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. rather than beneath the surface as in No. i. 2. The head is usually out of water as shown in No. See page 13.The Breast Stroke.
.. Nelligan Instructor of Gymnastics^ Athletics Aquatics in Amherst College and Massachusetts Second 6dCtioti 1906 American Gymnasia Company Boston. Working Manual Graphically Illustrated from Original Drawings and Photographs. with a Clear and Concise Description of All Strokes By Richard F. Mass.The Art of Swimming A Practical.
^> i^^ / In ' c^ Copyright 1906 RICHARD FRANCIS NELLIGAN .<.
— Swimming 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 2. Foremost Porpoise Swimming The Steamboat Log-Roiling Right and Left Swimming Under Water Marching on the Water Undressing in the Water Life Saving Instructions. f. B. g. 5. 8... i. 13. pages 36. 9. 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 and 65 181333 . 12 12 14 17 Swimming Drill in the Water The Breast Stroke a. 7. 3. 11.Arm Spiral Right and Left Spiral Stroke Swimming on the Right and Left Sides Treading Water with Arms Above Surface The Spinning Top Sculling on the Back with Head Foremost Sculling on the Back with Feet Foremost Sculling on Breast with Head and Feet ... Drill on Land . 16. j. 12. 10. 14.. 62 15. Cramps Cramp Drill The Rescue of Those II Exhibition Front Somersaults Back Somersaults in Distress 20 22 23 24 25 26 28 32 33 33 34 36 36 PART 1. CONTENTS Introduction • • • • 7 PART I— Etscntials Swimming A. Over.. Water Independent Action of Arms and Legs Under. 4. The Trudgen Stroke The Crawl Stroke To Swim on Back with Legs Only Swimming on the Back with Arms and Legs Floating h. Arm and Leg Movements.Arm Side Stroke With Crawl Movement of the Feet Summary d. e. Exercises. c. 6. C.••• 10 Arm Leg Combined Exercises.. To Learn Without a Teacher b. Side Strokes Kick at Time Arm is Pulled Through .
. 7. 50 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 54 6. 5. Fancy Swimming. 60 .. . Half tone reproductions appear as follows . appear in the text and are not specially indexed. —Divines and Somersaults ^ Running Header Front Jackknife 2. Back Somersault from Spring-board Twisting Back Somersault Front Somersault from Spring-board One and one-half Somersaults PART IV Swimming Exercises for Development of Weak Parts of the Body Training for Contests 56 57 PART V The Massachusetts Humane Certificate a.... etc. Back Jackknife Backward Dive Twisting Back Dive Side Dive . opp.. b. . Life Saving Methods (five illustrations) opp. 4. 21 Breaking Away from a Drowning Person (two views) } .. 20 Swimming on the Back (two views) opp..: . Diving. 9. . 6 CONTENTS-^Continued III PART 1. . 8. Test. 37 opp. Society's Test and 61 Certificate.. Instructions for Instructions Saving Drowning Persons by to Their Relief for Restoring Persons Apparently Dead from Drowning Swimming 62 65 PART VI Method of Grading Competitive Swimming Necessary Qualifications of a Teacher of Swim- 68 70 ming ILLUSTRATIONS Illustration of Strokes. 3. The Breast Stroke (three views) opp title page Over-Arm Side Stroke (two views) .. 10.
the absolute necessity of a thorough knowledge swimming in time of crossing of rivers. not only for the etc.INTRODUCTION RECENT the - investigations by of some our per of leading educators to light time cent have brought about the deplora- ble fact that twenty-five of the students in our men's colleges are unable to swim a stroke. If such are the facts regarding a class so favored as this. also as the best but means for securing physical de- velopment and strength. what must be the conditions in our secondary schools. that many others have a very imperfect knowledge of the art and could be absolutely of no use to others in distress and danger of drowning. curriculum. recognizing war. cutting of cables. The United of States Government.. and among the youth of our land generally? How young women must there be who are unable to swim a stroke? It is to be hoped that in the near future our edularge a proportion of our cational institutions generally will give the subject and make swimming and the knowledge of life-saving methods a part of the attention. places the art in a high position in the requirements at the army and .
the school. as football. They might. correct methods be em- The humane societies of the world have almuch to educate the public in methods of life-saving by their publications and medready done als. To stimulate a livelier interest in this forms of exercises. and the certificates offered for proficiency in the art. not only of self-preservation. baseball. But it is also desirable that young men acquire a practical knowledge of some exercises that both contribute to their fare in youth own physical wel- and also may prove to be especially useful in later life. or game will produce such if wonderfully good results in health. The time letics is well spent in those forms of athclub. but also of saving the lives of others. Among them swimming deserves first place. . to the acquirement of the author presents this volume. which bring honor to the or the college. go still further by adopting some universal test given at set places and times each year which would be the means of drawing together men and women from all parts of the world to compete for their — — certificate. strength and pov/er as swimming. ployed.INTRODUCTION navy academies at No single exercise West Point and Annapolis. little most valuable of all and to give some assistance it. however. and track contests. owing to the fact that it may be the means.
Nelligan the practical knowledge of swimming with the ability He differs from several leading exto express it. interest which has arisen in most useful and beneficial sport. the book will doubtless be most welcome to swimmers and to With the increased instructors. but only careful study and of their mechanics. distance life saving. but novice. . ponents of swimming after in his description of trial the strokes. It is considers also the seldom that one individual combines to such a marked degree as does Mr..PUBLISHER'S NOTE The writer of this book has for many years at both long studied and taught all the various strokes used in the water. in Part VI. We will be pleased to correspond and assist as we can those is who may desire further in- formation than this contained in this book. The grades which aquatics are proposed in the latter part of the book. Amherst College was the first to adopt it and others are likely to do so as soon as practicable. He is an expert is and short racing and familiar with methods of eral occasions. ready this school subject has attracted the attention of and college authorities as being a ready and practical method of increasing knowledge of swimming. are an innovation in Aland deserve careful consideration. which he has successfully used on sevThe book is carefully written so it as to appeal to experts.
at the elbows until the thumbs and push the hands forward and upward with the palms turned downward.: PART I. Each exercise should be repeated sixteen times and at about the rate of sixteen to the minute. : "Position. A. Four: Halt. Arm Exercises. shoot the hands forward as in a. Three On three. Lower the arms and stand : attention. turn the palms slightly outward and sweep the arms around in a quarter in front of the chest. Position and sweep the arms around as in Exercise One. and can be taught the in the schoolroom. Two: On two. I ESSENTIALS Swimming The Drill on Land* be found very useful proper movements of first following drill will in teaching beginners the the arms and legs for the strokes in swim- ming. bend the elbows until the hands are again in front of the chest with the palms downward. and the head bent slightly backward. Note. Position: On the command bend the arms apart." hands are about six inches circle until they are at right angles with the body. in gymnasium and at the side of the bath. a. Ready b. lO — . One On one.
should be executed alternately. 11 Leg Exercises. Halt. —Each is exercise attained. the left heel the left knee. one. Two: On lower the drill. turning touching the inside of the right knee. a. close the elbows to the sides as in Exercise Three. left and at the same time of the leg leg as in Exercise Two Three : On three. place the hands on the hips. Ready One On one bend : it outward. Combined Arm and Leg Movements: Position: On the command "Position. b. and the toes pointing downward. shoot the hands forward as in Exercise One." stand at attention. two. the left foot to the right . straighten the left leg backward and downward until the great toe touches the ground at the left. sweep the arms around as at the same time raise the left knee as in exercise One of the leg drill. : Two On Three: On three. "Position*' Position: On the command a. two. in Exercise Two. and at the same time draw. "Halt." Ready One: On shoot the arms forward as in Exercise One. proficiency then with the right. draw the the left foot to the right. Four: Note. On command. b.: : ESSENTIALS B. should be repeated until with the left leg and after which the movements first C.
On the word. after which the legs should be used alternately. The Breast Stroke. After attaining proficiency in the the pupils line Land Drill up and count off by twos be- fore entering the water. hands under the chins the command." in turn try to let the At the even num- bers furnish the support. command.12 THE ART OF SWIMMING Four: Halt Lower hands and stand at attention. When this is thoroughly mastered." let the odd their right of the even numbers. Ready. proficient with the arms and left leg should be brought into play. at the Having entered the command. It should be the it is first ginners. supporting their heads above the water. "Go. The breast stroke is the key all to swimming of taught to be- kinds. —When right the 2. "Support. var- ious other strokes can be easily learned. The highest authorities on physical culture agree in thinking that for all around physical development and the production of a well set-up carriage ." let the even numbers endea- numbers place On vor to swim to the opposite side of the pool. water. since movements are more natural than any of the others. Swimming may Drill in the Water. while the odd numbers walk along beside them. "Change Ranks. A. Note. because its the easiest to acquire. leg. let the even numbers submerge all but the head. while the odd numbers swim back to the starting point.
which the breast stroke should be lies flat on his breast with the legs straight and together. thus making easy to hold the head erect. the arms and legs are strengthened by being used alternately to propel the body. arm movements. The palms are now turned outward and the straight arms are drawn through the water and carried well back like a pair of oars in rowing.ESSENTIALS of the equal 13 human body no movements known can The effort of keeping the breast stroke. the chest is forced forward in breasting the waves. it the head above the surface strengthens the neck muscles. the arms being extended in front of the head and In starting the swimmer manner about four inches beneath the surface. and the swimmer is forced to breathe deeply and regularly against the strong resistance of the water. When . while it becomes impossible to make fast time over a long course. the swimmer soon tires. The the following description will give an idea of in performed. and the lungs not well inflated with each stroke. If the breathing is not in unison with the leg and Brea«t Stroke.
with arms or legs. Even under such conditions. and remain stationary in this position. To Learn Without a Teacher. in order to keep the head above the surface. The different movements should be carried out deliberately Frantic and with no jerky action whatever. and brought together sharply closing of a shears. While the foregoing description relates to a perfect performance of the breast stroke when under the eye of a competent instructor who will insist upon accuracy in detail and also give reasons for the theory which he applies. and expelled as they o^ ^oria^^^^ p rea ch the^ idub of t he boJj ^it/^" *7 ^ : B. the knees are turned outward and drawn slowly about half way still up to the body. while the closing of the legs is being accomplished. should be 4rawn into the lungs when the arms ^ are tnrur4 forward. unless properly coached. is possible to learn the breast stroke well enough . with the knees separated.U the THE ART OF SWIMMING arm stroke is nearly finished. The air will sometimes give up in despair. struggles. soon cause exhaustion and the beginner. yet good instruction is not possible in is all cases and the his enthusiastic beginner thrown upon own it resources. As the legs are are thrust outward and backward the arms are shot forward with the palms downward. are then straightened diagonally back- ward with a like the kick. The legs.
body inclined slowly forward and the arms extended in front and near the surface. a taken. After looking around and at the bottom for a few seconds. the operation should be repeated until the head can be placed under water with full confidence. If the eyes are gazing at the bottom it will be seen that. clear the bottom sloping gradually. Should the head be raised the feet will sink. It will be no attempt is made to raise the head out of the water the body will float for a considerable time. bend is the legs until the head and open the eyes. Next the feet should be raised from the bottom and with the eyes open the body should be the straightened out near the surface. the learner should wade out until the water reaches to the beneath the surface He should then take a deep breath. 15 from a considerable from and Having carefully selected a place free is currents and weeds where the water enter and waist. full After facing the shore.ESSENTIALS to enable one to reach shore distance. After some practice at floating in this position found that while in this position if the next step should be to bring the arms. with the palms turned ^ij^iiiiSbSflC^ackward to the sides as in the regular breast stroke. The next that it is step will teach the novice the fact lie possible to in the water close to the breath should be surface for some little time without sinking. even .
for the reason that in many instances swimmers have .. the body will move toward When the shore can be approached in this manner. Only after considerable practice in shallow water should the swimmer venture beyond his depth. after which progress in the regular breast stroke should be found easy. —Endeavor to reach shore with the head the head y from currents and weeds. —Use arms and legs reaching shore.—^Use the arms to reach shore. Fourth. Second — Lie on the surface face down and Third. the legs should be brought into play as in the ordinary breast stroke when. and even then it is a wise precaution to have a boat or a good swimmer at hand. slightly raised. A few days careful practice of this method will enable the enthusiast to reach the shore with the head slightly raised above the water. bend the legs until selecting a place free is float. 16_ THE ART OF SWIMMING the shore. in Fifth. with the eyes open. if the eyes arc still open. and it is also wise to have a friend at hand in case of an emergency. with no movement of the legs. Wade out waist deep. as otherwise after the feet are removed from the bottom there is danger of being carried into deep water. A summary of the above method is as follows First. The writer wishes to re- peat that great care should be exercised in — under water. an appreciable gain in speed will be noticed.
Over-Arm Side Stroke. (See page 19.) .
the head should be raised no higher it than is is necessary for breathing purposes. when . generally useful the Over-Arm Side This stroke. when compared with more modern methods. however. and it is related that he accomplished his marvelous swim across ner. While the breast stroke it IS is useful and even abstill solutely necessary for beginners in the art. and forget their best laid plans and even the directions of competent teachers. Of all strokes known is to swimmers. It is.. for the first when venturing into deep water time. and well to keep the shoulders well under water. that movements must be executed slowly and de- liberately. the most Stroke. Side Strokes. By swim ten all the above method the writer learned the rudiments of the breast stroke well enough to five miles and others have done much betThe main points to keep in mind are.ESSENTIALS 17 been known to lose confidence. no longer considered by experts as being of much use for speed. C. It is the English Channel in this man- only reasonable to suppose that had he been proficient in the more modern methods of natation his performance would have been even more astonishing. although difficult to acquire. a remarkable fact that all of Captain Webb's long distance swims were accomplished with this stroke.
the / / Over-Arm Side Stroke. and Australian champion. when tired.18 THE ART OF SWIMMING and with less exertion once mastered enables the swimmer to cover long distances rapidly than is required in any other method. three in 1904. No. The most expert sidestroke swimmers usually swim upon the right side so Newport. McCusker. by a change from one side to the other. showing left arm and both legs. held all which was won by Nuttall. champion of the world. to rest somewhat. at Cavill. Nuttall. thus enabling the swimmer. is At the start the right arm extended rapidly . former champion of America. The movements left should be practiced while lying upon the well as as upon the right side. For a description of that the this stroke swimmer is lying we will assume upon the right side. The best exponents of the modern side stroke are J. from start to finish. J. men used the over-arm side stroke that the heart action may not be impeded. i. the In a three-mile race.
is at a right angle with the body. as the greatest power is applied when the arm. The hand should be flat fingers closed. the turned so that the thumb is nearest the body. the left knee is drawn slowly the left As . above the elbow. The left arm stroke should not be made too long. and the ward bent. When the hand palm is is is within about a foot of the thigh. the left arm enters the water about a foot in front of the face. right the right arm is being pulled through. and is drawn towards the left hip. is arm is again shot forThe left arm. and just as arm moves forward for the next stroke. slightly carried forward above the surface as the Over. the elbow bent in the form of a right angle.Arm Side Stroke. and then drawn 19 downward towards and the the right thigh without any bending at the elbow. for another stroke. posite hand reaches a point opthe shoulder.ESSENTIALS forward. showing right arm. No. 2.
From stroke it the above description of this complex is evident that there are three distinct movements merging one into the other. right arm. is inferior to the A common fault in this. as in nearly all strokes.THE ART OF SWIMMING up in the same manner as just as it is in climbing stairs. As the left hand is about to leave the water for the next stroke. but careful experiments have proven that this method. two. is to draw up the knees too flip far when preparing for the of the legs. thus wasting strength by . It will be readily seen that the leg propelling power is furnished mostly by the back of the left The legs leg and the instep of the right foot. the body moves along steadily without pausing between strokes. order. performed in this manner. left arm and legs in one. three. the heel of the left foot meeting the instep of the right foot. When Kick at Time Arm is Pulled Through Water. the left knee is straightened with a jerk and the legs immediately brought together with a snap. is while at the same time the right foot drawn backward when about to kick a foot- ball. Some swimmers execute the kick at the same time that the left arm is pulled through the water. viz. while good. other. remain straight with the feet extended while the right arm is drawn through the water.
when the head is raised partly for the sake of vision and partly to prevent the waves from covering it. breast.ESSENTIALS nullifying the effect of the kick 21 body to stop and causing the between strokes. of course. in a rough sea. will always win the race. and thus impedes progress by presenting a large surface to the body should rehead half under water. . Beginners should take advantage of every opstart to finish the From main on the side with the portunity of seeing expert side-stroke swimmers in the water. ward movement should be performed while the kick should like the flip of be executed tail. excepting. The fastest swimmers separate the feet not much further than they do in brisk walking. since more can be learned by watching an expert swim the length of a tank than by reading and amount of detailed description. the sides as in the breast stroke for it causes the body to turn on the water. This forslowly. other things being equal. The swimmer who by and practice succeeds in making continuous progress. vigorously is a pickerel's to It a mis- take in side swimming spread the legs to . When we consider the fact that in order to make a very great evident that in swim a mile it is necessary to number of strokes. it becomes order to make fast time there careful study should be no perceptible pause between strokes. instead of moving steadily forward.
as described. In the one. Having completed the kick and closing of the legs. . it will be noticed that the legs re- main straight while the right arm is drawn through the water. they sults this For the best remethod calls for that perfect muscular co-ordination which is so noticeably lacking in many individuals whose physical training has should be used independently. ma- par excellence. It will re- be readily seen that this method calls for an independent action of legs and arms. the following variations of the Over-Arm Side already dethat Stroke have proven to the author faster for a short distance than the methods scribed. Therefore it occurred to the writer that instead of allowing the legs to be idle part of the time they should. two. if possible. force the body forward. they were instantly drawn up and the movement peated. three order of arms and legs. consequently the legs are doing nothing in the meantime to propel the body. Since writing the preceding description.THE ART OF SWIMMING Independent Action of Arms and Legs. been neglected during the period of adolescence. in action. hence the experiment. be used to if greater speed was to be obtained. and future experiments may show for the even for distances over a mile jority. The writer's conclusion size. as the arms and legs differ in length and strength. that. the stroke it is. and all parts of the body are continually is.
. in preparation for the positive part of the upper arm stroke. next to impossible to master the Over- Arm in Side Stroke in any form. instead of above the surface as in the over-arm style. is after faithful found impossible to acquire the over-arm side stroke the swimmer speedy a method as the over-arm breast stroke. that is the swimmer likely comes discouraged and practice it more than If revert to the breast stroke. becomes obvious when we consider the fact that in the former method the resistance is greater than in the latter. it is thrust forward for the next stroke beneath. to be superior to the Under-Arm Side Stroke. instead of above. is may try the Under-Arm Side Stroke which. though not as nevertheless found. The lower arm is used as in the over-arm side stroke. in unison with the kick and closing of the legs. as the upper preparation for arm is carried forward the propelling backward with so beto movement.ESSENTIALS Many swimmers. by most swimmers. find it 23 without competent instruction. Having completed the downward and backward movement of the upper arm. the surface of the water. the lower sufficient downward pressure arm is not exerted and consequently is the head sinks and the natural breathing much interfered with. The disadvantage of reaching forward under water. for the simple reason that.
From position the again snapped together. —The With Crawl Movement writer is of now experimenting The arms side stroke. This latter movement is then front reversed. art swimming all writers on the have placed too much value on . the closing of the legs with a still Having completed the right snap. bending the knees nine inches feet are the feet this are about apart.24 THE ART OF SWIMMING Side-Stroke THE Feet. with the following variation of the side-stroke which gives promise of great speed. the upper foot passing to the and the lower foot to the rear. Up to the present time. This final movement of the stroke should be finished with the feet together and immediately the legs should The whole be drawn up for the next stroke. but instead. until the feet are about eighteen inches apart. the top leg continues slowly to the rear and the under leg slowly to the slightly until front. movement of the legs should be timed so as not to interfere with the regular movement of the arms. they are not allowed to remain while arm is executing the pull. the propulsion coming from the instep of the upper foot and from the sole of the lower foot. are used as in the ordinary over-arm The legs are spread in preparation for the kick. Careful observation will show that the second leg movement is similar to the leg and foot movement in the Crawl Stroke described later.
providing. A stroke summary of the above methods of swimming is as follows: side . as the hands can be in the breast and under-arm side strokes. fact that They have if evidently overlooked the one were passing rapidly through the water. The legs cannot be feathered through the water on the recovery. of course. Drawing the legs up vigorously has the same effect upon the body in swimming that reaching forward for a stroke with a pair of oars without feathering has in rowing.ESSENTIALS drawing the knees well up to the body negative part of all J5 in the strokes excepting the Crawl. it will be well for the enthusiast to give each variation of the side-stroke watch. the blades were kept under water. hence the necessity of a comparatively slow and not too wide leg movement. the a careful trial over different distances under the This will prove interesting to the swimmer and will lead to valuable discussion among members of swimming clubs. one of the best ways of doing so would be to draw the thighs towards the body and spread the legs as far apart as possible. As the conformation of the individual may have much to do with the selection of the best form of side-stroke. Summary. and wished to stop suddenly.
side-stroke. while the arms are thrust forward alternately above the surface. famous "Trudgen" introduced into England in He learned it from the 1873. Trudgen.26 THE ARf olf? SWIMMING First left h two. Third— Independent action of arms and Fourth—Under-arm Fifth— Side-stroke and crawl movement of in at left legs. x. the feet. and single For distances in open water over one hundred up to about five hundred yards. natives of South America. the body rolls from side to side. arm and legs one. Second—Kick the same time that the arm pulled through.J> Trudgen Stroke. by J. until and then drawn downwards and backwards the hand nearly touches the leg. in his time. The Trudgen Stroke. and by means of it won many championships In the Trudgen stroke. d. No. no stroke known at present can equal the '~*v£. showing right arm. three order. when it is . is —Right arm. yards. when well performed.
the legs are being drawn up for the kick. While the left arm is finishing the pull. The body Trudgen Stroke. 2. and the right arm reaches out for the next stroke. and while in this position the left arm is carried forward through the air for another stroke. which is performed slightly in advance of the drawing through of the of the other arm. 3.ESSENTIALS 27 again thrust forward for another stroke. while the left arm is being pulled through. among guards the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands. life- the Indian tribes of South America. When the right arm is beneath the surface. and the at our summer resorts. No. A thrust with . Modifications Trudgen are in vogue Trudgen Stroke. No. the body is turned well over on the right side. showing left arm drawn out of water). Half top view showing leg movement. (right arm just being is then turned partly on the left side.
without any spreading of the legs. This is especially valuable for life saving purposes over short distances. and has been introduced into the United States from Australia within a year or two. using the Trudgen. The Crawl The Stroke. and the leg pro- power is furnished principally by short upward and downward movements of the feet. When swimming son in danger of drowning. stroke which produces the greatest speed is over a short distance known as the "Crawl" Crawl Stroke. In this stroke the swimmer pelling lies flat in the water with his face submerged. but preserve his strength or two lost.28 THE ART OF SWIYMING arm movement if is . as the extra kick very exhausting. the swimmer should never do lives this. e. the ankles and knees serving as the hinges. may be Swimmers of exceptional endurance have been known to cover distances over 440 yards and up to one mile. the legs combined with each sometimes used tage is is but it is doubtful any advanto a per- gained by this method. The alternate .
swimming is where guiding on the bottom. The . but it is the crawl stroke a noticeable fact that those it who have succeeeded in mastering in some form have reduced seconds. For long distance swimming this stroke is almost useless. of the stroke as here given The description may have to be varied size by individuals according to and build. owing principally to the fact that the breath must be held. and hence that in their previous records it many is reasonable to conclude some form. distances when striving for speed over from twenty-five to one hundred yards. un- the crawl stroke in any of many forms doubtedly the best.ESSENTIALS 29 extreme range of these upward and downward movemenia of the feet is about eighteen inches. In addition the swimmer finds In tank lines are painted its it difficult to keep a straight course. it In a close contest over long distances the may be the means of winning a race. The arms are carried forward alternately above the surface and backward through the water like the paddles of a side-wheel steamer. to gain at the start or when near At present no two men swim exactly alike. as it is very exhausting. all is the fastest of known swimming strokes. excepting at intervals when the head is raised forward or at one side for breathing purposes. which time and experimental It study alone shall determine. by enabling th^ swimmer finish.
the body stops between strokes and the swimmer soon tires from the increased leg action. The legs are timed so as to alternate with the opposite arm. will propel the body forward without any movement of the Hence we must conclude that a proper and arm motion combined will produce the variations are noticeable greater speed. leg the feet In the crawl. and many Trudgen swim- mers can do the same. A arms short and rapid paddle-wheel motion of the Is combined with a very fast upward and downward "fluttering" of the feet.80 THE ART OF SWIMMING of the advocates crawl stroke have already proven beyond doubt that the 4MiM«sas kick as performed in the breast stroke is no longer of The any use whatever for racing purposes. A long Trudgen arm stroke combined with a fc slow pedalling motion of the feet. Richard Cavill of Australia and Handy of Chicago can swim faster without the use of the legs than with them. The following among exponents of the crawl stroke: A double over-arm stroke is combined with a wide up and down leg movement. On the other hand it is a noticeable fact that the upward and downward movement of arms. and a quarter turn of the body from side to side. preparatory to the kick and closing of the legs. . reason for this is that as the legs are drawn up and spread to the sides.
This extra upward and downward movement must have helped him greatly as he won the race by about twenty-five yards in the American record time of five minutes. fifty and two-fifths seconds. Daniels did not allow his legs to re- main idle the fractional part of a second. as is done by most Trudgen swimmers. before separating the feet for the next Trugden stroke. alternate motion of the legs from the to the conclusion that a double up to one mile. and an up and down continuous. Instead he performed upward and downward alternate movements with the feet. said recently. give the best results. and at about two hundred yards changed from the crawl stroke to something new in swimming." In the A. using the crawl stroke for one hundred yards. kick. 1906. with moderate reach. Having completed the kick in the Trudgen. A. in and the arms His Trugden the combination stroke. rolls considerably In the crawl stroke Daniels side to side and legs are used independently. as in the crawl stroke. viz. by Schwartz of the Missouri then gradually drew away. He strokes. Daniels.ESSENTIALS Daniels. U. "I knee. four hundred and forty yards championship contest held in the New York Athletic Club pool on Feb. a combination of the crawl and Trudgen closely pressed was Athletic Club. 2^. is performed from . the present amateur distances 31 champion at all have come overarm stroke.
helps to make him pre-eminent in longer distances. as section. folds the arms upon the chest.82 THE ART OF SWIMMING . and no doubt.) The swimmer turns on the back. swimmers use the This is Is legs in much the same way as they are used in the over-arm side stroke. There is an appearance of ease and grace work rarely seen In sprint swimming. a very useful exercise and valuable. method of towing a person. This IS a very useful exercise and should be for the reason that the well practiced by those wishing to qualify as life savers . most popular Swimmins on Back. shown under Life-saving . To Swim on the Back with Legs Only. f. and with the legs executes the same movements used in the breast stroke. Is to swim upon the back with the hands placed beneath the arm-pits. while upon the right side is and his forward reach longer than that of most crawl stroke swim- mers. in his this. with Legs only. Many fast person. although some swimmers prefer placing the hands at the sides of the head of the drowning (See Life-saving section.
(See page 33.Swimming on Back. with Legs and Arms.) .
Swimming on the Back with Arms and
movements of the
for the kick, the
should be the same as in the preceding exercise.
the legs are
are stretched out beyond the head and beneath
the surface with the palms turned upward.
open hands are now turned so that the thumbs are near the surface, when the straight arms are drawn down by the sides like a pair of oars,while A at the same time the legs perform the kick.
Swimming on Back, with Legs and Anns.
to pass the
arms above the
surface in reaching back for the
reach back with
of the hands.
the arms alternately.
Floating in fresh, as well as in salt water,
one of the most useful and agreeable of the
accomplishments of the expert swimmer, and can
be learned by almost anybody, especially women.
accomplished by lying on the back, keeping
the lungs well inflated, and the
arms stretched back of the head, while the knees are drawn up
THE ART OF SWIMMING
and turned so that the legs will be submerged. Nearly, if not all, books on swimming state that the legs should be straight. While this may accomplish the purpose in
water, the writer
has demonstrated the fact
times that in
fresh water, excepting in the case of a very fat
person, or one with unusually small legs and
large lungs, the legs, unless
up, will sink
that in the
bent position the legs and feet are nearer the
same time the arms are exis
tended back of the head, the body will be bal-
anced much better than
possible with the legs
In rare instances
on account of the small capacity of the lungs, and also at the same time because of the density of the bones and muscles. Still, it is possible for these, by slight movements of the hands, to keep the head up for a long time, even though suffering with cramps.
usually attack the legs
experienced swimmer, with a slight knowledge
it is a simple matter to stop using them. he is almost sure to attack him if approached too soon and to do all in his power to thwart the good intentions of his would-be-rescuer. many lives The if so-called cramp in the from drownstomach is usually. even with the lungs greater than that of fresh but water. a pain in the bowels. Should some friend swim to his aid. A cool head and knowledge of the fact that the specific gravity of the deflated. does all in his power to climb upon the surface. without taking any precaution whatever to keep the water from entering the lungs. of course causes exhaustion and a sinking of the head. afloat If the arms are attacked legs. on the other . and alternately resting and stretching the offending limb or limbs until the trouble has passed away. and yet keep by a proper use of the it Even when both the legs and arms are cramped at the same time. but. in addition. will exlittle in turning on his back. is possible to still keep the head above the surface of the water by floating. not always. He also has a great inclination to open his mouth and call lustily for assistance. is human little body. would preserve ing. This. and. This pain does not alarm the expert.ESSENTIALS perience but difficulty 35 of bodily mechanics and a cool head. thus aggravating the trouble. The ave- rage swimmer the when cramped in any part of the body or limbs tries to use the offending part all more strenuously.
The Rescue The the of Those in Distress. it it the inexpert against the possible attack of is not to go too far from shore unless it cramp becomes necessary. the writer can find no evidence of a well authenticated case of cramp In the abdominal muscles. scares the novice until he becomes excited.! 36 THE ART OF SWIMMING until exhausted. and makes him struggle After much inquiry among intelligent swimmers and an experience since childhood in all kinds of fresh and salt water swimming. hand. Medals It in all other branches of human endeavor this. . Proficiency in the following drill will be useful in teaching swimmers how to act when leg! leg! at- tacked by cramp. excepting perhaps in very severe seems possible for the expert swimmer to combat it successfully. swim breast stroke! Rest right swim breast stroke! Rest left Class swim on back Rest both legs. Class swim on back Rest both arms Qass float! Class Class ! ! j. and even occur. pale into insignificance when compared with has been rightly called the Victoria Cross of swimming. ranging in temperature from fifty to eighty degrees. greatest honor that a swimmer can life attain is Humane Society's medal for saving. A wise precaution for should form.
Such an effort tends to sink the . ter to simply keep the If help is near. the Trugden stroke (See page 26) is most frequently used on account of its speed. and. If the distance is not too great. though the expert swimmer seldom removes more than the shoes and coat. When the drowning person becomes pretty well ex- Method of Rescue. as much clothing as possible should be removed. hausted. if 37 time permits. to prevent being clutched. cuer should bear in mind that it is not necessary to lift a body above the surface of the water in order to tow It. The rescuer should be extremely careful not to approach near enough to be seized by the one in distress while struggling on the surface. or at the sides of the head. placing the hands under the arm-pits of the sinking person. the rescuer should approach from behind.ESSENTIALS In attempting a rescue. swim upon his back to the nearest landing. it is bet- head of the drowning one The resabove water until assistance arrives.
while the rescuer up.88 rescuer. he will soon lose consciousness the lungs with water. and swim upon to sink is and exhaust him. tends A very good method under the chin of the drowning man. Far too little attention has been given to prac- tice in life saving. thus causing the attacking person to sink. to place the forearm the side. is buoyed The elbows should then be . impossible to break it is away when near the surface. or grasp his hair. thus drawthan ing the rescued too near. and the hands turned inward the arms should be and a vigorous push with one or both knees or feet against the body will do the rest. from whom it is bent. where. his clutches and rise The so-called "dead man's grip'' with him to the suris a mis- . Breaking-away movements should be executed with the utmost speed. raised outward. of course. to prevent the rescuer from being drawn under water. Should both be seized. in his excitement. When attacked by a very powerful person. however. Another mistake is to bend the arms. the rescuer should press downward. All swimmers should learn how til to do this by practice upon one another unwrists proficient. if THE ART OF SWIMMING and makes his task more exhausting he simply keeps the nostrils above water. The rescuer can then easily escape from face. which. best to take a good breath and go with him and fill belo>v the surface.
89 most deadly grip is that in which the caught around the neck with the arms. is In this . It will then be easy to get free from his grasp. the rescuer should deliver a blow in the face with his head. If swimmers in distress would not become excited it would be far easier to effect rescues. letting the legs float. In effecting a rescue a grave sometimes made by trying to swim too way the rescuer becomes exhausted and places both lives in danger. place one nostrils hand over the and the other upon the If possible. going under water. and force the head quickly backward. allow himself to be caught in this manner. and at the same time around the body with the rescuer is A legs. The expert Hfe saver will rarely. if ever. mistake rapidly. This may seem is cruel. and. he should take a breath and. ever. all breaking-away methods the endeavor to pinch the nose so that the other will be forced to open his mouth rescuer should to breathe. and thus permit the water to enter the lungs.ESSENTIALS nomer. They would simply need to place the hands very lightly upon the rescuer's shoulders. shoulder or behind the back of the person. but when any clutched the rescuer justified in using means in his power In first to free himself to save the lives of both. should he be full How- caught thus. allow him to tow them to a place of safety.
hands perform sculling motions from front to rear and upward. . and all swimmers should strive for proficiency in some of them. knees drawn up. While in this position the the Front Somersault* Back Somersault. Front Somersaults. in order that the body may be under complete control in case of emergency. After a few breast strokes and a full breath.PART Exhibition II EXHIBITION SWIMMING swimming is a never-ending source of enjoyment and usefulness. and the body bent forward and the head lowered. The air in the lungs should be changed when the head comes above the surface. arms should be stretched out at the sides. thus causing the body to turn ' completely over. is Apparently there no limit to the movements which the body may perform in the water. I.
After swimming a few strokes on the back. the swimmer by swimming a few strokes upon the The left arm is now thrust forward Over. No. 2. To perform should breast. start the Over-arm Spiral. the knees should be drawn up as in the front somersaults.EXHIBITION SWIMMING thus enabling the cise at will. at the same time that the kick is per- formed. while the head is thrown well back. The arms should be extended at the sides with the palms turned upward and the sculling movement of the front somersault reversed. 41 swimmer to repeat the exer- Back Somersaults. Over-arm Spiral. i. this will cause the body to turn on the . above the surface and pulled downward and to the left. which will enable the swimmer to turn over backward. 3.Arm Spiral. The movement should be repeated and the breath changed between somersaults.
In the right arm the legs should be straight until the movement Over. Right and Left Spiral Stroke. is When a fairly rapid stroke. No. but the make a complete turn as through. pull with the right arm is nearly completed. in the preceding spiral.Arm Spiral. well performed the spiral 4.42 THE ART OF SWIMMING back. The start in this stroke should be the same as Right and Left Spiral. causing the body to turn face downward.when they are drawn up for the next stroke. and is then drawn downward and towards the left thigh. The right arm is now thrown above the head and backward. The right arm the left is swimmer should arm is pulled thrust forward now . 2.
of course. and while in the act of returning from the left to the right side for another stroke. 5. tends to sink the body. the left arm and leg alternately with the right arm and and leg should be forced from right to left slightly downward. that is by alternate upward and downward movements of the arms and legs. causing the body to make a full turn in the opposite direction. which. The legs should downward movement and Left Sides. in order Swimming swim to the Right While lying with the breast down. the To accomplish swimmer should start from a per- pendicular by treading water. maintained . owing. the palms should be turned down so that the hands will cut through the water and not impede progIn the active part of the stroke. This is a somewhat difficult principally.EXHIBITION SWIMMING 43 above the surface. the arms position. this feat. The arms should be extended well in front of the body. arms and should- ers should be well above the surface. are turned to the left so that the . To swim to the left side the movements are reversed. and then drawn downward and to the right. thumb of the left hand will be turned downward and that of the right hand upward. to the fact that the movement. execute a kick with each of the arms. Treading Water with Arms above Surface. to to the right side. 6. the palms ress.
outward and then inward. raises the feet above the surface. 8. Good judgment should be used as to when and where this trick is performed. When well performed. in muddy water or far from shore. and. with sculling motions of the hands from right to left. causes the body to re- Spinning Top. as it may be the means of leading novices into deep water. above working raised principally are thrust upward and downward and head while the from the knees. Sculling on the Back with Head Fore- most. the feet performing a sort of spiral movement. raised legs.44 THE ART OF SWIMMING The arms should now be the well being under water. 7. the onlooker is led to believe that the performer is standing on the bottom. By reversing the movements of the hands. revolve in the opposite direction. The swimmer takes his position lying on the . The swimmer turns upon the back. of course. draws the knees well up to the chin. The Spinning Top. volve to the right. the body will.
head foremost. thus causing the body to move along head first.EXHIBITION SWIMMING 45 back with the legs straight. The whole movement should be from the elbows and wrists only. In as Sculling on Back. third of the Sculling on Back. great pressure should be brought to bear on the downward movement of the hands. feet foremost. so as to keep the middle body from sinking. Small movements of the hands heighten the effect of the exercise from a spectacular point of view. the toes above the surface. exercise the To perform this movements of the hands. then turns the palms in the direction of the feet and presses vigorously downward and in the direction of the feet. as described in the preceding exercise. . and the circles described by the tips of the fingers not more this. 9. the back hollow and the arms at the He then first carries the hands backward sides. in the other sculling exercises. and slightly upward with the palms down. Sculling on the Back with Feet Foremost. than six or eight inches in diameter.
46 THE ART OF SWIMMING feet foremost. is rather more difficult than when lying upon the back. imitate a porpoise the To breath. Sculling on Breast. should be reversed. both in the direction of the head. Sculling is an excellent exercise for strengthening the arms and producing an erect carriage of the body. thus causing the body to move 10. II. water. the head drawn well back. Sculling while lying on the breast. Porpoise Swimming. head face by a vigorous kick above the sur- and a backward and downward movement head rises of the arms. suddenly rises. When the above the surface the arms should be . The movements of the arms in both exercises are much the same as those necessary in order to make progress while sculling on the back. as well as in the direction of the feet. after swimmer takes a full swimming a few strokes under first. Sculling on Breast with Head and Feet Foremost. In both movements the back should be hollow. while the heels are slightly above the surface. and.
while sculling head the feet are drawn alternately up to the thighs. be changed 12. the legs straight and the whole body quite rigid. while the legs remain straight.EXHIBITION SWIMMING 47 held at the sides. his back. the hands being at the sides and open. appear. very rapid so as to agitate the water as as possible. The breath should above the water. when the head is The Steamboat. will much A downward pressure of the palms keep the head up. and. 13. Log-RoUing Right and Left. the back and finally the legs will appear and dis- Porpoise Swimming. as in the action of walking up- stairs. the feet are then kicked vigorously back- ward. The swimmer turns upon first. and if the stroke has been made with sufficient vigor. The swimmer turns on his back. then. The head should now be inclined downward. the soles of the feet being the main source The leg movement should be of propulsion. the stomach drawn in and the back rounded. by an almost . to be followed by another stroke and a reappearance of the porpoise.
for by so doing grave injury may be done to the lungs. in cases ^ Marching on the Water.48 THE ART OF SWIMMING imperceptible turn of the head and body to the by a downward pressure of the hand and an upward pressure of the right. 15. number of turns after which the movements should be reversed. Marching on the Water. right side. should be made to the right side. and is Swimming diving for objects where the water free from and may be the where the body sinks before the rescuer arrives. Care should. causing the body to turn to the left. pro- arms folded or pressed against the . with the sides. weeds is an excellent means of saving life practice. Swimming under Water. aided left 14. lies The swimmer on the back. short distances under water. Attempts to swim great distances under the water should be discouraged by all teachers of swimming. A the body will turn over to the right side. and. however be taken not to remain under until nearly exhausted.
^v ^i*-^^V^ OF THE OF UNIVERSITY \lifopH'^^ .
EXHIBITION SWIMMING gresses feet foremost. and well to practice to occasionally. While practising. . second the breaking the shoethe trousers and so strings possible —fourth on. is swimmer's it life be useful. 1 6. by alternate the legs. Undressing in the Water. be able to undress in the water in the To it is may at some time method vest. as in walking. The usual remove shoes third if the — first ^by the coat. a friend should be near to render assistance should the swimmer become entangled in his clothing. 49 movements of The pressure should be applied in the backward movement of the legs. and the forward movement should be done gently.
After a short run the swimmer springs from feet. first. at the highest point the abdomen drawn the body bent forward and the diver enters the water as in the running header. the body should be bent as in the front jackknife dive. This dive differs from the running header in that the spring is made so as to launch the body upward in an almost perpendicular position.—^These III AND SOMERSAULTS exercises. with the heels projecting well over the end. Running Header. or from other elevation above the water. diver stands at the end of the springboard. inclines both the body forward and enters the water head 2. to enter the water head first. 1. 3. Back The Jacknife. The swimmer stands as in the back jackknife so . Backward Dive. for their best performance. thus causing the swimmer 4. require a spring board but may be done from the bank of river or lake.PART DIVING Note. Front Jacknife. is When in. but nearer the starting point. ter a spring Af- backward.
DIVING AND SOMERSAULTS 61 Running Header. the left arm . throws the arms above the head. with a light spring backward. Front Jacknife. The start should be the same as in the backward dive. The swimmer with the left side stands at the end of the board. toward the water. Side Dive. 6. but as the feet leave the springboard the body is turned to the left or right and enters the water as in the running header. Twisting Back Dive. In the descent the back is toward the spring board and the body plunges in head first. dive. 5. and.
entered sideways. The dive should made on Back Somersault from Spring-board. The heels should be well over the end of the board. IS raised above the head. The start is the same as in the back somersault.52 THE ART OF SWIMMING Back Jacknife. Backward Dive. 8. a spring is is made and the water also be 7. the right side. in order that the spring may be made from the toes. Twisting Back Somersault. the body should be inclined backward to avoid striking the board as the body turns over. .
Front Somersault from Spring-board. Back Somersault from Spring-board but as the feet leave the board the head sharply to the right or the water feet left. Back Dive. will turn the body over so that the enter the water feet first. a quick spring. is turned it causing the body as turns over to twist in such a first way as to enter with the back turned toward the spring board. with the head up of thrown forward. 9.DIVING AND SOMERSAULTS 53 :^ Twisting. a doubling the body. swimmer will . A short run.
the body should remain doubled up until another half turn is made. 10. and it will always prove interesting and amusing to performers and spectators. and the water entered head first. as in the front somersault. .54 THE ART OF SWIMMING Twisting Back Somersault. After turning over once. One and On«-Half Somersaults. —A diving competition may be conducted on the basis of one hundred points for a perfect performance in all ten exercises. One and one-half Somersaults. Note.
N^ Front Somersault from Springboard.i.. ..-TT l.i .i.i.DIVING AND SOMERSAULTS 55 a.
using the arms 4. will be found useful. hand. (See pages 45-46.) S6 (See . V I. To develop the muscles of the forearm and 8. To To develop the muscles under and back of the shoulders. practice 7. (See page 48. use marching on the water. only. (See pages 41-42. (See page 44. use the Trudgen 9. pages 17-26. swim the breast stroke with little or no leg action. practice the different sculling movements.PART IV SWIMMING EXERCISES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WEAK PARTS OF THE BODY parts of the body the following cises. broaden the chest and develop the front chest muscles.) develop the back of the thighs.) For all-round development.) To develop the abdominal muscles.) 3. To breast and over-arm side strokes. For the development of weak and undersized swimming exerdescribed in this book. scull on the breast. (See page 12. strengthen the waist muscles. swim the Trugden stroke without the aid of the legs. 6. 4 '^ (See page 46.) To make strong a weak back. use the spiral strokes.) ^ 5. swim on the back.) 2. To To deepen the chest and straighten the shoulders. (See page 33. (See page 26.) the spinning top.
Care should be taken not to take vigorous exercise of any kind until about two hours have elapsed after a full meal. a turn at the chest weights for five or ten minutes will strengthen the arms and chest muscles. the body should be thoroughly massaged from head to foot to keep the muscles in a flexible condition. For two or swimmer three weeks before beginning active practice in the water. assuming of course that the has no organic defect. and will fast rule is necessary furnish all that is No hard and any ordinary table required. Having returned from the cross-country exercises. the it is well to take vigorous walks of from three to five miles across country. distance to be governed by the natural strength of the individual. An occasional slow run of from three hundred to eight hundred yards will also be found beneficial in the way of improving the breathing powers.This pre- liminary course of training will strengthen not . In the absence of chest weights the same time may be profitably employed in using dumb bells weighing from three to five pounds. and consist of such food as experience has shown to be best suited to the individual case. Where an attendant is available.TRAINING FOR CONTESTS 57 TRAINING FOR CONTESTS The diet should be generous and varied. /All exercise should be followed by a vigorous rub-down with coarse towels.
watch for faults in A competent friend should style that they may be cor- rected without loss of time. and a smooth. After the swim no time should be wasted before the rubdown and dressing in order to avoid catching cold. and then after a rest and rub down. slow swims once a day. but the main work should be over distances somewhat . but also the heart. After this preliminary work on land and water. This will develop endurance and speed. and set a pace which he can maintain from start to finish. This amount of swimming should prepare a man for a race of one hundred yards. the average swimmer can keep in good swimming two or three hundred yards amateur condition by daily for endurance. easy movement be developed. the swimmer should now indulge in long. and make the more vigorous work in the water easier and more pleasurable than it otheronly the wise would beyj^nHaving taken the preliminary course of exerase on land. of from four hundred to eight hundred and eighty yards. finishing with a burst of speed of about twenty-five or fifty yards.58 THE ART OF SWIMMING swimming muscles proper. sprint Occasionally the full distance should be covered at racing speed. may a swimming sprint of from thirty to fifty yards be taken for the purpose of developing speed. that he may know how he is get- ting along. The swimmer should be timed in every practice swim. for a week or two.
In the absence of a com- . certain A amount of speed swimming should be taken. and enables one to cover long distances without becoming cramped. yards the forty over four hundred and work is harder. water. About once a week double the distance should be covered at about three-quarter speed. In training for distances up to four hundred and forty yards. week a time trial Before commencing work in the inclined to leanness. sweets. swimmers who are In most where the digestive apparatus is in good condition. about three hundred yards should be covered For distances daily at nearly racing speed. milk Swimmers should remember to keep the body that. erous indulgence in the fat-making foods. and once a may be taken. fish. a good coating of adipose tissue tends warm. makes it more buoyant. for the reason that many a race is won by a good sprint at the finish. cases. the weight can be increased by a gen- should endeavor to take on weight.TRAINING FOR CONTESTS 59 shorter than the distance to be covered in the race. such as eggs. while im- mersed. For distances over one hundred yards and under one half mile. the training should be somewhat different longer and faster swims are nec. etc. certain kinds of chocolate. essary in order to develop greater endurance. milk. The speed should be worked up gradually until about three-quarters of the distance can be covered rapidly.
In the absence of a competent trainer remedy for stalness is a complete rest from swimming.appetite and Because one gets into sleep. the time trials are unsatisfactory. viz. . peevishness comes on. and. good condition by following a certain system is no proof that a like system will prove equally good in all cases. such as is recommended in the preceding section. and frequently there is a loss of weight . change of air and a very nourFor a complete recovery of form ishing diet. it is sometimes necessary to rest from three to six days. man This condition cases. and in consequence suffer from that enemy to all athletic success. staleness.. At times during the training period the swimmer loses heart in his work. owing to the differences in constitutions and habits. too fast or too frequent swims before the body has been prepared by a preliminary course of light training. and in severe cases a longer rest is the best often required. is is known as staleness. the aspirant for swimming honors should be extremely lest careful he overdo. in most the result of too long.TH& ART OF SWIMMING petent instructor and coach.
— — — — yards. swim the length of the pool. 2.: PART V THE MASSACHUSETTS HUMANE SOCIETY'S TEST AND CERTIFICATE a. Swim the Breast Stroke loo yards. 5. 4. Rescuing the Dummy. The Cramp Drill (see page 34. bring the dummy to the surface and swim with it to the starting point.* The dummy will be represented by an old suit weighted and sunk at the deep end of the swimming pool. Certificate. 1.) 6. Test. The swimmer will dive. in June of each year. Swim the Over-arm Side stroke 150 Swim on the Back 25 yards. The Humane Society of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has consented to award its Certificate of Proficiency in Swimming and Life Saving —a copy of which is given herewith —to the students of Amherst College under the following conditions. The certificate will be given to that student who. . 3. Swim the Trudgen stroke 50 yards. for a test made under the supervision of the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education of the college makes the best record in the following test b.
by Swimming When you self clothes. On swimming struggling. Demonstration of the Massachusetts Hu- mane Society's will method for restoring perstep. to a person in the sea. but keep few seconds till he gets quiet. as. Society has also The Massachusetts Humane tions for saving given permission to print the following instruc- drowning persons. approach a person drowning in the water. 1. It would seem society Humane to the writer desirable for other educational institutions to apply for similar recognition as an incentive to their students to attain proficiency in this most valuable accomplishment. sons apparently drowned. their rules for restoring the apparently dead. if they are fastened. they will fill with water and drag you. if he off for a seize him then. as far 3. and also the use of their plates for illustrations. for it is sheer madness to take hold of a man when he is do not . assure him in a loud and firm voice that he is safe. This award for the mark an advance both and the college in stimulating swimming and life saving. Instructions for Saving Drowning Persons to Their Relief. tear and as quickly as possible of all them off if necessary. but if there is not time. Before jumping in to save him divest your2. loose.THE ART OF SWIMMING 7. the foot of your drawers. if you do not do so. at all events.
please. done it with four. is no such thing as a death grasp it. then throw on your back also and swim for the yourself shore. and gone with them this will and cause him to float One great adforty or fifty yards in the sea. you run a great Then get close to him and get fast hold 4. After many experiments it is usually found preferable to all other methods.LIFE SAVING INSTRUCTIONS IS 63 struggling in the water. slackens his hold until he quits No . or until a boat or other help can there it is be obtained. and also to hold the perIt is of son's head up you are trying to save. primary importance that you take fast hold of the hair and throw both the person and yourself on your backs. turn him as quickly as possible pull upon his back. You can in this manner float nearly as long as you 5. give him a sudden . if you do. In this way you will get sooner and safer ashore than by any other means. risk. vantage of this method is that it enables you to keep your head up. of the hair of his head. It is believed . the writer has even. at least very unusual to witness As soon and to as a feeble lose his recollection. as an experiment. and. and. and you can easily thus swim with two or three persons. his back to your stomach. it drowning man begins to get he gradually altogether. of course. you on your back and he also on his. both hands having hold of his hair.
8. . the exact position where the body lies may be known by the air bubbles which apprehension need. if he had floated. be when attempting will occasionally rise to the surface. in conjunction with the feet. allowance being. whether as regards the roughest sea or smoothest water. A body may often be regained from the bottom before too late for re- covery by diving for by these bubbles. If there be a strong "outsetting" tide. 6. and the other used. therefore. and sinks in the effort. a boat or other aid might have been obtained. it in the direction indicated On rescuing a person by diving to the bot- tom the hair of the head should be seized by one hand only. if the water be smooth. of course. which will have carried the bubbles out of a perpendicular course in rising to the surface. If in the sea it may sometimes be a great error to try to get to land. These instructions apply alike to all cir9. if in a tideway or stream. made for the motion of the water. when. cumstances. After a person has sunk to the bottom. in raising yourself and the drowning person to the surface.64 THE ART OF SWIMMING to rescue a felt on that head drowning person. and you are swimming either by yourself or having hold of a person who cannot swim. then get on your back and float until help comes. 7. Many a man exhausts himself by stemming the billows for the shore on a backgoing tide.
) .) Fig. Inducing Inspiration. (See page 66. 2. Removing Water from Stomach and Lungs. I.Fig. (See page 65.
Inducing Inspiration (with two operators) . 4. (See page 66. (See page 66.) . Producing Expiration. 3.) Fig.Fig.
(See page 66. .Fig. Producing Expiration (with two operators).) Massachusetts Humane Society Medal for Saving Life (obverse). 5.
^Krrnrdmg SrrI CERTIFICATE FOR SPECIAL KNOWLEOOE IN SAVING LIFE FROM OROWNINQ.HJOH. fnr ^inimmtnij i£xtrn»es toill| Krfrrrnrr laSaoing Prrsims from iruUmiitQ. .C.^^i^m'i^mmiiiFsif/f^ '^^^ . anD far inotnlrdgrofti^r Ulrtl^od of RpBUsritating prrauns ApparrnllBirDlnnrD.0 'iW.. hn Suiimininij. __Jlrp»idrnl.T.
If the patient does not revive. or so long as fluids flow freely from the mouth. when move there may be danger of freezing. wipe dry the nostrils.) Respiration.— LIFE SAVING INSTRUCTIONS Instructions for Restoring . Rxde I. pro- ceed at once as follows: Rule 2. If the lower jaw be raised. place the patient on his back with the shoulders slightly raised on a folded article of clothing. ently Dead from Unless in extreme cold weather. and give two or three quick smarting slaps on the stomach and chest with the open hand. do not the patient. Draw forward the tongue and keep it projecting beyond the lips. off the Water from the —Turn the patient on his face. If no ashand and you must work alone. and draw them steadily upwards until they nearly meet above the head. but instantly expose the face to a current of cold air. Rule To Produce — sistance is at teeth it retain the tongue by tying a handerkerchief under the chin and over the head. mouth and rip the clothing so as to expose the chest and waist. Grasp the arms just below the elbows. place a large roll of clothing beneath the stomach and press heavily on the back and spine over it for half a minute. To draw Stomach and Lungs. 65 Persons ApparDrowning. (This enlarges the ca- may be made to may be necessary to hold the tongue in place . the 3. (Fig i.
2. 3.) and front of the chest. and press firmly downward and inward and backsides ward on the piration. throwing all his weight into it. and dash cold water in the face. and two can patient. or until the patient breathes. (Fig. Occasionally rub the limbs upward from the extremities toward the heart. Keep up the eflForts for fully two hours.) Proceed as given above. Rule 5. (Fig.) The method followed by two workers is the same as that by one. Send for medical aid. 5.) Next. lower the arms to the side. over lower ribs and sternum. have one kneel at the patient's head and one astride the hips of the ing the patient's face. (Fig.66 THE ART OF SWIMMING of the chest and induces inspiration. Rule 4. fac- work together. stimulants and warm blankets and Rule 6. . clothes as soon as possible.) pacity (Fig.) (This produces ex- Repeat these measures deliberately and perseveringly twelve to fifteen times in every minute. 4. save that when the operator at the head lowers the arms to the sides the second operator presses on the sides and front of the chest backwards and downwards. and in the time when the arms are being raised applies friction and warmth to the body. If an assistant is at hand. save that the second operator applies the pressure on the chest.
Practise 67 drying and rubbing from the artificial respiration.LIFE SAVING TNSTRUCTTONS RtUe 7. Internally. beginning in so far as possible without interfering with the movements of Rule 8. and as often as nec- breathing established. wrapped in blankets only. put to bed comfortably warm. . After-Treatment. is — ^As soon as the patient be wet clothing. give a little brandy or hot water or other stimulant at hand every ten or fifteen minutes for the first hour. but with a free circulation of fresh air. and left to perfect rest. let the stripped of all essary.
METHOD OF GRADING COMPETITIVE SWIMMING
With the fresh impulse which has been given swimming of late, especially competitive swimming, there has arisen a demand for some method of grading the competitors. This has been responded to first at Amherst College by the adoption of the following swimming regulations
In June of each year all members of the Sophclass, excepting such as may be excused
by the physicians of the
to pass a satisfactory examination in the follow-
The Breast Stroke, loo yards, The Over-arm Side Stroke 150 yards, The Trudgen Stroke, 50 yards, Swimming on the Back with Arms and
Legs, 25 yards,
Honor or Advanced
After passing the swimming requirements of
the college, such students as desire,
in the first,
second and third Honor
GRADING COMPETITIVE SWIMMING
in the first requires
cessful examination in
Front Somersaults in the Water.
Back Somersaults in the Water. Over-arm Spiral. Right and Left Spiral Strokes.
second requires a success-
Swimming to the Right and Left Sides. Treading Water with the Arms above the
The Spinning Top. Sculling on the Back with Head ForeSculling on the
Back with Feet Foremost.
in the third requires a successful
Sculling on the Breast with the Head 10. Foremost and Feet Foremost.
Log-Rolling, Right and Left.
for Special Excellence.
medal or cup
be given each year to
the student showing the best
in the require-
ments of the Honor Qasses.
THE ART OF SWIMMING
NECESSARY QUALIFICATIONS OF A TEACHER OF SWIMMING
swimming should not
only be familiar with the theory of the
should also be able to give a practical demonstration of every exercise contained in this manual.
art once acquired
Great care, therefore, should be exercised in teaching the first lessons, lest the pupil acquire a faulty method. It is a well recognized fact that
to ever acquire the easy and graceful style so
characteristic of those who have been well coached in theory and practice, and are, therefore, unable to swim long distances with ease and pleasure. A lack of knowledge among teachers in some other forms of physical education may do little harm, but in the art of swimming it is different, because life itself may depend upon a theoretical and practical knowledge of this, the most useful and beneficial of all physical, exercises.
In the twenty-eighth line on page 30 substitute the word " moderate for "long." etc." making the sentence read: " For long distance swimming in a rough sea this stroke is almost useless/' etc." ERRATA After " For long distance swimming " in the sixth line on page ag add "in a rough sea. : " The last lines of the first paragraph on page The air should be drawn into the lungs when 14 should read as follows : the arms are forced back- ward and expelled as they are thrust forward." etc." On page 19." making the line read as follows: "A moderate Trudgen arm stroke combined with a. the third line from the top should read " The hands should be flat and the fingers together. backward to the sides." The third line of the last paragraph on page 15 should read as follows *' the palms turned outward." : : 71 ." making the first two lines read as follows " advocates of the crawl stroke have already proven beyond doubt that the kick. In the second line on page 30 omit the word " scissors.
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