif;vkyfawmfrlcef;
3
5/ t&dE´rmrif;BuD; tvSLBuD;ay;cef;
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6/ odMum;rif; y@KurÁvm jrausmufzsm wif;wif;rmrm&Sdjcif;
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7/ t&dE´rmrif;tm; odMum;rif; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifí aiGwpfaxmif
tvSLarwåm&yfcef;
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8/ t&dE´rmrif;tm; odMum;rif; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifNyD; wzefxyfí
wkdif;jynfukd arwåm&yfcef;
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9/ t&dE´rmrif;BuD; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifaom odMum;rif;tm;
jynfawmfukdvSLcef;
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10/ t&dE´rmrif; wkdif;jynfawmfukd ykPÖm;tm; vSLNyD; aAm"dqkukd
awmif;jcif;tcef;
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11/ t&dE´rmrif;BuD; ok0PÖ*AÇm rdzk&m;ESihf &xm;pD;í [dr0EÅmpcef;odkY
xGufoGm;cef;
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12/ t&dE´rmrif;BuD;tm; odMum;rif; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifí aiGwpfaxmif
tyfESHxm;cJhonfukd jyefí awmif;cef;
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13/ t&dE´rmrif;tm; ykPÖm;aiGwpfaxmif twif;awmif;onfhtwGuf
aMu;aiG&Sm&ef £E´mjynfokdY xGufcef;
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14/ t&dE´rmrif; ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;ukd aiGig;&mESihf ola|;tdrfrSm
aygifESHíxm;cef;
16
15-16/ t&dE´rmrif;BuD;\ rdzk&m; ok0PÖ*AÇm a'0D ola|;tdrfü
'goDjzpfcef;
17
17/ t&dE´rmrif;BuD;ü usefaomaiGtojym ig;&mtwGuf wHcg;apmifhtdrfü
rdrdukd,fukda&mif;cef;
19
18-19/ ok0PÖ*AÇm rdzk&m;ukd ola|;rupdwf rcs0HhonftwGuf rdrdvifola|;ukd
aMumifhustm;BuD;í rdzk&m;tm; emrnfvTJNyD; ae&m|meajymif;cef;
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20/ ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;onf a&S;ueef;rSm pHpm;cJhonfukd awG;qNyD; t&dE´rmrif;BuD;ukd
awmif;wí ylaqG;cef;/
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21/ ok0PÖ*AÇm rdzk&m; ukd,f0ef y#doaE¨ wjznf;jznf; &ifhoefvmaomtcef;
23
22-23/ ok0PÖ*AÇm rdzk&m;onf 0gacgifvuG,f paeaeY oef;acgif,Htcg trsm;"r®wmjzihf
om;&wemukd zGm;jrifaomtcef;
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24-28/ ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m; om;taoukd zGm;onftwGuf rdrdvifocifESihf wkdif;jynfukd
vGrf;íidkcef;
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tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf
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q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk,m;onf tm;ukdravQmhbJ om;taoukd vGrf;íEkdYwkdufcef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk,m;onf aoaomom;i,fü vGrf;íikda<u;aeonfukd
ola|;ESihfola|;r qJqkdaigufief;cef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;onf okóefajrokdY om;aoukdykdY&ef NrdKUwHcg;okdYxGufoGm;cef;
ajrmufwHcg;rSL;ajymaom rif;om;ESihf odef;iSufykHtaMumif;
ta&SUbuf rsufESm wHcg;rSL;ESihf a>rygykHtcef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;onf awmifwHcg;okdY a&mHíajymjyaom trÁEÅ& o&ufoD;ESihf
aus;iSuf0w¬Ktcef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m; rkd;aomufcsdefa&mHjim;u taemufwHcg;okdY avQmufoGm;vQif
vifr,m;awGUMuí ola|;ESihfacG;\ykHtaMumif;rsm;ajymjycef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdz&k m; ikdnnf;oHukd Mum;ojzihf vifr,m;ppf xif&Sm;jzpfaMumif;ukd
aygif;qkHawGUrdrS odMuojzihf vGrf;waMuuGJylaqG;cef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;tm; om;taoESihf vifawG'ku©aomuESdyfpufonftwGuf
t&dE´rmrif; wHcg;apmihfw&m;a[mcef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;ESihf tavmif;awmf t&dE´rmwkdY aoaomom;oli,fukd
taemuf'Gg&ac: okóefwpokdYxkwfcef;
ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;ESifh tavmif;awmf t&dE´rmwkdY om;taoukd t&Sifjzpfatmif
opömqkdcef;
odMum;rif;r@KurÁvmwif;rmojzihf vlYjynfodkYvmí aoaeaom om;i,fukd
a&pifjzef;í &Sifaomtcef;
om;i,f&Sifí 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om&Sdcef;
uRefb0rS vGwf&efodMum;rif;tm; tusKd;taMumif;ukdajymjycef;
rif;ESpfyg;wkdYtm; odMum;rif; wkdif;jynfukd jyeftyfNyD; bdodufoGef;awmfrlcef;
rif;usihfw&m;q,fyg;ESihfavsmfnDpGm wkdif;jynfukd tkyfcsKyfcef;
wynhf om0uwkdfYtm; edu©r yg&rD taMumif;ukd a[majymcef;
Zmwfawmfaygif;cef;
ed*kH;

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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

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q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf
earm wó b*0awm t&[awm
or®morÁK'¨ó4/
yPmred'gef;-vuFm
(1) bke;f a&mifawmufxed f rm&Zde[
f k tpdaEÅ,s ok;H vlb
Y \ yg'a&mif[ek f pufa&Tpu
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av;axmifukefatmif usrf;jrwf y#dygwfESihf y&rwfoCFmt&d,mwkdY ESpfjzmru q&mpom; jrwfokH;yg;ukd
rrSm;tuRefokH;yg;uHjzihf pdwfoHus,fEk ylaZmfjyKcg apwemaMumifh ukd,frSmapmihfwwf a'0Dewfvnf; NrJuwf
arwåm om;oufvQmukd rçygapvkd awmif;rGeq
f o
dk nf xkx
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dk 0 jrwfZed \a&SUujzpfav twdawvGef avNy;D u
aAm"dowåEkonfuyif 'geyg&rD pkHq,fvDjzihf om*Dorkduf jznhfvkdufrSefpGm ZmwfawmfrSmum; jzpfawmf ig;&m
ig;q,frSm0,f xifay:ausmfx &dE´r[k jzpfxtaMumif; Zmwfawmfaygif;ukd oHanmif;oHñ§m em;wefqm
jzihf vuFmqifí rSepf ifo½kyf r,kwrf vGef pdwaf ZmrGev
f suf oif&h moifah Mumif; vuFmavmif;onf? / xk;H a[mif;
Zmwfvrf; ajrmufapaomf/ /

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

5

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

tb,frnfaom pum;jzihf aqG;aEG;wkdifyifMuoenf;[k
bkk&m;&Sifar;jref;awmfrljcif;
(2) b0oHo&m tPÖ0g0,f jrpfyifv,fü pkHavarsmyg; qkHv,fEGm;okdY bkHjcm;rvGwf 'ku©0#fwGif
ywfwavav u&GwfacGodkY raer&yf ewfESihfvlukd oG,f,lu,faqmif edAÁmefazmifokdY a&mufatmifBudK;yef;
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Mum;í w&m;zkd0if aecJhusifonf? OD;wifawmif;yefapaMumif;wnf;/ /

5

Zmwfvrf;ukdarQmfvGrf;vsuf
bk&m;&Siftm; awmif;yefjcif;
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pkn
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t&dE´rmrif;ESihf ok0PÖ*AÇmwkdY wkdif;jynfukd
pkd;ykdiftkyfcsKyf rif;vkyfawmfrlcef;
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f Nro
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

6

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

w&m; usihfig;yg;ukd jrif;zsm;jynf&Sif apmihfxdef;usifí cspfMuifvSpGm owå0gukd arwåmoem; &if0,fom;okdY
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tmPmwnf;/

6

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qufcH pkd;tkyfpHonf bkef;vQHawmufy avmif;&dE´vQif 'get&m &J&ihfpGmESihf tcgrjywf vSLvwfwa&Smif;
C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

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q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

xkdtaMumif;ukd ewfaygif;&mZm 0wðomu xkdcgwwfwwf jrifodvwfí rcRwfckay igoGm;avrS xkdrif;vS\
'oq,fvD yg&rDvQif ckþjynfrnf rjynhfrnfukd ck0,fwcef; igvQifpef;tHHh? riHhvQifpGm xufewf&Gmu xkdcg
odMum; oufvmjim;í ykPÖm;t[ef oufrGefESpfq,f t&G,fwkdifatmif NyDpGmaqmifjim; rkdCf;odMum;vQif
jzLxGm;t0wf tvG,yf wfí avQmufywfvpS mG vufrmS c½k ñTwEf aS jrZm oajyygvsuf xkcd gykPmÖ ;oGm;avjim;í
rif;zsm;xHarSmuf ykPÖm;a&mufonf? vufajr§mufOD;csD vDvDwnf;/

7

t&dE´rmrif;tm; odMum;rif; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifí
aiGwpfaxmif tvSLarwåm&yfcef;
(7) vufajrm§ OH ;D csD tOÆvjD zihf xdyq
f v
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f dk avQmyH wfpavmuf ighxaH rSmuf0,f
wpfa,mufwnf;om cka&mufvmonf jcif;&mwpd b,fokdY&Sd[k rif;BuD;&mZm ar;vwfaomf0,f xkdcgykPÖm;
avQmufxm;jcif;&m taMumif;rSmu 'DyguRe;f cGif pk;d usiyf idk jf cif; trif;rif;ESifh rSeu
f if;&Guq
f idk f pnf;pdrNf yKd io
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aMumifh bk&ifxaH rSmuf vSLcHa&muf[k 0rf;ajrmufo'¨g om;yrmvQif Muifemoem; uk,
d af wmftm;rl jzLaxmajymif
ajymif aiGwpfaxmifukd rif;acgifbkef;xl vSLawmfrl[k EIwfoHcsKdcsKd ykPÖm;qkdaomf pdwfvkdjznhfx avmif;&dE´[k
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f ufr;dk ok;H Burd f
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t&dE´rmrif;tm; odMum;rif; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifNyD;
wpfzefxyfí wkdif;jynfukd arwåm&yfcef;
(*) bke;f xG#o
f cif olZmvif[k ac:wGief mr 0go0vQif awZmxHjyif; odMum;rif;vnf; tvQio
f mG ;av
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f t
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D avQmufavjcif;&m jrwfr[m? avm[mus,f
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f Ydk xkjd yifwpl mG bk&ifrmS vnf; jzpf&{uH
C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

8

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

wrvGe0f ,f aemifp&H aMumif; usK;d aMumif;jzpfNy;D tvSLBu;D ukd rif;Bu;D tm;xkwf r,kwaf p& Bu;D vkv
YH ESifh 'geNrjJ cif;
apmifhoDwif;vnf; BuD;jcif;tusKd; &du©mrsKd;ukd ukef½kd;r&Sd rSefvSbd[k rif;BuD;&mZm apmxG#fcsmvnf; pdwfawmf
rwGefY rqkdif;iHhESihf &Tifvef;ajrmufpGm apwemukd aumif;pGmvnf;xm &Sifrif;zsm;\ pkd;jim;wkHjyef jynf&ZÆHESihf
xD;rGef&wem þESpfjzmukd &mZmrif;zsm; uRefYykPÖm;tm; pdwfxm;MunfjzL vSLawmfrl[k ckrlrSefpGm rif;t&mukd
uRefomtrSef csrf;omcHtHh aysmfpH&aMumif; vufpkHaygif;í rif;aumif;txH jynf&ZÆHukd wzef&aMumif; ykPÖm;
awmif;onf/ / &aMumif;rvGJ trSefwnf;/

8

t&dE´rmrif;BuD; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifaom
odMum;rif;tm; jynfawmfvSLcef;
(9) rvGJ{uH &mZxH0,f trSef&aMumif; jynfukdawmif;aomf rif;aumif;&mZm apmxG#fcsmvnf;
pdwaf wmf&iT v
f ef; yGio
hf nfyef;okYd &Te;f &Te;f apwem o'¨gwk;d wuf ,ckxufvQif rysupf w
d x
f m; ig;yg;0oD jrwfpm
*DESihf yg&rDtjym; okH;q,ftm;wGif jznhfjim;tp 'oyg&rD jynhfpkHpDukd ckþigonf jznhfawmhrnf[k pdwf0,f
rSwfjim; xkdykPÖm;tm; rif;zsm;oHcsKd þodkYqkd\? xkdxkdrsm;pGm vlwumwGif udk,frSmOyg'f ab;rvGwfatmif
pGrJ w
S af q;0g; rEÅ&m;ESifh N*Kd [rf sm;y,fwwf jypfrsK;d vTw
G o
f nf odrw
S v
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d &m? avQmufvmykPmÖ ; xkpd um;ukd
Mum;onf u yif pd w f r S m &T i f c g igvQif r S e f p G m Oyrmrl a&S U cgumv qif ; &J v S o m; Muif a ,musf m ;vQif
awmif;wçtmom aeav&mukd Mur®mzefx axmifxyk &f vkYd pdwu
f 0rf;ajrmuf o'¨gaygufí vufa&mufjynfudk
vSLrnfqkdaomf jynfukdvnf;& jAm[®Ptm; rif;zsm;ukef;wl rnfawmfrl\ rif;rl&vkd awmif;yef;qkdonf tkdtkd
oljkrwf ykPÖm;xG#f? jzwfvwfjcif;&m rif;&mZmukd rSefpGmrvGJ &EkdifcJ[k aMumif;a&;rSefpGm vu©Pmukd odom½kHy
,ckjy[k &mZEIwaf cR rdew
Yf aHk vaomf raecP jAm[®Pvnf; [w¬reS pf mG pkEH pS jf zmukd rMumvQiq
f G jzefí
Y jyaomf
jrif&wkaH v jAm[®aP\ aumif;axGvu©Pm t&m&mukd xkcd geef;&Sif wwfwwfjrifaomf uRe;f cGipf wk aygif;av;
ckukd ,ckykPÖm; tykdifpm;í aqmif;jim;xD;jzL rif;rlckdifcHh jzpfvwåHY[k riHhvQifpGm rif;&mZmvQif rMumvG,ful
u&m;,lí xkdola,musfm; qif;&Jom;tm; rif;zsm;bkef;wl jynfukdvSLonf? ZrÁLeef;rSm ausmfaomif;wnf;/ /

t&dE´rmrif; wkdif;jynfawmfukd ykPÖm;tm;vSLNyD;
aAm"dqkukd awmif;jcif;tcef;
(10) eef;rQZrÁL xde;f xde;f qlí NyKd io
f rl & aomVówGif r&zufuif; tmPmcsi;f onf owif;xifay:
ywf0ef;ausmfonf avmif;awmfrSefvS apm&dE´um; cPrMum ykPÖm;ausmftm; wkdif;um;eef;xD; tvSLBuD;ukd
ay;NyD;wkHa&Smif; qkvQifawmif;\? taygif;rsm;pGm owå0gukd csrf;omay;wwf y&rwf[k tjrwfa,musfm;
bkHokH;yg;wGif bk&m;þukd,f jzpf&vkd[k >rufqkdwkHvsuf qkyEéufí a&pufcsaxG oka`E´ukd oufaovnf;xm;
xkyd P
k mÖ ;tm; rif;zsm;bke;f vQH jynf&ZÆu
H dk pdwo
f MH unfjzL vSLawmfral omf ZrÁLwku
d v
f ;Hk wcsK;H csK;H vQif rqk;H tkyu
f suf
wNydKifeufvQif NydKysufazGvD yx0Donf wkefvnfrvGwf NydKrwwfokdY xuf&yfaumif;uif qlusify&yGuf
wuRuu
f Ruv
f Qif jrnfvsut
f oH b0*fvQrH Q rusiH gvQif vIyu
f sijf yif;pGm qifuek ;f cgokYd jzpfygbdjcif; awmifrsm;
rif;vnf; r,Gi;f wkeaf Mumif; Burd Ef mS armif;odYk aysmif;íEkae ñTwv
f aS yí xdo
dk nf&h mZm apwemaMumif; rsm;pGm
ivQif vIyfusifrSefpGm jzpfjcif;&mukd a'0gewfrsm; pdwfxm;0rf;ajrmuf vufyef;aygufjzihf ajzmufajzmufwD;um
BudrfokH;cgvQif rSefpGmom"k ac:a0:jyKonf tEkarm'em aumif;csDjimí xkdcgewfrsm; woGm;oGm;vQif aysmfyg;
íay aeMuav\/ xkdonfhtcg jynfomwGifvkduf oD0&mZf[k NrdKUüaejim; a,musfm;rdef;r BuD;i,fpom;
vltrsm;wkYd ES;D aESmwkid yf if igwk&Yd iS o
f nf vSLusio
f nfrmS razG&m[k wko
Yd mtrSef ykPmÖ ;uRev
f Qif {uHrcRwjf zpf&
wwf[k a&&Gwfwçqkd wcsKdUikd\/ avsmufqkdr0Hh vGefaMumufvefYí tnHhcHaxG ae&av\/ y&arñGwfaygif;
C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

9

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

aetwl pHawmfrí
l rkC
d ;f olt[ef tvSveG o
f nf awmifpeH ef;& ok0PÖ[k *AÇwiG n
f D qif;ewfjynfEiS fh wlnrD uGm
,Ofom,lNyD; &xm;pD;í rif;BuD;avmif;rGef xGufoGm;[efukd tuRefq&m ynmOmPf[def wxdefxdefonf
0&Zdeaf usmuf ajrukad zmufoYdk xyfavSmufigionf qkad wmhrnf[k omMunf&iT v
f ef; pkaPÖwef;onf? / wcef;
jyvkdaomaMumif;wnf;/

9

t&dE´rif;BuD; ok0PÖ *AÇm rdzk&m;ESihf jrif;&xm;pD;í
[dr0EÅmpcef;odkY xGufoGm;cef;
(10)

w'gç oD0&ZÆHç £óa&mç t&dE´rmemr&mZm? &ZÆHjAm[®Pó'wGmç pwk[dtóm
Zmae[dç a,maZwGmç &xHç Mo½k,Sç ow¬mç ok0PÖ*AÇma'0D,mç o'¨ðç [dr0EÅHedu© rwd/ /
(þum; pkaPÖ,sygVdbmomwnf;)/

teufum;/ / w'g? xkda&mtcgü? oD0&ZÆH? oD0&mZfjynfukd? £óa&m? tpkd;&aom? t&dE´rmemr?
t&dEr´ trnf&adS om? &mZm? rif;onf? jAm[®Pó? ykPmÖ ;tm;? &ZÆ?H jynfwidk ;f um;uk?d 'wGm? ay;vSLpGeBYf uNJ y;D onf
&Sad om? pwk[t
d ómZmae[d? av;pD;aom tómZmenfjrif;jzih?f a,maZwGm? uapaom? &xH? &xm;xufo?Ydk
Mo½k,S oufawmfrlí? ow¬m? bk&m;avmif; t&dE´rmrif;BuD;onf? ok0PÖ*AÇa'0D,m? ok0PÖm*AÇmrdzk&m;ESihf?
od'¨ð? wlpkHarmifESH? [dr0EÅH? [dr0wm *EIdifa[rmokdY? edu©rwd? xGufoGm;Muav\/
(11) wcef;jyvkd wenf;qkdydefY jynfukdpGefYx avmif;&dE´[k emrwGifpGm bk&m;vQmvQif xkdaeYwpf&uf
roGm;&ufay eef;awmfx0J ,f vkid &f aJT rmifEHS nOfv
h ;Hk pHí vif;wefcsed rf w
S f ol&ed ef wfvQi?f a&SU&yfjyKygÜ 0da'[mu
a&mif0gvufvuf ay:vmxGufu &uf\vG,ful &xm;,lí ckrligonf xGufawmhrnf[k pdwf0,frSwfNyD;'
xkdrif;BuD;onf tNyD;vQifpGm pD;,OfomwGif rSefpGmtó av;pD;uí a&Tua&TBudK; toifhxkd;í owkd;rif;ausmf
ESpfazmfwluG awmif;eef;&ESihf pD;xtwl xD;jzLvnf;Muuf &xm;xufu a&TZufukdifaxG; wjznf;jznf;vQif
rif;&J&mZm xGuaf vygaomf jynfomtp wHcg;0okYd a&mufjim;wkv
H u
dk f &xm;qku
d af omf NrKd Uüaejim; vltrsm;wkYd
jzmjzmtkH;tkH; w½kH;½kH;vQif tm;vkH;nDnm a&mufMuvmí ajcrSmOD;wkduf ylaZmfvkdufí aomif;wkdufajray:
[kd;[kd;ausmfonf avmif;awmf&dE´r ok0PÖESifh xkdcgwkHyif &xm;ESifaomf a0;uGm|mae a&mufavvwfaomf
,lZemrl rSepf mG wGuu
f sK;H ok;H ,lZem ajrwmcefaY xmH c&D;avmufwiG f wa,mHyP
k mÖ ; a&mufjim;trSEf Bu;D jyefwaHk v
oufukd;q,fokdY t&G,fwkdifNyD ykPÖm;BuD;vQif qD;ía&SUu avQmufxm;trSef uREkfyfuReftm; ,Of&xm;ukd
rif;zsm;jynf&Sif vSLapcsif[k avQmufwifpum; xkdrif;Mum;aomf oem;pkHruf &xm;xufu oufapajray:
ykPmÖ ;ausmt
f m; ,Of&xm;udk vSLavjim;í ,lomG ;av&m jA[®Pmvnf; xkrd mS rae oGm;wkaH ví xko
d nftcg
&mZmrif;vS t&Sirf onf ESrok0Pf awmifeef;pHEiS fh w&HruGm twlomvQif uEÅmc&D; a[0efe;D aomf tNy;D wGuf
ppf wmaygif;vku
d af omf ckepf,Zl e,m tcefw
Y mukd NrKd i*f smawmzsm; ajcjziho
f mG ;í aygufjym;qyfqyf awmifeef;
xG#rf mS Ekvwfz0g; <uufi,fvm;okYd oGm;jcif;r,if &*kcH iG 0f ,f emMuifpyk yf hJ aoG;&J&EJ iS fh vl;vJajrxuf vku
d v
f suf
rrSD a'0Drl;rIdif roGm;EkdifbJ w&GJU&GJUvQif &Sdonfjrifaomf bk&ifqGwfjyefY r½I0efYí vufvSrf;ukdifwGJ tomqGJNyD;
rif;&J&mZm twlomvQif ESpjf zmarmifEHS oGm;avjyefaomf jrnfoaH us;iSuf uvluu
G Ef iS fh Z&uf0v
H dk 0gbko
d ed ;f pGef
a'guf&efatmufcsif; aZmrmefjyif;onf opfxGif;acguf,m omvdumESihf Zifa,mfa&MuufacgifAkwfiSufESihf
wcsuw
f 'J w
k f Oykww
f jcm; aus;ukvm;wkYd aysmyf g;aomif;aomif; em;ranmif;atmif iSuaf ygif;aysm&f m a[0EÅmokYd
rMumxkwfacsmuf vQifpGma&mufu waxmufyef;ajz aeMuavonf/ armifr,fESpfyg;wlpkHwnf;/

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

10

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

t&dE´rmrif;BuD;tm; odMum;rif; ykPÖm;a,mifaqmifí
aiGwpfaxmiftyfESHxm;cJhonfukd jyefíawmif;cef;
(12) ESpfyg;wlpkH awm&*kHü aewkHaomcg rif;ESpfazmfwkdY jcif;&mrusef jzpf&[efukd tuRefYq&m wenf;
azmfyed Yf rSwef mpdrMhf u av;'DywGif jcm;xork'&´ m tcsmraZÑ av;uRe;f aAGwiG f jrifzh ,
G t
f apmuf xufatmufa&
ay: aygif;aomf &Spfaomif;av;axmiftrSef ckefavSmufcHom; a&mifvQHav;jzm xGefyajymif0g r[m*D&dwf
A[kd&fxdyf0,f okH;usdyfokH;yg; ewftrsm;wkdY aysmfyg;pHae 0wðjynfudk pkd;axGykdifjcif; odMum;rif;vQif r,Gif;wzef
þodkYBuH\? trSefigonf oGm;awmhrnf[k pdwf0,frSwfjim; rif;BuD;tm;wGif tyfxm;wkHay waxmifaiGukd
vuf0,ft& awmif;rnfy[k rkdCf;uvnf;qif; odMum;rif;vQif r,Gif;oP²mef ykPÖm;[efokdY oGm;jyefav&m
rif;a&SUrSm0,f a&mHvmjA[®P þodkY[\? avsmHxjcif;&m jrwfr[m? ukd,fawmfbk&m; tyfxm;rsm;ajrmif
aiGwaxmifudk rJah qmifMumNy;D ,cktuRev
f cdk sijf yef[k EIyo
f aH nmif;anmif; ykPmÖ ;awmif;aomf rif;aumif;&dEr´
[kwaf ypG[k qkx
d wkNH y;D ykPmÖ ;Bu;D ? vSLNy;D ighrmS rsm;pGma&TaiG qHa&pyg; wjcm;rSL;rwf rvGwef ef;xD; tvSLBu;D ukd
ay;Ny;D rusef vSL&jyefav waxmifaiGvQif eef;a0usev
f u
dk rf o
hJ nfjzpfí rif;opfjyKol xko
d nfvu
l dk ckral wmif;av
rdefYwkHavu rzG,fr&m tkd&mZm? uRefvQifrod? xkdrif;BuD;tm; awmif;avjim;vnf; &jim;b,frSm &Sdwef&m[k
&mZmrif;zsm; ay;ygvm;[k vGwfjim;zda&; wdef;a&Smifajy;vnf; rif;&J&mZm roifhyg[k rmefygpdwfayguf ykPÖm;
aigufí awmufawmufjrnfcg rif;&mZmtm; ojymrsm;ajrmif aiGwpfaxmifudk &atmifyP
k mÖ ; awmif;avjim;
onf? qD;wm;pdwfqkd; rmefygwnf;/

10

t&dE´rmrif;tm; ykPÖm;aiGwpfaxmif twif;awmif;onfhtwGuf
aus;aiG&Sm&ef £E´mjynfokdYxGufcef;
(13) pdwq
f ;dk rmefyg awma[rm0,f aiGom&aMumif; ykPmÖ ;awmif;aomf rif;aumif;&dEr´ apma'0um;
r&tBuH awma[0efwiG f ylyef'u
k © aomupk;d &drf rNird af ESmif&h u
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

11

q&m OD;omatmi
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11

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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

12

q&m OD;omatmi
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onf/ ESpf&Snfvrsm; Mumatmifwnf;/ /

12

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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

13

q&m OD;omatmi
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13

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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

14

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14

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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

15

q&m OD;omatmi
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

16

q&m OD;omatmi
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16

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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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17

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

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17

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om;&if;onf;ukd nD;nDrsm;zsif wef;qmqifí wifv
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

18

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

&SifygapaMumif; yefxGmawmif;vnf; om;aumif;r&Sif armifbcifvnf; rjrifhygvm a0;ajrwmu a&SMumv
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wpmpmvQif ae&musDxnf;vGefylaqG;onf? / 0rf;enf;rukefEkdifwum;/

18

ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;onf aoaomom;i,fü
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ok0PÖ*AÇm rdzk&m;onf okómefajrokdY
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

19

q&m OD;omatmi
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oG,af qmif jyifa&mufatmifudk BuaH qmifarG;b qkad vrSvQif r&tcGihf roifrh avsmf nOft
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H nf;/

19

ajrmufwHcg;rSL;ajymaom
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(33) a&S;uxk;H ykH aMumif;vk;H pku
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a'0D&aMumif; ikdvkdYawmif;onf/ raumif;pdwfxm; rmef0ifwnf;/ /

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

20

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

ta&SUbufrsufESm wHcg;rSL;ESihf
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20

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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21

q&m OD;omatmi
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

22

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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

23

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0rf;xJa&mufaomf cspaf vmufpbG,f ½lyu,fEiS fh tko
d nf½yk af ysmuf vlysKad ygufvQif jzpfajrmufwaHk v qif;½kyaf &
ESihf armifarESpfyg; &Tiftm;vnf;& 0rf;ajrmHMuí cPrae O,mOfajru oGm;avvsifpGm tdrfa*[mokdY
xkdcgvifr,m; a&mufavjim;onf/ / aejim;ESpfa,mufwlpkHwnf;/ /

23

(39) ESpaf ,mufwpl Hk aejim;ukeaf omf MumwkjH rifph mG wpf&cH gwGif pdwrf mS rSwjf im; vifr,m;wkYd qGwjf im;
,lNy;D o&ufo;D ukd rif;Bu;D txH qufavjyefaomf tvGepf w
d &f iT f a&Tjynf&iS v
f nf; aMumif;vQio
f v
d dk þokq
Yd o
dk nf
armifvkdESr yrmPokdY vSy½kyf0g jynhfpkHpGmonf b,f&Gm|me b,fjynfuvQif a&mHvmoenf;? rif;BuD;ar;aomf
raevQipf mG vufq,fjzmukd xdyaf y:wifajrm§ uf þokaYd vQmuf\rkC
d ;f atmufyufuek ;f ZrÁLvk;H ukd a&Tbek ;f wefc;dk
aeYwkdif;wkd;onf eef;½kd;ocif jynfBuD;&Sif? ckvQifrSwfyg uRefESpfabmfvQif a0;pGm|me wjynfuvQif r[kwfusif
wnf; ocifb&k m; O,smOfyg;wGif apmihx
f m;vnf;jyK O,smOfrv
I Qif rSeo
f nfyifwnf; avQmufwifpum; rif;Bu;D
Mum;aomf aMumif;vQm;odcsif a&Tjynf&iS v
f nf; qkw
d ifpum; þodaYk jymonf vSaxm½ky0f g vkvifausm?f &mZmxG#f
xm; igrif;zsm;\ xHyg;aejyK O,smOfrIvQif tkdaoyifwnf; ckvQiftrSef t&G,fvGefí oufrGefajcmufq,f
Bu;D aywkNH y;D ,ck&[
dS k jzpfbjd cif;&m armifwrYdk mS um; ½ky0f gvSy Eki,fpw
G nf; jzpfxunm ewfyrmokYd rSepf mG jzpf&
aMumif;rlvukd ajymjyapvkd rif;BuD;qkdaomf pdwfvkd&TifjrL; O,smOfrSL;vnf; ezl;vufwif avQmHavusifaomf
uRef;cGifZrÁL aewpfqlvQif rwlrif;csif; tmPmjyif;onf owif;xifay: aMomf&mZm? uRefawmf uRefawmfr
w&HnwGif jzpfMutrSef a'go&efaMumifh trSefwlyif raecsif[k aocsifíay O,smOfajrwGif oGm;avwkHjim;
aooD;pm;í uRefuraeao&ap[k oGm;avvQifajrmuf aoyifatmufwGif a<uajrmuf&Sdx oD;zvukd
aumufxukdifa0 pm;rdavaomf tkdonf½kyfaysmuf uRefESpfa,mufvQif cspfavmufpzG,f vGefwifhw,fonf
t&G,q
f ihJ g;rSejf im;pifppf ,ckjzpf[k avQmufvu
dk pf um; rif;Mu;D Mum;aomf rsm;rsm;r,kH okjYd zpfwaHk v qufwv
Hk m
NyD; o&ufoD;ukd ,lNyD;vQifpGm rif;&mZmvnf; rdefYawmfrlNyD; þopfoD;ukd avSmfNyD;vQifpGm eef;bkHomwGif rsm;pGm
armif;r [lorQukd a&G;xwkHNyD; toufBuD;tm; ay;avjim;[k rif;zsm;bkef;wl rdefYawmfrlaomf xkdol*kef;r
pm;av&aomf at;vSwkHay o&ufa&aMumihf tkdonf½kyfaysmuf cspfpavmHonf ysKdaygufunm ewf½kyf0gokdY
&G,frSmwGufvkduf qJhig;ESpfvQif jzpfonfxkdwGif rif;BuD;jrifaomf pdwfwGiftm;& 0rf;ajrmufvSí cPvQifpGm
xkd&mZmvnf; xkdcg,lNyD; o&ufoD;ukd rif;BuD;jynf&Sif eef;awmfcGifü &SdusiforQ eef;olpom; rif;urvGwf
awmifeef;xG#u
f dk pm;avqkad omf pdwv
f &dk iT yf pm;av&aomf jzpfMutukef eef;oltm;vk;H tHrh qk;H onf vSv;Hk ½ky0f g
useft*FgESihf unmvnf;jzpf qJhig;ESpfokdY rSefvSt&G,f vSwifhw,fí EkysKdtppf eef;vkH;jzpfonf/ rsKd;ppf o&uf
NyD;wnf;/
C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

24

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

(40) rsK;d ppfo&uf aus;ay;qufonf rSev
f suw
f NHk y;D rOÆLoD;ukd rif;Bu;D bk&if awmifeef;&SiEf iS fh rSeu
f sif
tukef pm;avwkHaomf ewfbkHyrm eef;bkHom0,f rSefpGmpifppf ysKdonfjzpfukd odvkdufolrsm; owif;Mum;aomf
ajyma[mwkid yf if igwk&Yd iS rf mS aus;vQi,
f yl ;D o&ufo;D ukd pm;rdwaHk &Smif; eef;olaygif;ESifh waMumif;wjcm; rdz&k m;
u rusef&onfjzpfxtukef eef;a&TbkH0,f vSwkHqif;0g ewfyrmokdY &G,fomwGufvkduf q,fhig;ESpf[k uspfvpf
½Ib,
G f ½lyu,fEiS fh Eki,fwppf eef;vk;H jzpf[k qkv
d u
dk pf um; vltrsm;wkYd tHMh orukef eef;a&Tbw
Hk iG f tukerf sm;pGm
jzpfjcif;&mukd xkdcgwkdif;jynf ESHYodav\/ xkdonfhtcg xkd&mZmvQif pdwfrSmawG;q aus;ok0ukd xçav wçcg
xkrd if;omvQif wçcgçr& vufridI cf sí awmif;wrukef od&Yk w
dS [
Hk k xk;H yko
H ufao Oya'ukd ig0,fb&d [,fuRerf ?
zGifhxtaMumif; wHcg;awmif;vnf; taMumif;ravQmf nOfhcgaomfvQif rawmfr&m &mZmykdif;jcm; NrdKUwHcg;ukd
vSpx
f m;ojzihf rjyKoifw
h nf;/ tcGirhf awmf jyKacsaomfvQif ,rf;ay:rD;us yrmeokYd Bu;D xrif;rmef vGejf yif;xef
í ar;jyefwkHvwf &mZ0wfvQif rvGwfEdkif&m aus;ykHrSmokdY jzpf&aMumif;p aemifvQifxvnf; &tHhb,frSm
rjzpf&mokYd a&S;cgpum; igodMum;onf rSwo
f m;ck0,f ESri,fvnf; oGm;avtrSef aemuf'gG &HoYdk wzefomG ;aMumif;
qkdwkHa&Smif;onf/ taMumif;pum; csKdcsKdwnf;/
/

24

ok0PÖ*AÇm rdzk&m; rkd;aomufcsdefa&mufjim;u
taemufwHcg;odkY a&SmufoGm;vQif viffr,m;awGUMuí
ola|;ESihfacG;\ykHtaMumif;rsm; ajymjycef;
(41) pum;csKdom xkda&mcg0,f oGm;&avaMumif; qkdwkHa&Smif;aomf tavmif;xG#fxm; rdzk&m;vQif
om;ukcd Rwcf g ok;H Akv
d af usmw
f iG f nOfo
h mrku
d v
f S vif;r&í Bu;D xrkC
d ;f ayguf wajzmufajzmufEiS fh awmifajrmHrod
aemufESihfa&SUukd rSwfavpdwfu cGJr&í eef;rawmifnm om;ykwåmukd jrefpGmvnf;&Guf cg;qpfxufwGif
csDvsufrae oGm;jyefavaomf aemuf0,fwHcg; a&mufjim;trSef awmifeef;pHvQif wzefcsOf;uyf tom[yfí
zGiv
hf wftaMumif; wHcg;awmif;aomf armifaumif;wlb;D uRe0Yf &D;\ &ifaoG;toGif arsmufom;&Si?f ckvQiaf pmihf
jim; þwHcg;ukd armifzGm;tvQif zGihfapcsif[k qkdusifpum; rif;BuD;Mum;aomf xjim;wkHvwf tom[yfí
rtyfr&m nOfhtcgvQif igomapmihfjim; NrdKUwHcg;ukd zGihfxm;ay;yg wpmpmvQif ikdumikdum cka&mufvmonf
eifomckrl tb,foel nf; aMumif;rload &; rif;Bu;D ar;aomf csK{d pum; þokaYd jymonf vSaxm½ky0f g vkvifausm?f
uRefYrSmESr tdrfjAnhf0wGif zGm;xck0,f om;taoukd raeap& 0gacgifv[k jzpfxwkHay vçvnf;uG,fí &uf
vnf;pae xko
d nfcsed w
f iG f ighusw
D iG ;f ü raexku
d [
f k ckyu
dk &f rnf &Siu
f apí raebk&H vGr;f Asm,ESifh armifvx
S aH rSmH
,cka&muf[k xyfavQmufarwåm pmemcsifx uRefawmfrukd rSefpGaoGaqmif jyifa&mufatmifvQif BuHaqmif
arsmufom; ay;ygvm;[k pum;oHjr qkdavuvQif NrJpGydwfxm; NrdKUwHcg;ukd zGihfjim;wkHbd rif;BuD;odaomf BuD;bd
rif;rmef &mZ'gPfukd trSefrcRwf ay;wkHvwfu vGwftHhb,frSm rwwf&m[k a&S;cgpum; igykHajymtHh
rSwo
f m;ck0,f ESri,fvnf; om;aocsv
D suf wHcg;&Guw
f iG f ckv
d surf aDS wG anmif;nmajz[k qkad xGpum; rif;Bu;D
ajymaomf vSaxm½ky0f g awmifeef;vQmvnf; xkcd grae om;taoukd csaD ywkv
H suf wHcg;&Gu0f ,f ckv
d surf w
DS ,
G f
ae&av[k xkdonftcg rif;r[mvnf; a&S;cgpum; ykHqkdajymonf/ / jzpfjim;þodkY trSefwnf;/
/
(42) þodt
Yk rSef a&S;jzpf[efudk rusecf 0k ,f igajymrnfwnf; rSwaf vESr a&Tem;cçavm a&S;uvGeaf v
wkdif;wjynfvQif aevQifrif;om; wa,mHtm;wGif arG;pm;vnf;jyK acG;wpfckvQif vlrIvdr®m odwwfpGmom;
xkcd gt&Sif rif;om;vQiv
f nf; tvQiv
f nf;MuL; upm;rIaMumihf wpfcrk usef trSeaf &TaiG tdr0f ,fr&Sd jzpfvwfbd
aomf rdrdarG;pm; acG;i,ftm;ukd ,ljim;avjyef ola|;xH0,f aygifESHxm;NyD; ola|;BuD;vQif ay;NyD;Opöm tojym
onf rSefpGmwGufa& ig;q,faiGukd xkdk0,fola|; acG;bkd;ay;í odrf;ívnf;xm; acG;i,ftm;ukd arG;pm;tNrJ
tdrfawmfxJwGif tNrJae&m umvMumaomf w&Hcg0,f ig;&mckd;om; vltrsm;wkdY ESD;aESmwkdifyif igwkdYvQifwnf;
tvQifoGm;ajrmuf vkdifacgifavQmH[k a&mufonftcsdef ola|;tdrfukd wufarTigwkdY ckd;MupkdY[k wkdifyifjyK&m
C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

25

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

vlrsm;pGmwkdY vQifpGmoGm;ajrmuf oef;acgifavmufwGif a&mufvmolYtdrf wufarT&SmMu ola|;uvnf; tdyfvkdY
aeqku
d f xkt
d cku
d w
f iG f zGiv
hf pS af owåm tdrv
f ;Hk rSmvQif &S&d morQ a&TaiGpom; rsm;vSwaHk y OpömawGEiS fh uk,
d t
f 0wf
prvGwfukd arG;pm;acG;i,f jrifodavaomf a[mifaywkHvwf oHrjywfwnf; ukdufvwfacG;i,f olckd;awGrSm
ajy;avrvGwf acG;ukdufvwfaomf pkwfjywfemusif 'gPfvQifvnf;& ajy;xr,if xkdwGifae& wcsKdUrSmvnf;
ud,
k rf mS rpJ aoG;&J&EJ iS hf usK;d yJah jcvuf yufvufarSmufcHk aewkw
H csKUd csKrH mS wk;d í olc;dk rsm;pGm vlwumukd acG;om
vnf;vku
d f tNru
J u
dk af omf a[mifvu
dk af cG;i,f nOfv
h ;Hk aeí xko
d nftcg ola|;ausmv
f nf; acG;oma[mifvu
dk f
Ekd;onfjzpfaomf ukdf;vkdufbk&m; vGefxl;jim;[k xjim;vQifpGm ola|;rSmvnf; rD;omvnf;xGef; tdrfwkdufcrf;ukd
½ku
d 0f ef;vSnyfh wf Munh½f v
I wfaomf jrifvwfreS pf mG ightrd af y:wGif nOfch gvlq;dk vmíck;d [k upku
d &m; qHzm;&m;ESifh
½k;H aomyrm xkcd gr,m; tdrv
f ;Hk om;ESifh 0ef;vQm;nDnm rsm;wku
d w
f mudk zGiu
hf mrae Munhw
f aHk vaomf rsm;axGOpöm
wku
d w
f rYkd mS vQif jznhu
f mvnf;xm; a&TaiGrsm;ukd ,lomG ;trSef ruseyf q
k ;dk 0wfzrYdk <uif; tdrw
f iG rf usef 0efqrH sm;pGm
ighOpömukd ,lumckd;oGm; jzpfacsaom[k pdwfxm;ylyif vlrsm;&SifESihf &SmusifwkHvwf prvGwfyJ tdrfwGif;xJwGif
Munhfavusifaomf rsm;zsifOpöm &wemukd ,lumckd;om; pkykHxm;onf rSefjim;wkHay OpömawGukd xkd0,ftdrf&Sif
&avusiaf omf ac:wGief mr okeu©[k arG;pm;xm;av xkad cG;i,fvQif nOf0h ,fuu
dk v
f u
dk f ck;d olru
dk w
f iG f usev
f pf
vlum; wcsKdUrsm;ü 'gPf&mxifí emusifpkyfNyJ aoG;&J&JESihf vl;vJajrxuf yufvufarSmufvSef wcsKdUusef\/
NAjJ yefwcsK;d ajcvufusK;d í Munhzf rYdk & uku
d x
f 'gPf&m aoG;jzmjzmESifh xkcd gvlq;dk csKw
H iG w
f ;dk í olc;dk rsm;pGm jzpfjcif;&m
ukd xkdcgtdrf&Sif wwfwwfjrifaomf tm;vQifvnf;& aumif;aypG[k qkdxwkHNyD; ola|;BuD;vnf; oGm;NyD;vQifpGm
xkOd pömukd ,lumodr;f xm; acG;i,ftm;vQif aus;Zl;wifí qku
d sipf um; igarG;pm;onf rSejf im;wkb
H d acG;i,f&í
dS
aysmufbdrSefpGm ightdrfay:wGif ckd;vSmolrsm; olwkdYtm;ukd ukdufjim;acG;i,f jyKrdacsí ajy;avtukef vltykHrSm
pkykHíxm; Opömrsm;ukd igum;ck0,f jyef&ay[k pdwf0,f&Tify 0rf;ajrmufvSí jzpfxwkHbd acG;r&Sdaomf aysmufNyD;
rSepf mG &wem[k ighrmS tdrv
f ;Hk tukeq
f ;Hk í ysujf yKe;f rSepf mG jzpfz,
G &f m[k xkcd gpum; acG;i,ftm;ukd pum;xGww
f if
aus;Zl;&Sif[k qkdusifpum; ola|;ajymonf/ / acG;tm;vdr®m armifvdr®mwnf;/ /

25

(43) xkad &mcg0,f xkad cG;i,fudk xkcd gola|; cs;D rGr;f ay;í jrwfvnf;xGww
f if aus;Zl;&Si[
f k qkv
d sipf um;
ola|;Mum;í aejim;wkHav wpfyg;0,fwGif ukd,f0,farG;pm; acG;i,ftm;ukd ac:ípum; þokdYMum;onf
rSwo
f m;em;axmif tkad cG;armif? Mumatmifrae ckomG ;ayí ig;q,fOpöm &wemukd ,lumtrSef &Siaf [mif;xHoYkd
trSefay;av acG;ukdapaomf raevQifpGm xkdOpömukd xkwfumapNyD; ola|;BuD;vQif acG;xD;vnfrSm qGJumtrSef
vTwfvkdufjyefaomf tjrefoGm;& okeu©vnf; a&mufxrSefpGm &SifhajcrSm0,f yGwfíaeaomf jrifavrif;om;
acG;i,ftm;vQif qGjJ im;vnfwiG f txkyjf rifaomf odcsiaf Mumif;&m rif;om;ausmu
f ajzumMunhx
f aiGu&dk onf
a'gormef0if rif;om;vQifvnf; qkdusifpum; ig\tm;ukd ckdjim;trSef ola|;xHu ,ljyefrae aiGig;q,fukd
acG;i,focl ;dk &Six
f yH [
Ydk k qkv
d Qipf um; xkrd if;om;um; bef;jim;wkv
H wf acG;uko
d wfí oufjywfZaD 0 acG;i,fao
aomf raevQifpGm xkdOpömukd ,lumtrSef ola|;xHwGif rusefrif;om; ay;avjim;aomf ola|;ausmfvnf;
rsufazmfaMumif;a&; odvkdar;u ajymvkdYrukef okdY&SdwkH[k jzpfwkHrSefpGm tjzmjzmukd xkdcgtrSef ola|;xH0,f
rcsefrif;om; tukefajymaomf tHHhMoMuNyD; ola|;BuD;vnf; rdrdarG;pm; acG;i,ftm;ukd wçavçwçum r&omí
xkdcgae& vufrIdifcsvkdY awmif;wrukef okdYjzpfwkH[k xkH;ykHjyaxG Oya'ukd rSwfavESr igod&[k rkcsroG,f
,ck0,fvnf; NrJaxGydwfxm; NrdKUwHcg;ukd zGifhjim;&aMumif; ighukdawmif;í taMumif;ravQmf rkdCf;vif;cgrS
igomzGirfh nf ,ck0,fum; aMumif;ajcrvif; nOfah rSmifxiG ;f í zGijhf cif;rawmf aMumif;ravQm[
f k zGiahf omfightm;
jyKacsum;vnf; rif;zsm;&mZm odaomcgvQif rSepf mG rvGwf &mZ0wf[k rcRww
f pl mG acG;ykyH rmokYd jzpfvQiaf Mumif;p
aemifvQifwvnf; &tHhb,frSm rjzpf&m[k xkdcgpum; rif;BuD;Mum;aomf vSaxmfawmifnm om;ykwåmukd cscg
ajr0,f wefeY m;aeí rku
d af xGarSmifus wHcg;0ü aexrdcif om;a&TpifaMumihf ylyifrcd spf wjypfjypfEiS fh ikv
d u
dk x
f 0dk ,f
ae&avonf/ nOfh0,f okH;csufwD;ausmfwnf;/

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

26

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;? ikdnnf;oHukd Mum;ojzihf
vifr,m;ppf xif&Sm;jzpfaMumif;ukd
aygif;qkHawGUrdrS odMuojzihf vGrf;waMuuGJylaqG;cef;

26

(44) okH;csufwD;ausmf aea&mifvmí NrdKU&Gm£E´ a&TjynfuvQif wD;Muem&D rkdCf;vif;ap[k
apmihaf ewkjH im; rdz&k m;vQif oem;pzG,f om;taoukd rdarvnf;&Guf cg;yku
d x
f ufwiG f wifvsurf cd if wHcg;wGiüf
aeusiw
f aHk y ikcd si;f oG,o
f nf uRe0Yf ,farmifzmG ; wHcg;om;wkYd rrSm;rSev
f S uRerf ed ;f rwGif zGm;xwkaH y idck si;f oG,f
onf uRefY0,farmifzGm; wHcg;om;wkdY rrSm;rSefvS uRefrdef;rwGif zGm;xwkHay om;taoukd ykdufacstvQif
&Siu
f ESiaf omf ajrmufciG w
f cH g; xGuo
f mG ;&aMumif; uRev
f Qiaf wmif;vnf; taMumif;pum; ykq
H adk jymí xGuo
f mG ;
r& om;ykwåESihf uRefrrdcif oGm;usiftrSef a&SU'Gg&HokdY a&mufjyefwkHa&Smif; wHcg;awmif;vnf; xGufaMumif;r&
ykq
H jdk yaomf vTw
G x
f wzef awmif'gG &HoYdk tjrefomG ;av qkad wkaH yaomf xk0d ,fuRerf rae&í &GmxrpJ nOfah rSmif
xJwiG f vIu
d v
f rJS cd if oGm;jyefusiaf omf a&mHvQit
f rSef awmif'gG &HoYkd wzef&aMumif; wHcg;awmif;vnf; xyfavmif;
a&S;wl yrmrlaomf xGufcGifhr& om;ykwåESihf xkdcgumv ypädrmjyef aemH'Gg&HokdY tuRefESr xGufoGm;&aMumif;
wHcg;awmif;vnf; waMumif;ykq
H dk rzGiv
fh w
dk nf; om;uku
d Rerf ryku
d &f [k ½Iwíqkd nOfo
h ;Hk Akv
d w
f iG f xGuv
f í
dk om
av;rsufESmwGif av;jzmrSefvS av;rku©ukd zGihfxtaMumif; vSJUíawmif;vnf; &aMumif;rawmf cGihfravQmf[k
xkcd gpum; av;ykaH jymvnf; nOft
h m;rukef &GmwHx
k ed ;f BuKd ; yZÆKrH C
dk ;f vnf; NzKd ;NzKd ;Bu;D pGm nOfv
h ;Hk &Gmaomf uReo
f mESr
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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27

q&m OD;omatmi
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yg qkdaomcgvQif pdwfrSmoem; xkdykPÖm;tm; jzLaxmajymifajymif aiGwpfaxmifukd ararmifESr vSLNyD;rSvQif
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oem;pzG,f ikdvsufaeonf/ / MuifaqGavmif; rif;xH&if;wnf;/ /

27

(46) avmif;rif;xHrSm wpmpmvQif awmifnmxG#fxm; rdzk&m;u aejimwkHajrmuf ikdcsif;aumufí
wa,mufwnf;om; oHxw
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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28

q&m OD;omatmi
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aomfcP rSefr&í aomupkd;&drf ola|;tdrfwGif ae&Sdefcyfvsuf acR;pufpufESihf wcsufrvGwf awmifeef;xG#f
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xm; rdzk&m;tm; rSmxm;avqkd zufumikdonf/ rif;ysKdESvkH; rNidrf;wnf;/ /

28

(48) ESvkH;rNidrf a&Tonf;ydefí pkd;&drfaMumihfMu avmif;&dE´vQif b0a&S;cg; oHo&mwGif vSLcg'ge
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

tavmif;awmf t&dE´rm vuFmopf

29

q&m OD;omatmi
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rnf[k jzpfo,
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arSmufckH0wfí vSxG#fawmifnm &SdylaZmfonf? ,aomftavmif; trSefwnf;/ /

29

(50) tavmif;,aomf jzpfxkdufavQmfonf wGifac:emr ok0PÖ[k tvSwGifnD qif;ewfNyD;vQif
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dk m wpmpmonf oD'gjrpfBu;D jawmawmif
qD;í c&D;a0;uGm b,fjynf&mG wGif aocsmMuifuRr;f arxdyyf ef;ukd &Srd eS ;f wpd arrodí jzpfNy;D rSepf mG þvl&Y mG wGif
azG&Smr& uRefYarmifvSukd aruwvD rawGUNyD[k ckþtrSef avmu"HwGif tuRefESr tqkH;csí ae&onfom
,ckrSmvQif armifawmfESr uHaumif;vSí awGU&avNyD uRefYarmifBuD;ukd araxG;ESr zl;jrif&onf ESrck0,f
vifvGrf;ajyí pdwf0,f&Tef;&Tef; yGifhonfyef;okdY &Tifvef;ESr &Sdyg&onf armifvSocif a&Teef;&Sif[k
aMumif;vQifajymqkd idkvnf;ikdí om;ukdcsDvsuf &ifcGifxufwGif wifvsufxm;NyD; &ifpnfwD;í qHNzD;zm;&m;
½l;aomvm;okYd rdz&k m;jrwf om;ao&wfaMumihf vGr;f qGwyf q
l m ikjd cif;&mukd &mZmxG#jf yefY r½I0efí
Y wnfwefpY w
d u
f dk
jzpfpdrfhvkdí oHcsKdom,m w&m;omjzihf awmifnmwifum; rdzk&m;tm; rif;zsm;xGwfxGwf *gxmvTwfonf/
edygwfusrf;vm trSefwnf;/ /

ok0PÖ*AÇm rdzk&m;tm; om;taoESihf vifukdawGUí
'ku©aomu ESdyfpufonftwGuf
t&dE´rmrif; wHcg;apmifh w&m;a[mcef;
tedpöç 0wç ocFg&m OyÜg'0,"r®daem/
OyÜZÆdwGmç ed½kZ-EÅd awoHOyoarmokacg/
ygVdawmfvmonfEiS t
fh nD þtaMumif;ukd tavmif;awmft&dEr´ if;onf arsmufom;awmf ok0PÖ*AÇm
trnf&adS om rdz&k m;ukd w&m;t&omjzihf Nird ;f apjcif;iSg þtrItwGuaf Mumihf ylyq
l mqmrjyKygESifh Nird ;f apjcif;ukd
qkH;rawmfrlonf/ tedpöç 'ku©ç jzpfysuf&jcif;ç vu©Pmu vlukd rqkdxm;bdavm odMum;a'0g jAm[®mrvGwf
pMum0aw;rif; ,k*efxadk wmifçjrifrh &dk Ef iS w
fh uG yapöuAk'g¨ &[EÅmwko
Yd nf cE¨mpkawí a&TjynftrwokYd vku
d Mf u
&avonf/ þw&m;ukd ESrawmf ,kMH unfapvkí
d tedpw
ö &m;ukd a&aeowå0gç uke;f aeowå0gç ouf&adS vorQ
owå0g taygif;wko
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f í
l tedpw
ö &m;ukd rdz&k m;tm; t&dEr´ mrif;Bu;D
onf qk;H rawmfrv
l Qif arsmufom;awmf rdz&k m;onfvnf; rif;Bu;D tm; &Scd ;dk ylaZmfaom taMumif;t"dygÜ ,fwnf;/
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30

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

(51) edygwfusrf;vm xkH;aejzmtHh rSmpmurÁnf; a[maMumif;a&;ukd axmufawG;jcikf;&m odpdrfhiSmjzihf
awmifnmwifxm; rdzk&m;ukd rif;om;oHcsKd acsmharmhqkdonf ewfvkdqif;0g om;arawmf/ ckaomfrSefjim; armifh
pum;ukd vSaxmoufa0 a&Tem;wnfavm? rsm;axGowå0g bko
H ;Hk &GmwGif jzpfvmwkaH y av;oacsEF iS u
fh siaf vrsm;
pGm rcRw&f mwnf;? yrmxlbd oufr&So
d nf aomif;av;ckwiG f ode;f pkEpS v
f D yx0DEiS hf e'DrvGwf ysuw
f wfbjd cif;
jawmifrif;jrifhrkd&f ysufNydKrusef awmif&HrvGwf a&GUysufwwfonf ckepfxyfoD'g ork'´&mav;pif; r<uif;tae
oaAÁocFg& rSepf mG rcRwf csed af &mufvwfaomf ysuw
f wfvpS mG bko
H ;Hk &GmwGif jzpfvmorQ a&e,fponfh rsm;vSwaHk y
ukef;aeowå0g b,frSmrvGwf e,fokH;&yfwGif vlewfe*g; odMum;jAm[®m rvGwf&monf rSefpGmjzpf& edZD0okdY
yg&tukef oHombke0f ,f wpfpw
Hk pfa,muf vGwaf jrmufr&Sd rSev
f b
S o
d nf rkex
d #G cf sm yapöumwkYd aysm&f mtrSef
jynfedAÁmefokdY {uHa&muf& tedpö[k jzpf&oabm þw&m;ukd nmzsm;awmifr,f owdq,favm? rjy,f'ku©
om;ykwåaMumihf rdvSckrl rsm;rylESihf onf;tlESvkH; ysufNyHK;rcRwf jzpf&vwfu rdjrwfukd,frSm a0'emonf jzpf&
vdrrhf nf armifp;dk onfaMumifh pdwaf jyESr w,,ESihf jzpf&jcif;&m tjzmjzmukd avmif;awmf&Ed r´ awmifeef;&tm;
"r®csKad rm w&m;a[maomf oabmpdwu
f s ar0PÖu ,kx
d rsuaf & rif;Bu;D ajcukd xdy0f ,f&u
G v
f dk avQmw
H ifqo
dk nf
tkdtkdocif awmifeef;&Sif? jzpfvQifysufwwf bkHokH;&yfwGif twnfrNrJ caemif;0JwGif jzpfNrJ"r®wm t&m&mukd
awmifnmarvS odyg&í ckrw
S rl om;tylaMumihf eef;olawmifnm ik&d yg[k q,fjzmvufvS OD;ESrd cf sí avQmufx
aomcg rif;&mZmvnf; csKo
d mpum; þodaYk jymonf vSaxmoufa0 om;taoukd xkwaf 0wkjH im; aemufwcH g;u
,lomG ;av& jyifa&mufrv
S Qif om;a&Tpifudk rdcifarG;b wlwuGvQif om;vS&iS af Mumif; qkvQiaf wmif;ar qko
d nf
pum; vifr,m;ukd ajyma[mwkid yf if rkC
d ;f vif;usiu
f rdcifcs&D u
G f cg;qpfxufwiG f wifvsut
f rSef aemuf'gG &Hu
avmif;awmft&dE´r ok0PÖESihf cPrae xGufoGm;avonf/ a&mufavokóef wpwnf;/ /

30

ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;ESihf tavmif;awmf t&dE´rmwkdY
aoaom om;oli,fukd aemif'Gg&ac:
okóefwpokdY xkwfcef;
(52) okóefwp oif;csKdif;0okdY oGm;&wkHajrmuf xkdrSa&mufaomf opfatmufrSefpGm &dyfom,mü
csumxm;av om;taoukd jrK§ yaf cstrSef jyKp&D efudk ok0PfErS jrifacsuvQif xkrd w
S Ny;D &ifpnfw;D í qHNz;D zm;&m;
½l;aomvm;okdY rdzk&m;jrwf om;ao&wfukd vGrf;qGwfylqm wpmpmvQif zufumvnf;qkd þodkYikdonf om;ñkd
a&Tpif rd0rf;0ifonf rjrifygvm &dyo
f m,mwGif arQmu
f mrdw
S rf w
dS f tdyaf omt[ef om;eef;pHonf aejyefyufvuf
bkr®dxufu xavm,ck rdukd½Iavm? oufpka&TcJ rdvIdifqGJonf ykvJjrñ§m om;ykwåmukd zufumvnf;prf;
b,fnmerf;í jypf&eT ;f iku
d m wpmpmonf vif;jym*sK;jzL yifuMuLod onf;tlvnf;axmihf aomuajimifah Mumifh
raESmifhok0Pf om;txH0,f ylzefvl;vJ ikdrpJwnf;? ykvJyrm om;ykwåmukd rmwmrdcif &Sifapcsifí ouf0if&
aMumif; yefxmG awmif;onf taygif;rsm;pGm a'0ga'0 *E¨Aw
Á Ydk rvGwu
f ek af tmif awmawmiforkj'm oD'gapmifh
Ny;D ewfo;D® arcvm rsm;pGmpkaqmif; taygif;rsm;pGm ewfwumwkYd rçygtukef om;aMu;rIu
H dk xwkv
H Qipf mG rdrmwm
\ unmtrSef EdcYk &D efudk pk[
Yd efomG ;vm; bçxHyg;0,f aysmyf g;jyKcsif wufvQiv
f ;l vJ tNro
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nmzsm;a'0D tvDvv
D Qif &ifpnfaomHpm; arG;onfom;ukd &Sijf im;apvkd ewfxx
dk t
dk m; arysK[
d wåm a'G;ESpjf zmukd
xdyfay:wifvkd "d|mefqkdonf/ / om;ñkdrdEkdY pkdYapwnf;/

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q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

ok0PÖ*AÇmrdzk&m;ESihf tavmif;awmf t&dE´rmwkdY
om;taoukd t&Sifjzpfatmif opömqkdcef;
(53) pkdYappkdYap arG;rdarvQif ikdvnf;rwdwf opfyif&dyfwGif ikdvsufyifwnf;? rdcifrawmf aeoa&mfü
rif;ausm&f Ed r´ apme&vnf; wlpw
G NHk y;D om;&ifonf;ukd ckNy;D xkw
d iG f jrK§ yrf nfjyifaomf nmwifa'0D vStifno
D nf
aumufcsD,lvsuf om;yef;cufukd csDvsufodwfodwf zsmESihfvdyfí usdwfusdwfpnf;yef; bukduef;aomf
vSr;f írif;ausmf om;a&TavSmu
f dk jrifaomcP jrK§ yw
f iG ;f 0okYd rcs0efb
Y J rsu&f nf&EJT iS fh crnf;rif;ausmf om;eef;vQm
ukd wl;aomwGi;f em; csumxm;rS pum;vnf;qkd ikv
d nf;iko
d nf om;ukv
d nf;zuf qGu
J m&Guí
f eef;qufwm&Snf
jzpfpdrfhrnf[k rSwfonfpdwfawmf ,ckrSmum; eef;vQmom;i,f oufr&SnfbJ bukdcGJí rvGJck0,f yg&ayonf
om;i,fvnf;wkH; jynfvnf;jyKef;[k wGufusKH;r& avmif;&dE´vQif oGefusrsufa& pD;jypfaxGESihf wm;q,fr&
0gacgifvwGif oGeu
f sNzKd ;NzKd ; &GmonfrC
dk ;f okYd owkid ;f rif;ausmf om;a&TavSmu
f dk zufumvnf;csr;f Burd Bf urd ef rf;í
tvGe;f rajy om;oufa0aMumihf ylavrpJ ESv;Hk xJ0,f rD;uJo
h q
Ykd l btyludk om;jzL,lord ;f tomxded ;f rS ylNird ;f yg
rnf boufa0[k qkdaxGpum; avmif;rif;om;vQif w&m;vnf;us owd&vQuf nm&axmifae vSra[ukd
EIyaf cRocH sKd þokq
Yd o
dk nf EkysKq
d if;0g om;r,fawmf? armifrh mS ,ck om;&Sirf u
I dk jyKrnfo
h pöm qkNd y;D cgrS &mZmrif;vS
avmif;&dE´vQif >ruf[oHcsKd wkdifwef;qkdonf tkdtkdewfrsm; rodvm;wnf;/ a&S;aomtcg igrif;ausmfonf
atmifcsmwGifvkduf oD0&mZf0,f rif;jzpfaomcg rsm;pGma&TaiG vSLavrjywf cgrvGwfwnf;? p&yfajcmufaqmif
ukefatmifrvGwf vSLr@myfukd aqmufvwfwkHNyD; tvSLBuD;ukd ay;NyD;onfrSm tojymrl rSefpGmwGufudef;
ukeaf jcmufoed ;f ukd vSLNy;D aemufrmS ykPmÖ ;vmí aiGomwpfaxmif ukeaf tmifr<uif; cyif;jynf&mG ,Ofom&xm;
xD;eef;rsm;ukd pdwx
f m;MunfjzL vSLyg&om; tusK;d tm;aMumifh b0aemifcg oHo&m0,f rsm;pGma0aP oaAÁowåm
owå0gukd acrmyl&H jynfedAÁmefokdY trSefykdYwwf y&rwf[k txG#fa,musfm; igrif;zsm;vQif xif&Sm;vlYjynf
yGirhf nfb&k m; rSeaf csum;vQif þom;tao &Siyf gap[k avmif;a0rif;vS ok0PÖEiS fh wluEG pS af bmf om;ykwmå ukd
&SifygapaMumif; vufq,facsmif;ukd OD;acgif;wifcsD tOövDjzihf xufqDykdifpm; &SifodMum;tm; ESpfyg;rif;ysKd
"d|mefqkdonf? jrif;rkd&fñTwfajymif; ,drf;umwnf;/ /

31

odMum;rif; y@KurÁvm wif;rmojzifh vlYjynfokdY vmí
aoaeaom om;i,fukd a&pifjzef;í &Sifaom tcef;
ouúó|meHç OPSum&Hç 'aówGmç oawåm? tm0ZÆaEÅm wHu&PH nwGmç t&dE´rmç&anea'0D,m?
ykwåaomp aueç [',Hç zvdwGm 'doGmç jAm[®mPó a0aoeçrm0dwGm? [aw¬eç bduFm&Hç *a[wGmç odOÆd
awm0ç ZD0dwHZD0Hyg0kPdok/
ouúó? odMum;rif;\? |meH? y@KurÁvm jrausmufzsmonf? OPSum&H? yljyif;wif;rmaom tjcif;
t&mukd 'aówGm? jyí? oauúm? odMum;rif;onf? tm0ZÆaEÆm? Munf½h q
I ifjcifvwfaomf? wHu&PH? xkt
d &dEr´ m
rif;ESihf rdzk&m;wkdY\taMumif;t&mukd? nwGm? odí t&dE´r&ane? t&dE´rmrif;ESihf? a'0D,m rdzk&m;wkdYonf?
ykwaå ompaue? om;üpk;d &drjf cif;aMumih?f [',H? tonf;ESv;Hk onf? zvdwmG ? uGo
J nfu?dk nwGm? odí? oauúm?
odMum;rif;onf? jAm[®Pa0aoe? ykPÖm;\toGif;jzihf? rmydwGm? zefqif;í [aw¬e? vufjzihf? bduFm&H?
a&u&m;uk?d *a[wGm? ,lí? oOÆad wm0? oGe;f avmif;onf&adS omf? aom'g&aum? xko
d il ,fonf? ZD0x
d ?H touf
onf? ZD0H? &Sifjcif;okdY? ygykPDok? a&muf&av\/
(54) xkda&mtcg avmif;awmf&dE´r ok0PÖwkdY om;vS&SifaMumif; qkvQifawmif;aomf jynhf&q,fvD
yg&rDaMumihf yx0Dajr vIyaf vjyif;pGm qifuek ;f cgokYd MumMumuGt
J uf toufaumif;uif qlusiyf &rwf tk;d xde;f
pufokdY vQyfysufvnf;xkd; rkCf;BudK;wpfaxmif ukefatmifykdufvTwf avmu"mwfaygif; vIyvwfa&Smif;aomf
xkda&mcg0,f ,lZemaygif; &Spfaomif;av;axmif eufacsmifvSpGm a&xJomu jyif;pGmpGifhpGifh ckHavmufqifhí
C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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32

q&m OD;omatmi
omatmiff

ig;qift
h mvdef pkv
H Qin
f í
D &efvrD jywf ckepfxyfawmif 0ef;&HarQmifonf ta&mifvnf;jzm oD'g&pf0ef; av;uRe;f
tcsm ork'g´ 0,.f ay:vmwk;H wd *D&Ad [k&d f jrif;rk&d af wmif&pf aomif;uGiw
f u
dk 0f ,f ok;H usw
d o
f ;Hk yg; ewftrsm;wkYd
aysmyf g;ypfae 0wðjynfudk pk;d onfyidk jf cif; odMum;rif;\ aejcif;urÁvm jyEI;d cgvQif ylqmjyif;wif; &Sv
d wfvQi;f aomf
rkC
d ;f ewfausmu
f aMumif;aomfwpd b,fo&Ydk [
dS k bke;f &Sed wfausmf Munhv
f wfaomfvQif avmif;awmf&Ed r´ ok0PÖwYdk
aomuvnf;ql onf;tlESvkH; jywfqkH;awmhrnf £E´jynf0,f jzpfrnfukdyif wwfwwfjrifaomf tvQifrae
igoGm;avrS awmfrnfy[k qkdxwkHNyD; ewfrif;BuD;vQif 0wdefcGifu qif;usifvmjyef ykPÖm;[efokdY ykHpHwljim;
u&m;vufyg ukdifumtNrJ awmifa0S;pGJí rkdCf;xJodMum; qif;vmjim;onf/ / oem;arwåmaomaMumifhwnf;/

32

om;i,f&Sifí 0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;om&Sdcef;
(55) oem;arwåm ewf&mZmvQif qif;vmwkHajrmH xkdrSma&mufaomf oGef;ajrmHa&pif avmif;vmusif
onf ouf0ifav& oli,fxaomf &SifvSwkHay aMumif;jzpfaxGukd arG;onfrdcif wwfwwfjrifaomf pdwfawmf
&Tiv
f ef; yGio
fh nfyef;okYd ,lvrS ;f ukid u
f m &ifciG af y:wGif wifumrdcspf EkaYd &wku
d í
f pifppfvnf;ac: om;eef;vQmukd
zufumvnf;&rf; 0atmiferf;í tvGr;f ajyum rif;&mZmtm; jcif;&moHcsKd þodq
Yk o
dk nf uReu
Yf cdk spcf if a&Tem;&Si?f
uRefawmfwkdYrSm uHawmfvSí ao&avNyD; om;&ifaoG;onf ckNyDwpfcg &Sif&ygí wkdYrSmuyGifh om;vnf;wifh[k
qkdvQifpum; vifr,m;wkdY ajyma[mwkdifyif pdwf&Tif0rf;om yef;yrmokdY aemifcgigwkdY eef;qufzkdY[k þodkYpum;
ajyma[mwkHay ykPÖm;ajcukd avmif;0,frif;jrwf ½kdwkyf0wfí xGwfxGwfoHcsKd þokdYqkdonf uRefYukdcspfcif
a&Tem;&Sif? uRefawmfwkdYrSm uHawmfvSí ao&avNyD; om;&ifaoG;onf ckNyDwcg &Sif&ygí wkdYrSmuHyGifh
om;vnf;wif[
h k qkv
d Qipf um; vifr,m;wkYd ajyma[mwkid yf if pdw&f iT 0f rf;om yef;yrmokYd aemifcgigwkYd eef;quf
zkdY[k eef;qufzkdY[k þokdYpum; ajyma[mwkHay ykPÖm;ajcukd avmif;0,frif;jrwf ½kdwkyf0yfí xGwfxGwfoHcsKd
þokq
Yd o
dk nf? wku
Yd cdk spcf if aus;Zl;wifonf om;&Siq
f &m b,f&yf&mG u vmygoenf; b,foel nf;[k aMumif;a&;
udp&ö o
dS rQudk ajymygapvkd rif;Bu;D qkad omf jrif;rk&d yf idk pf m; &Sio
f Md um;vnf; pum;wkev
Yf eS f þokjYd yefonf emcHrif;
om; cka&mufjim;onf ykPmÖ ;r[kwf tEkww
f & jynfrmS ocif olZmvifwnf; ,cifa&S;aomf oifrif;ausmv
f Qif
rnfomwGiv
f u
dk f oD0&mZf0,f rif;jzpfumv usio
fh v
D ESifh yknpm*D yg&rDudk ckþjznhrf nf rjznhrf nfudk a&mufay
vmjim; rif;Bu;D tm;vQif ykPmÖ ;t[ef wlpmG zefí oufreG Ef pS q
f ,f rQavmuf0,fudk &Sad yzefjim; rif;Bu;D tm;vQif
aiGrsm;wpfaxmif vufa&mHatmifukd &atmifcHvm ewf&mZmwnf; rSefpGmrcRwf aemHçwxyfcg ykPÖm;vmí
oufrmS ok;H q,f t[ef0,fjzifh wlayzefqif; &mZmrif;\ pGejYf cif;eef;xD; ajrBu;D rusef &atmifco
H nf rrSeyf P
k mÖ ;
[efjzihf oufrGefajcmufq,f t&G,fzefjim; ,mOf&xm;ukd rif;tm;awmif;yef &atmifBuHonf ewfrGefa'0g
ig&mZmwnf;? rSefpGmrcRwf &Sifrif;jrwfvQif awmifxG#fa'0D ra[oDESihf wlnDESpfazmf a[0EÅm0,f anmif;nm
avajz aecg0,fwiG f a&mufavrSepf mG ykPmÖ ;vmí awmif;vSmwkjH im; &Sirf if;zsm;vQif a&S;aomeef;rSm pHaomcgü
awmif;vmcHay wpfaxmifaiGukd tyfaywzef rif;BuD;xHrS xm;jyefwkHavm wpfaxmifaiGukd NrdKifajcawmxJ
t&pGí
J rif;&JEpS af zmf ckay;cg[k rmefygpdwq
f ;dk a'gouk;d í owk;d rif;om; ay;ygvm;[k &jim;apaMumif; vmí
awmif;onf? ? ewfaygif;&mZm odMum;wnf;/ /

uRefb0rSvGwf&ef odMum;rif;tm;
tusKd;taMumif;ukd ajymjycef;
(56) ewfaygif;&mZm rSepf mG pifppf igvQijf zpf[k qkv
d u
dk w
f NHk y;D oifrif;Bu;D \ jznhNhf y;D yg&rdef 'ge&Sed af Mumifh
0wðp;dk ykid f raeEkid í
f uk,
d w
f idk q
f if;vm rif;&mZm\ ykwmå oufa0 om;taoukd &Siaf pvkad Mumif; a&oGe;f avmif;
onf ewfaygif;ocif olZmvif[k qkv
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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33

q&m OD;omatmi
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33

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aomif;aomif;wnf;/ /

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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34

q&m OD;omatmi
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ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm wlpkHwnf;/ /

34

wynhfom0uwkdYtm; edu©ryg&rD taMumif;ukd
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C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65

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35

q&m OD;omatmi
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tjrpft&if; r<uif;wkHa&Smif; Zmwfawmfaygif;onf? / aomif;aomif;ewfvlaMumfjimwnf;/ /

35

t&dE´r ZmwuH ed|dwH
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(NyD;NyD)

C:\ALONGTAW AYINANDAMAR LINKARTHIT.p65