Evolution, oligarchy & extinction

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Or, how humanity can stay alive... and fulfill its galactic destiny
by Robert Ingraham August 1, 2012

I – THE ARGUMENT
First, the good news: Under no circumstances is it fated in-the-stars for the human species to go extinct. Mankind has no inescapable Appointment in Samarra. Current and future threats to our existence are very real and very imminent. However, the one absolutely crucial step 1 which must be accomplished right now to ensure our making it into the next century is readily available, and, if we undertake that step, we will set into motion a species directionality which will create the potential for an ongoing development of the human race and the enrichment of our galactic home. It is not in our nature to go extinct; or, to rephrase that assertion, the NATURE of the human species is such that, if we act according to our scientific and moral capabilities – if we access that which makes us human – we shall be able to overcome any of the threats the galaxy throws at us. That said, we must think and act accordingly; we can't all just go strolling down the lane, oblivious to reality, whistling Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah. As for this report, it will address several problems we, as a species, face – some seemingly academic, others which could be categorized as “philosophical,” and then the strikingly urgent political necessity to eliminate oligarchical rule from our planet. These problems are definitely inter-related, and nothing presented below should be interpreted as merely academic historical information. Almost all “accredited” scientific analysis related to the geological and anthropological history of the earth suffers from profound flaw in methodology. The causality of past events is almost always described as either “accidental” (dinosaurs disappeared because an asteroid struck the earth), or “mechanistic” (Homo sapiens developed tools as a result of an evolutionary increase in the size of their physical brains). Hopefully, this report will provide a fresh view on these matters. I will not repeat here material presented elsewhere 2 by LaRouchePAC; suffice it to say that those interested in a deeper analysis of many of the scientific issues discussed below should study those sources first. The only preliminary outlook that must be insisted on is that all current proposals for energy or other types of conservation, reductions of man-made CO2 emissions, population control, or anything that coheres with the Gaia thesis concerning our planet is absolute sheer suicidal lunacy – philosophically, economically, and scientifically. No compromise – not even a smidgen – can be permitted vis-a-vis those nutty views.

Culture
In his 1689 Two Treatises of Government, John Locke, the paid agent of the New Venetian Party in London, presents his famous argument on the issue of human freedom. Actually, Locke's views are an actual glimpse into the oligarchy's outlook on the nature of the human species. For Locke, man's “freedom” derives from his supposed unfettered original existence in some imaginary primordial “state of nature.” Locke's notion of all men being “created equal” is the proposal that all animals, all beasts – including human beings – are born free and equal “in nature,” are governed entirely by sensual appetites, and have the right to defend their life, liberty and possessions,
1 2 NAWAPA XXI, particularly Section VII – The American Credit System at http://larouchepac.com/infrastructure Planetary Defense at http://larouchepac.com/files/20120313-pde-print-forweb_0.pdf and other material by the Basement Team 1

just like any hyena or other animal. For Locke, for Doge Enrico Dandolo of 12th century Venice, for today's Prince Philip Mountbatten, human beings are animals, nothing more, and most of today's current anthropologists and paleontologists agree. They classify man as little more than a clever chimpanzee... just a few DNA strands of difference. One respected author on human evolution – unable to come up with anything better – attributed the human race's ability to avoid extinction during the last glacial period to “being in the right place at the right time,” i.e., dumb luck. In contrast, consider the words of John Robinson, the inspirer of the Mayflower Compact and the pastor of the Congregation which, in 1620, founded the Plymouth colony in the New World. In his essay, Of Faith, Hope, and Love, Reason and Sense, Robinson writes, “Thus, to love God is to become godly, and to have the mind, after a sort, deified, ‘being made partakers of the divine nature’... Reason is that wherein man goes before all other earthly creatures and comes after God only. For whereas God and nature hath furnished other creatures, some with hoofs, others with other instruments, and weapons both defensive and offensive, man is left naked, and destitute of all these, but may comfort himself in that one endowment of reason, and providence, whereby he is able to govern them all.” It is Robinson's view of Man which became the basis for the United States of America. The “endowment of reason;” the principle of cognition; the reality of the human mind; and both the physical actuality and metaphor of FIRE... this is who we are as a species, what it means to be a Homo sapien, and that nature – that Species Culture – has defined us from the very first. That is what the oligarchy hates. It is why they have proffered the incompetent scientific fraud known as “Peak Population Theory,” to halt human evolution dead in its tracks. To survive, to progress, to prosper, we need to understand the clues which actual human history provides. By doing so, we are able to discern glimpses into our happy future: the spirit of Nicholas of Cusa, of Eratosthenes, of Bach, of Brunelleschi: their LIVING SPIRITS are with us still. That power of human “fire,” able to expand the work of the noösphere within our galaxy – that is the real destiny for mankind. That is real human freedom.

II – MAN'S TRUE NATURE3
The human species, also known as Homo sapien sapiens, has exhibited all of the features of its nature – self awareness, cognition, creativity – from the very beginning of its existence. To date, accredited anthropologists and paleontologists are at a loss to explain this. Actually, most of them try to ignore it. One paleontological theory is that humans simply “evolved,” and “adapted” in response to a changing environment; they learned to walk upright, developed opposable thumbs, grew a bigger physical brain, and at a certain point – shazaam! – humans became very smart animals. Another theory is that mutant DNA – which the DNA hunters have yet to find – entered the Homo sapien gene pool and brought about a sudden breakthrough. What both views share is a linear materialism, a Holmes method of investigation, and a complete lack of selfreflection on what an actual human identity encompasses. It is sometimes said that only when the human race frees itself from empire, will it be able to leave its “infancy” and enter into true adulthood. This is true in a certain type of sense, but it were better to say that only by freeing itself from rule by empire and the oligarchical principle will humanity be able to fully realize its true nature, a nature which has existed – most emphatically – from the VERY BEGINNING, in both Homo sapiens, and also in the early ancestors and “cousins” of Homo sapiens going back, at a minimum, two to three million years. At least that far back, and probably much further, there is definitive evidence of the human MIND at work, not simply increased brain size but demonstrable cognitive awareness and functioning. A self-conscious noetic power acting on the universe. As Lyndon LaRouche has stressed – and as all true-believers in information theory deny – the Mind doesn't develop biologically, as such; the physical brain is not synonymous with the Mind, and the development of noetic powers in the Mind can not be traced one-to-one with physical changes in the brain. To oversimplify, one might say that what you see in human evolution is the Mind acting on the brain, not the other way around.
3 Note: in both this and the following chapter, many questions will arise as to the dynamic between man's evolution and galactic events. All of those issues will be deferred to Chapter V. 2

What is known – and not known4
The anthropological period from 2.5 million years ago (mya) to about 10,000 BC is known as the Paleolithic Age. In popular culture it is referred to as the “stone age,” because of the stone tools used by humans during that era. Arbitrarily, it has been divided into the Lower Paleolithic, the Middle Paleolithic, and the Upper Paleolithic, the details of which are not essential to discuss here. The Paleolithic Age ended with the retreat of the glaciers and the warming of the Holocene period. When you think “stone age,” do not think Fred Flintstone or Alley Oop. It was during the long Paleolithic Age that humankind forever separated itself from the animal world: the use of fire, the development of cognitive language, the beginnings of both music and art, the crafting of increasingly sophisticated tools, and the domestication of animals, beginning with the creation of man's permanent companion, the dog, perhaps as early as 140,000 BC. A shocking revelation for anyone who begins to study the origins of the human species is to discover the paucity of evidence and fossil remains. A layman might be under the impression that there are tens of thousands – or at least thousands – of ancient skeletons and other fossil records. That is simply not the case. Despite more than a century of paleontological research, there are relative handfuls of such evidence. For example, it has been fairly conclusively demonstrated that the human species originated in Africa. The earliest fossils which have been positively identified as Hominans (members of the Homo or Hominina genus) were unearthed in Ethiopia in July, 2007, and have been carbon-dated as 5½ million years old. There are other fossils, which might POSSIBLY be of human ancestors which date back almost 7 million years. Yet, in all of Africa, the likely birthplace of humanity, the number of such fossils which date to between 2½ and 7 million BC total fewer than 20 partial skeletons – in some cases only one or two bones – from only 3 archaeological sites. Elaborate theories of human evolution have been put forward, based on very little evidence. Whole races of Hominans have been hypothesized just on the basis of unearthing a single jawbone or forearm, and an entire theory of human evolution has been posited based on the discovery of one(!) skeleton, the “mitochondrial Eve” – Lucy. Elaborate diagrams have been drawn showing the evolution of Homo sapiens from H. habilis, H. antecessor, H. ergaster or H. rudolfensis (all, allegedly, earlier members of the Homo genus), but with no evidence whatsoever to support such theories. Actually, a lot of it is just guesswork. What is LIKELY true is that members of the Homo (or Hominina) genus first appeared – in Africa – sometime around what is called the Miocene-Pliocene boundary about 5.3 million years ago, a period when the earth was beginning a gradual cooling which would culminate in the ice ages of the Pleistocene Epoch. The late Miocene was characterized by the rapid spread of modern forms of mammals throughout the planet, and the MiocenePliocene boundary was marked by a sudden increase in photosynthesis and a lowering of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. What we know, based on fossils so far discovered and analyzed, is the highly probable existence of members of the Homo genus in East and Central Africa from 4 to 5 mya; how “human” they were, and whether or not they were the direct ancestors of modern humans is uncertain. But they were human-like creatures, and by no later then 3 mya they had spread to southern Africa. Unlike all other members of the Hominidae family,5 these were not jungle creatures; they lived primarily in savannas and lightly wooded areas. Anthropologists have given different names to different fossils, e.g., H. habilis, H. gautengensis, etc., but a lot of these classifications are meaningless. What is also known is that by approximately 2 mya a creature appeared which paleontologists have named Homo erectus. Numerous fossil records, found in sites ranging from Africa to all the way across Eurasia, have been positively identified as H. erectus remains. One of these sites is in Kenya, dated 1.78 mya ago; another is on the Island of Java, dated 1.81 mya. Erectus was the most widespread and populous member of the Homo genus for 1½ million years. He was anatomically different from modern humans, and, as such has been labeled by scientists as either a different species altogether, or, possibly, an ancestor to modern humans. HOWEVER, if we define the self-conscious presence of the Mind as evidence of human existence, a different picture emerges. So far at least three sites have been identified, reaching far back in human evolution, demonstrating the use of fire by H. erectus. Scientists at the Wonderwerk Cave in the Northern Cape province of
4 5 Note: for the entirety of this report, all statements of the type "scientists currently believe," or "it is claimed," or "evidence seems to indicate," etc., are presented as is, without implying any unconditional endorsement of those views. The family which includes, gorillas, orangutans, bonobos, chimpanzees, and all members of the Homo sub-genus, including humans 3

South Africa located a massive cavern near the edge of the Kalahari Desert with evidence of both fire and cooked animal bones, dating to about 1.5 million BC. Chinese scientists have positively identified the use of controlled fire by H. erectus at the archaeological site of Xihoudu in Shanxi Province, dated 1.27 mya, and they also found H. erectus stone tools at the nearby Xiaochangliang site, dated 1.36 million years ago. Finally, excavations dating from approximately 790,000 years ago in Israel suggest that H. erectus not only controlled fire but could light fires. Note that all of these dates occur hundreds of thousands – or even more than a million – years before what the scientific establishment claims to be the earliest known date for Homo sapiens (modern humans). This begs the question – Whose human is Human? At the same time, the use of stone tools – of many different varieties – by H. erectus, dating back at least 1.5 to 1.8 mya has been proven. Interestingly, until recently it was believed that the earliest usage of stone tools was in South Africa about 2.6 mya, but recent evidence from Ethiopia now places the earliest evidence of stone tool usage at before 3.39 million BC! Both of these dates greatly precede the alleged arrival of H. erectus on the scene, which only means that there is still much, much more we need to know. Typical graph of human evolution. Notice all the question marks and blank spots? As for Homo sapiens, one theory says that they emerged from an as-yet-to-be-discovered ancestor in Africa. Another theory maintains that both modern man, together with Neanderthal man, descended from a creature named Homo heidelbergenis. Others believe that H. erectus was the common ancestor to all three of these species. As of now, nobody really knows. One of the problems in discovering the truth to these matters is that less and less work is being done in the field, and, increasingly, ever-more elaborate theories are being spun using “computer modeling” or on the sole basis of DNA analysis of already-discovered fossils. We need more people with shovels, more cave explorers, and a greater use of modern technology to uncover the actual secrets of the past.

Modern Humans, Neanderthals, and the “Stone Age”
There are some, I know, who would insist, “but these were stone-age creatures, little better than apes or, at best, aboriginal savages.” My only answer to that could be: “It is not permissible to condemn past human beings for the conditions of the era into which they happen to have been born.” At some point, in the distant future, perhaps 100,000 years, perhaps a million, some of our descendants might view us not much differently than we see Paleolithic man. What is crucial, what is axiomatic, is not the level of the culture in question, but the evidence of the Human Mind, acting on the universe, at work. How one form of ancient human was related to another is almost completely unknown. In the period from 30,000 to 250,000 years ago, there were at least three varieties of humans – and probably others – walking the earth: H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, and H. denisova. They were not the same; fossil records show very definite anatomical differences, and many would argue that the latter two groups were not truly human. After all, they did
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go extinct, and only H. sapiens made it into our present interglacial period. However, even though H. sapiens and their “cousins” might not have been anatomically “identical,” they were very close. More importantly, rather than getting worked-up about bone structure, it is known, with absolute certainty, that both the Neanderthals and Denisovan Man controlled fire, used it for heat and cooking, and built hearths. It is also known that both the Neanderthals and Denisovan Man buried their dead – something no nonhuman creature does. Recent laboratory research also raises at least the possibility that they might have had the use of language. The presence of the FOXP2 gene (the alleged “language” gene) has been found in the fossils of H. neanderthalensis, H. heidelbergenis, and H. denisova. Obviously, the mere presence of the gene proves nothing; however, it is known that the FOXP2 gene allows for audial sensitivity to a higher kHz range, and that – other than H. sapiens – none of the other currently existing species of primates (chimps, gorillas, etc.) have this gene. It is also known that H. neanderthalensis, after 300,000 BC, was directly involved in the early stages of the more advanced “tool cultures” which arose to replace the older, more primitive “Oldowan” tool-making culture that went back more than one million years. Between 300,000 and 15,000 BC, tool-making in Europe went through a series of revolutions. The tools and finished products – made from stone, ivory, and bone – became more sophisticated and very finely crafted. In chronological order, these later tool cultures are named the Mousterian, Chatelperronian, Gravettian, and Aurignacian. Those who argue that that Neanderthals were brutish non-human creatures insist that they never broke out of the Mousterian tool culture, because, when you get to the later cultures, you are in the era of not only advanced tools, but also the famous cave paintings in France and very fine ivory carvings and statuettes – things obviously “human.” The era of Neanderthal dominance in Europe does coincide with the Mousterian period, but there also exists ample evidence of Neanderthal involvement in the Chatelperronian culture. Some anthropologists also claim a Neanderthal role in both the Gravettian and Aurignacian tool cultures, but existing evidence on this is thin. So, the question then arises “What happened to the Neanderthals?” Unfortunately, the answer is not yet clear. As of now – awaiting any future discoveries – the last provable evidence for a separate Neanderthal existence is from a site known as Gorham's Cave, in Gibraltar, dated to 22,000 BC. What is known is that Homo sapiens were the only members of Venus de Brassempouy - Gravettian Culture, 26,000 BC the Homo genus to survive the last glacial maximum (circa 24,000 to 17,000 BC),6 a time of crisis which witnessed the disappearance of many large species of mammals worldwide. For those who have heard the story that Homo sapiens hunted down and killed off the Neanderthals, there is NO EVIDENCE of this, whatsoever. Neanderthals were not “ice age” creatures. Neither did they like the tropics. In fact, not a single Neanderthal fossil has been found in Africa. They existed in a temperate band across Europe, through the Middle East and out past the Black Sea. Most evidence indicates that they were the predominant member of the Homo genus in that region for over 300,000 years. They were forced out of many of these habitats as the ice sheet descended south and woodlands and grasslands became tundra. Also much of the game which Neanderthals hunted went extinct during this last glacial period. But none of this is proof that “weather” killed the Neanderthals, just as it is presumptuous to say that “meteors killed the dinosaurs.” In 2009, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology proclaimed the "first draft" of a complete Neanderthal genome. After subsequent research, they announced that a comparison of the Neanderthal genome with modern humans from Africa and Eurasia shows that 1–4% of all modern non-African human genome might come from the Neanderthals, and that 6% of the DNA of Melanesians and Australian aborigines derives from
6 There are claims that at least two species of Hominans, H. floresiensis in Indonesia and the so-called Red Deer People in China, survived to as late as 9,000 BC, but these claims are disputed 5

Denisovans, thus indicating the POSSIBILITY of at least some inter-breeding among H sapiens and these “cousins.” What CAN be stated, with absolute certainty, is that the scanty fossil evidence which is available so far shows that H. erectus was in possession of the controlled use of fire from virtually the moment his species can be identified in the fossil record, and that, later, H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, H. denisova and H. heidelbergenis all possessed that same capability.

Fire
As Lyndon LaRouche has reminded us, all animals fear and hate fire. It terrifies them, and they avoid it like the plague.7 Therefore, it is inarguable that archaeological evidence of the controlled use of fire – even in the absence of any other proof – shows conclusively the presence of the human mind. Fire is not a “tool;” its use is not like sea otters breaking open an oyster shell with a rock. The DISCOVERY, not of fire, but of the concept of fire and the means by which it could be harnessed to transform natural processes – a discovery coherent with a quality within the human MIND – set the human race on a path of mastery and improvement of the biosphere, a path we are still improving upon today. The timing for mankind's mastery of fire is hotly contested within the scientific community. For many years it was argued that very early use of fire was accidental or “opportunistic,” 8 and that it was only in the period after 300,000 to 350,000 BC that Hominans mastered CONTROL over fire. That view is rapidly losing ground. The findings for the controlled use of fire at the Lower Paleolithic site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov in Israel, dated 790,000 years ago, are conclusive. This places the earliest use of fire firmly in the era of H. erectus, thus demanding a reexamination of other, much older, evidence. As stated above, recent findings from South Africa, China, and elsewhere – dating back 1.27 to 1.5 million years – indicate the sustained organized used of fire, particularly for cooking. All of these sites are associated with fossil remains of H. erectus. However, as also stated above, so-far discovered fossil records dating that far back are very few and far between. The moment at which a human lit his first fire is unknown. Again, we need to learn more. What currently-known fossil records have also shown us is definite evidence, by no later than 400,000 BC, of the organized use of hearths, i.e., permanent, deliberately-constructed stove-type fireplaces, at sites in Africa, the Middle East and China, some associated with H. erectus and others, possibly, with H. neanderthalensis.

The Age of Homo sapiens
Allegedly, Homo sapiens have only been around for 200,000 years, but it is clear that what we are looking at in terms of the so-called “different species” – H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis, H. heidelbergenis, and H. denisova – is all human culture. Nevertheless, it is also true that by the time we reach the Neolithic Era, i.e., the last part of the “stone age,” from about 12,000 to roughly say 4,000 BC, we are most definitely in a period of the increasing mastery of the biosphere by Homo sapiens. Incredibly, almost nothing in-depth is known about human culture in this period. We're talking here about only 6, 8, or 10 thousand years ago – practically yesterday. It is inexcusable. Stepping back, it is known that the human beings who survived the glacial extinction crisis had fire, built dwellings, possessed finely made tools, pottery, and implements, and had developed a remarkable aesthetic sensibility, as evidenced by the paintings, etchings, and carved figures they left behind. The question arises: Did they have more? Did they have any metallurgy? 9 Did they travel in boats? Did they possess any form of writing? Had they begun to explore astronomy? Ninety-nine percent of today's experts in the field would answer no to all of those questions. But the fossil record is slim, and much of that record might, today, be miles out to sea. During the last glacial maximum, the level of the oceans, worldwide, was about 400 feet lower than at present. Take a look at depth charts. Along many current shorelines, to reach a water depth of 400 feet you have to go
7 8 9 Perhaps it were better to say “all animals in their natural state.” On a cold night, Fido probably enjoys curling up in front of a warm fireplace. That is, from lightning strikes, etc. It is known that the use of raw copper was fairly widespread during this period 6

several miles – or more – off shore. This is the era of Homo sapien expansion to every continent in the world (with the exception of Antarctica), and all of the coastal communities, villages or towns that existed during those crucial centuries are long-ago submerged, covered with water, silt, sand, debris, and vegetation. It is also known that the increase in sea levels accompanying the retreat of the glaciers occurred in several very abrupt “jumps,” not stretched out gradually. In the case of the Black Sea it was very abruptly. For example, remember the earlier reference to Gorham's Cave, the last known residence of Neanderthal Man? Today it is right on the edge of the water, its entrance-way only only meters above the surface. If the sea-level had risen any higher, the contents of the cave probably would have been washed away and lost to us. Yet, it is estimated that, at the time Neanderthals occupied that cave, a time of much lower ocean levels, that it was at least 5 km inland. Or take the case of Cosquers Grotto, off the coast of Southern France, near Marseilles. In 1985 the entranceway to the Grotto was accidentally discovered by a French diver 121 feet below the surface. You can only get to it by swimming underwater through a long tunnel. Much of the contents of the Grotto have been destroyed by seawater, but at least 150 cave paintings still exist, some dating back to at least 25,000 BC, at a time when the entire cave would have been on solid ground. Then there are the tantalizing tidbits of evidence from the Gulf of Cambay, off the coast of western India, where fossils dated to 7,500 BC have been recovered from a depth of 120 feet; or the underwater structures near Yonagumi, off the coast of Japan, dated to 8,000 BC. Hints come in from around the world of lost underwater human habitats, from Mexico, to Morocco, to Scotland and South America. Some of the finds seem to indicate the possible evidence of large urban communities, something which all accredited paleontologists and anthropologists deny could have occurred before the Bronze Age. Unbelievably, almost no effort is being made to search for such sites, or even to examine the ones that have been found. Most of these underwater sites have been discovered by accident, and the response of the scientific establishment has been to downplay their significance. There are, actually, many, many unanswered questions. For example, on the question of boats and ocean-going travel, take the case of Australia. It is known that at no time, even during the peak of the glacial maximum – when the lower seas connected it to New Guinea and Tasmania – was there a land-bridge between Australia Cosquers Grotto and the mainland of Southeast Asia; it was surrounded by ocean during this entire period. Yet, it has been proven that there were human beings in Australia by no later than 50,000 BC. How did they get there? They didn't walk.

III – HUMAN PROGRESS
The achievements of the Bronze Age are simply breathtaking. Earlier, during the preceding Neolithic period, the tools which human beings were creating became increasingly more sophisticated, but they were still tools. It is with the invention of bronze (4,000 BC or earlier) that mankind makes the cognitive leap – one might call it a “leap of fire” – into the invention and utilization of not just tools, but machines. This was an enormous breakthrough in terms of man's noetic power over the planet. The use of raw copper in tool-making dates back to to at least 9,000 BC, probably earlier, but bronze, of course, is not just copper. The man-made creation of bronze requires the development of TECHNOLOGY to heat and TRANSFORM metals. Take a minute to consider what the manufacture of bronze involves. First, the copper had to be extracted (reduced) from stone ore, which itself requires a high level of cognitive imagination. The collection of ores containing copper also required mining and the beginnings of engineering. The
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addition of tin to create the MANMADE alloy bronze was both a manufacturing and cognitive breakthrough. Working with copper, tin, and bronze involved primitive blast furnaces, welding, soldering and the use of rivets. It also involved the establishment of trade, since tin and copper are usually found in mountainous regions (usually not in the same vicinities), away from the settled villages. By no later than 3,000 BC – and probably much earlier – there was a well established metallurgy trade in both Egypt and Mesopotamia, involving caravans of ships on the Mediterranean and Red Seas. With the Bronze Age we see the shift to a society based on a productive division of labor, away from the more self-sufficient organization of labor during the Paleolithic era. The invention of bronze led to the rapid introduction of new types of tools such as plows, wheels, etc. More and more lower-ordered creatures, such as oxen and horses where domesticated (i.e., brought into coherence with a humansteered biosphere), as the increasing use of bronze required methods to increase man's productive power. The Bronze Age, of course, is also the time of the stunning, amazing, mind-boggling construction of the great scientific project in Egypt, known to us today as the pyramids. During those centuries we see the spread of this scientific power worldwide, accompanied by the rapid growth of human population, and a man-made increase in the physical power of the noösphere acting on the biosphere – thus affecting the Bronze Age medical implements entire evolutionary process in the solar system.

China
In reporting on the emerging power of the human species, this report, admittedly, will focus on European culture, but it is impossible to not discuss the critical role of China. For centuries China forged the way in humanity's increasing power within our solar system. Additionally, it is certain that many of the scientific and technological breakthroughs that occurred in Europe, as far back as the Greece of Socrates and certainly by the 9 th through 13th centuries, originated in China. A few selected highlights from the contributions made by Chinese science: • Before 1,000 BC – coal being used to smelt copper. • 770-476 BC - the development of the blast furnace. This allowed the heating of ore above its melting point, in order to produce cast iron. Among the inventions that made this possible, was the double-action bellows. Such technology would not be duplicated in Europe until the 14th century. • 550 BC – construction of the first section of the Grand Canal (completed in 608 AD). Many new technologies were invented including, in 984 AD, the “pound lock,” not to appear in Europe until 440 years later. Today, the 1,104 mile Grand Canal is still the longest man-made waterway in the world. • 521 BC - First written reference to cast-iron production in China (and the world); likely developed much earlier. Cast iron production would not enter Europe until 1,380 AD. • 200 BC – The invention of what became known in the West (2,000 years later) as the Bessemer process. They developed a method for converting cast iron into steel, by blowing air – through bellows – on the molten metal, which reduced the carbon content. • 119 BC - The Han Dynasty nationalized all cast-iron manufacture to ensure widely available high quality cast iron tools and implements throughout the entire country. This included plowshares, hoes, axes, chisels, saws, etc. These superior tools led to a substantial advance in productivity throughout the entire economy. • 50 AD – the invention of the rudder, without which systemic exploration of the oceans is impossible. First appeared in Europe in 1,180 AD. • 105 AD - Invention of paper. This aided in the transmission of knowledge throughout China. 150 AD – first recorded ocean voyage of a Chinese Junk, the most advanced sea-going ship on earth until the emergence of
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the carrack in Renaissance Europe 1,300 years later. 258 AD – the harnessing of water power for industrial purposes, including the introduction of water driven piston-rods, drive-belts and forge-hammers, vastly increasing the amount of work that could be performed per capita, from iron work, to grinding grain. Arrived in Europe in the 12 th and 13th centuries. 400 AD – perfection of the manufacture of steel, using coal as a high temperature fuel, good refractory clays for the blast furnace walls, and phosphorus to reduce the temperature at which iron melts. 800 AD - The use of steel agricultural implements was introduced, on a wide scale, during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.). This led to a further improvement in productivity and nutritional levels. 850 AD - The Chinese first used coke for heating and cooking no later than the ninth century. This led to the widespread use of coke in the iron industry by the beginning of the eleventh century.10

There are two purposes for presenting this list. Water-powered blast furnace First, to demonstrate how a continual upgrading of technology, energy production, and the amount of work that could be performed per capita produced the effect of increasing the overall energy-flux-density of the planet. A key part of this increased power was reflected in China's ability to sustain a much higher level of population then the west during this period. Under the Song Dynasty (9601279 AD), generally considered the apex of Chinese industrial and technological achievement, the population more than doubled, and with it came a dramatic enhancement of the work of the noösphere on our planet. For example, by 1078, China was producing more than 114,000 tons of pig iron a year. By comparison, in 1788, England's production of pig iron was around 50,000 tons. During the same period coal became a universal source of energy for virtually all purposes in China, something which would not be seen in Europe until the 18 th and 19th centuries. The second reason for presenting this picture is for what all of this meant for later developments in Europe. It could be argued that, if not for the introduction of a substantial amount of Chinese technology, the people of medieval Europe would have been very hard pressed to recover from the existential catastrophes of the Roman and Byzantine Empires. Much of the physical-economic development and population growth that took place in 12 th and 13th century Europe was made possible by industry and technology from the East.

Charlemagne & beyond
After the near-destruction of Byzantine ambitions in the 6 th century, the power of empire was weakened in Europe for several centuries. During the era of the partnership between Charlemagne and the Abbasid Caliphate's Hārūn al-Rashīd, population levels began to rise, new technologies were introduced – greatly aided by contributions from China – and attempts were made for the actual transformation of the biosphere, typified by Charlemagne's efforts to construct the Rhine-Main-Danube (Karlsgraben) canal. Even with the political chaos following the death of Charlemagne – and despite the devastation of the Viking raids – until the full emergence of Venetian monetary power in the 13th and 14th centuries, remarkable progress was made in advancing the human condition. Dozens of new cities grew up, along with the civilizational benefits of urban life, 11 and the farming regions that fed them grew. A European population between the Baltic and Mediterranean, estimated at 27 million in 700 AD, reached 60 or 70 million by 1,200. Behind this demographic and economic surge lay a technical revolution: a radically new system of organizing agricultural work, newly expanded power sources, dramatic new techniques in
10 Note: this list does not include dozens of other individual inventions, such as navigation devices (the armillary sphere & the magnetic compass), gunpowder, fore & aft rigged ships, the suspension bridge, etc. 11 Europe went from fewer than 100 towns or cities in 1,000 AD to about 5,000 by 1,300. 9

construction and engineering. By 1,100 AD, what historians like to call "backwards" medieval Europe was far, far more technologically advanced than the Roman Empire at its apex, and capable of supporting a much larger population.

Power over nature
Since we are all well aware of the insanity of the 21 st century replacement of nuclear power with thousands of hideous windmills, there might be a tendency to under-appreciate the stunning revolution in technologies which wind and, more importantly, water power represented in the Middle Ages. The origins of the horizontal waterwheel probably trace back to China, but it was also utilized – in a limited fashion – by the time of Alexander the Great, and later became one of the technologies stolen by the Romans. Between 700 and 1,200 AD in Europe, however, water power was harnessed in ways never before seen in human history. Between 900 and 1,100 AD the use of water power spread across Europe, and with the widespread use of the vertical waterwheel – a technology which neither the Chinese nor the Greco-Romans had fully harnessed – a manmade power was unleashed, the likes of which had never been seen before. This was a leap – a nonlinear explosion – of human productive power. Water-powered grain mills, cloth-fulling mills, cable-twisting machinery, iron forges and furnaces (where the wheels powered the bellows), glass-works, and hemp-works were built all over Europe. The continual upgrading of the mills led to the discovery of new types of gears, pulleys, camshafts, flywheels, and other tools. The skills and cognitive power of the workforce were upgraded. Water-power spurred the construction of dams and canals. At Toulouse, in France, forty-five mills were driven by streams controlled by three dams on the Garonne river. The largest one was – at that time – probably the largest dam anywhere in the world. By the late eleventh century, water-power was pounding, lifting, and grinding in locations from Spain to central Europe. As one historian put it, “The house medieval man lived in was made of wood sawed at a hydropowered sawmill…The flour he ate…the oil he put on his bread…the leather of the shoes he put on his feet and the textiles he wore on his back…the iron of his tools…the paper he wrote on” all were produced by water-powered machines. The real industrial revolution Of all of the uses of water-power, the most momentous came in the invention of the water-powered blast furnace. This was a late arrival – the first known was in 1,350 – and whether it came from China or was independently developed is not certain, but by the year 1,400, blast furnaces were operating in Sweden, Austria, the Rhine valley, and Belgium. As the Renaissance took hold, this technology spread across Europe. The previous manual “hammering” of iron was replaced, as the blast furnace made possible the casting of molten iron. With a single stroke the blast furnace propelled mankind into the industrial age. A water-powered blast furnace could run continuously, for weeks or months at a time, producing far, far more iron with much less labor, reducing cost and multiplying applications. Iron manufacture and iron works were already extensive in Europe during the 10 th through 12th centuries, and the level of production was by no means insignificant, as massive numbers of tools and, in particular, new agricultural implements such as the heavy plow, greatly aided in the agricultural revolution and population growth of the middle ages. Nevertheless, these early forges all used the manual method of heating the ore to create a “sponge,” which could then be hammered into the desired shapes (think blacksmiths and horseshoes). The blast furnace changed the world forever. This new technology also required a new energy source. Wood simply didn't burn hot enough to melt the ore; the answer was coal, used in China for many centuries. Unfortunately, following the 14 th century near-murder of Europe by the Venetian Empire, the development of deep mining for the needed anthracite coal was delayed almost 300 years.”12 15th century engineers had to make do with what they could get, which was – at first – charcoal, 13 then
12 Limited deep-pit coal mining was initiated in Tudor England, where the first blast furnaces had been built under King Henry VII, but anthracite coal was not widely used until the 18th century. 13 Charcoal burned hotter than wood, but there were serious limitations. To produce the amount of charcoal needed to create 10,000 tons of 10

“soft” coal, also known as pit or sea coal, often mixed with peat. It wasn't perfect, but it worked. Windmills The vertical windmill was a European invention. Developed in the 12 th century it had never appeared at any previous time in human history. To appreciate the windmill, first free your mind from all current demented discussions of wind power as a “renewable” energy resource; in reality, the introduction of wind power was one of the most important products of human cognition in the last 7,000 years, enormously enhancing the productive power of the species. By the 14th century the use of wind-power was extensive, although heavily concentrated in northern Europe. Windmills were not as widely used as waterwheels, but they were much more powerful, able to generate as much as 30 horsepower of energy. Much like waterwheels, they were used for almost every conceivable type of industrial and agricultural task, from powering sawmills, paper-mills, threshing mills, to grinding grain and processing oil seeds, wool, and paint, and processing wood pulp into paper. They didn't help mankind “live in harmony” with nature; they gave human beings vastly expanded power over nature. These were not simple devices. Their elaborate construction utilized the most advanced – newly invented – camshafts, crankshafts and gears of that time, all made possible by the accompanying development of the mass production of iron. These new machines and machine parts didn't invent themselves; skill levels and specialization increased among the workforce. The widespread use of the vertical waterwheel and the windmill to massively transform and upgrade mankind's productive power was unique to Europe. These technologies did not come from China or the Arab world, nor had they existed in Rome or ancient Greece. At the peak of their use there were 200,000 windmills and 500,000 vertical waterwheels in operation in Europe. From 1,300 to at least 1,800 AD – and much later in certain parts of Europe – they were the PRIMARY sources of energy and the primary means by which industrial and applied technological processes were powered.14

Ships & Navigation
The greatest technological breakthrough that made the “Age of Discovery” possible, came a little bit later – the invention of the carrack – the Saturn V rocket of the 15th century. When Christopher Columbus sailed to America it was on a carrack; when Magellan circumnavigated the globe it was on a carrack. Vespucci, Verrazzano, Cartier, Balboa – they all traveled on carracks. Not perfected until the mid to late 15th century, the development of the carrack involves far too many elements to go into here. To grossly oversimplify the issue, the carrack was essentially a fusion of the previous northern European cog vessel, and the lateen-sailed ships of the Mediterranean, particularly how those Mediterranean ships had been transformed early in the 15th century into the Portuguese caravel. The roots of the carrack, however, are found, again, in both China and medieval Europe. There was an explosive growth of inland waterway and coastal sea traffic in Europe between the 12 th and early 14th century. Thousands of new ships were built, and the wood for all of those ships was entirely made possible by the massive expansion of water and wind powered sawmills throughout the continent. Similarly, the hemp for the ropes, the pitch for the hull and all of the pulleys, hooks, rings, and nails that were used in the construction of the ships were produced by industries powered by wind and water, including the iron foundries. The carrack was what is called a “three-masted full rigged” ship, and, although the configuration of the sails was different from the Chinese junk, the CONCEPTION of the overall design of the carrack is almost identical to the junk. Additionally, the development of all of these European ships – cog, caravel, carrack – was only made possible by the introduction, in 1,180 AD, of the 1,000 year old Chinese invention – the rudder. * * * *
iron required the wood of 100,000 acres of forest. Like the burning fossil fuels today, it was a necessary step, but one which required moving on to a next higher level of technology. 14 For those planning a visit to San Francisco, there are two fully functioning windmills in Golden Gate Park. These are not models. They were built in 1902 and used to pump underground water to irrigate the park. Long in disrepair, they have recently been restored. 11

Even after all of the evidence presented above, some stubborn readers might still insist, “But these were only the feudal Middle Ages; where did it really lead to?” For an answer, consider this: Dante Alighieri lived from 1265 to 1321, Petrarch from 1304 to 1374, and Giotto from 1266 to 1337. These individuals have often been described as “precursors” of the Renaissance, but – to fully appreciate their place in history – it were better to understand them as products of the great upsurge of human cognitive activity leading into the early 14 th century. Coming at the pinnacle of the increasing and willful mastery over the biosphere that had characterized the 13 th century, we see the bold proclamation, in the Commedia: “We are not animals; we are human.” Admittedly, by their time, these heroes were fighting rear-guard actions against the insurgent power of Venice, but, at the same time, their comprehension of the divine nature of the human mind laid the basis for the next revolution in human evolution known as the Renaissance.

IV – MANKIND'S ENEMY
On this page is a simple chart, familiar to many of you, showing the growth of human population since ancient times. Amusingly, nut-jobs like Al Gore have used similar charts to “prove” that humanity is destroying “Mother Earth” through overpopulation and greedy consumption of natural resources. Perhaps Prince Philip was staring at such a chart when he blurted out his desire to be reincarnated as a deadly virus. What does the chart actually represent, and why do oligarchs hate it? Well, first, if you look carefully – and if you know anything at all about history – you will be able to discern sharp drops in population at the times of the Roman, Mongol, and Venetian empires. However, positively, what the chart represents – in its most simple interpretation – is the growing hegemony of the human species within the biosphere of our planet. But, if you continue to contemplate it more deeply, it represents something even more profound. On one level, what the chart shows is the non-linear explosive growth in the presence and power of the noösphere, i.e., the accelerating phenomenon of human cognition as a force in the universe. The chart shows the numbers of people, and although numbers don't directly translate into creative thought, the non-linear expansion of the human population demonstrates – conclusively – that such a power of cognition is at work. More importantly, this is not a chart just about the past. It establishes a very specific pathway of how the human race must act in order to progress into the future. It defines an unyielding message that – if we wish to avoid extinction – the type of human interventions which were presented in the last chapter of this report must be ACCELERATED, including, most definitely, population growth. Such a pathway also requires an upgrading of human culture, an acceleration of scientific and technological progress, and an increase in the energy-flux-density of the human altered biosphere. See the chart as a whole, reading forward, and then backward, and then as a one. It represents a concept, a directionality which says something very specific about the nature of our species, and the pathway that must be taken if we wish to avoid extinction. That is why oligarchs hate and misrepresent it.

The Oligarchical Principle
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People often ask, “What is the oligarchical principle?” Specifically, it is a hatred and denial of the actual nature of our species. However, today that principle can be reduced to one word – GREEN! From the time that Teddy Roosevelt closed off whole sections of the American West to human intervention, down to the founding of Price Philip's World Wildlife Fund, the oligarchy has been attempting to impose a policy which will lead to the species-extinction of H. sapiens on the entire planet. The greatest damage that this “Green” outlook has inflicted has not come in the form of “environmentalist” laws or treaties, but, rather, the psychological and moral damage done by the recruitment of the youth generations that have grown to maturity since 1963, into a hatred of what it actually means to be human – an abandonment of a true human identity, and the replacement of that identity with a necrophile embrace of the death culture of the oligarchy. The greatest threat to humanity lies not with asteroids, volcanoes, disease, nor even the escalating possibility that our current global crisis will impel the British Empire to unleash thermonuclear warfare; it is from the espousal of an oligarchical culture which denies who we really are. What people have increasingly adopted is an actual culture of human suicide – and that is most definitely not an exaggeration. Those who want to conserve energy, save polar bears from extinction, reduce mankind's carbon footprint, or stop the growth of the human population are all engaged in a willful desire to commit species suicide. This “oligarchic principle” of a burning hatred of the true nature of our own species – hatred of the spark of reason within us – is now hegemonic in the dying trans-Atlantic world. At an earlier time in our history, there were only the “end times” religious nuts who seemed to welcome the prospect of mass human extermination. Now it is part of our culture. To all of those self-loathing humans who believe that Mother Earth would be better off without Homo sapiens, here's a clue: our sun has a finite life span, and without the role of Homo sapiens, all life on earth, including your favorite trees and cuddly animals, will be annihilated and die a horrible death, no matter how many times you hug them. More on Population In the time-span between 150 and 400 AD, the population of the Roman Empire is estimated to have fallen from 70 million to less than 50 million, a decline of more than 25 percent. It fell even further over the next century or so, but the bulk of the depopulation didn't occur AFTER the collapse of the empire, but during its years of rule. Under the reign of Justinian – the “greatest” of the Byzantine emperors – the worst demographic collapse in European history, prior to the Black Death, halved the population of Europe. The capital of Constantinople, with a population of 300,000 to 400,000 at the beginning Population of Europe of Justinian's reign, fell to a mere 40,000 by the middle of the eighth century. (in millions) During the heyday of the Venetian monetary empire, starvation, warfare, and disease killed off 50 to 60 percent of the human beings in Europe. Some areas lost 1,000 AD – 38.5 80 percent or more. The total number of global deaths can only be guessed. 1,100 – 48 Including the death toll from Venice's partner, the Mongol Empire, and folding in 1,200 – 59 the rest of Eurasia and northern Africa, the final number of human corpses had to 1,300 – 78 have been in excess of 100 million. 1,400 – 44 (or less) Life expectancy in Western Europe dropped from 35 years in 1276 to 29 years 1,430 – 34 in 1325 (during the Great Famine), and then to 17 years by 1350. (perhaps as low as 22) Some parts of Asia and Europe, today, still have lower population densities than in 1,250 AD. Most of France and Italy did not get back to these earlier population levels until the 18th or 19th centuries, and most of the Arabic areas in the Mid-East and northern Africa not until the 20th century. *** What is the view of the oligarchy on this litany of its past crimes? Well, if you look on Wikipedia, or at numerous articles that have appeared during the recent period in many “accredited” academic journals, the current line is that the evidence from the 14th century proves that Europe was experiencing a Malthusian crisis, that human society had exceeded its “carrying capacity.” This is now stated openly. Apologists for the oligarchy now blame the mass murder – which resulted from the rule of the Venetian monetary empire – on the very cognitive nature of our species which had engendered such a spectacular growth of the noösphere in the years from 1,000 to 1,300 AD!
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V – EXTINCTION?
An egregious example of linear non-thinking is the claim that a huge meteor or asteroid struck Mexico 64 million years ago, at what is called the K-T Extinction boundary, creating the equivalent of a nuclear winter which, in turn, killed off all the dinosaurs. Similarly, other major historical calamities that have struck our planet have been ascribed, mechanistically, to the impact of meteors, the eruption of super-volcanoes, or similar geological events. In fact, there IS substantial evidence that about 64 to 65 million years ago a large meteor, or asteroid, or comet – possibly as large as 10 km in diameter – struck near Chicxulub, on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. The still-existing impact crater appears to have a diameter of between 100 to 150 km, which makes it one of the largest confirmed impact structures on Earth. The energy released from such an impact would dwarf anything modern civilization has experienced, PERHAPS even as high as the explosion of 100 million megatons of TNT. In addition to spewing massive amounts of particulate material into the atmosphere, the impact might also have set off magnitude 8 or 9 earthquakes and generated massive tsunamis. In other words, a deadly global cataclysm. But, did this kill off the dinosaurs? The only definite answer is... maybe. Certainly if such a catastrophic asteroid impact were to occur today it would kill millions – maybe hundreds of millions or more – of people. But what the impact-killed-dinosaurs theory doesn't explain is the subsequent species UP-SHIFT, how out of the K-T extinction we see the emergence of not just different life forms, but superior, higher-ordered life forms, particularly mammals. None of the mechanistic extinction interpretations explain the continuing increase in photosynthetic organisms in the oceans throughout all the periods of extinctions. The catastrophe is clear, but what about what followed it? What none of the – mostly computer-generated – mechanistic models explain is the continual upward development of the earth to higher forms of life, each more energy intensive than the last, culminating in the emergence of cognition with the human species. Even in regard to things that have seemingly been empirically demonstrated such as solar and galactic cycles – e.g., the Malakovich cycle, the 64 million and 143 million year galactic cycles, or even something as basic as the cycle of influenza epidemics – the truth is that history never repeats itself, that there is more going on than what our sense-perception tells us, and that, if we are entering a new phase of a 64 million year galactic cycle, it is not within the same galaxy which existed before. Change is fundamental, and the emerging noetic power of Mind fundamentally changes the entire nature of our galaxy. Humanity & the Galaxy One difficulty in looking at this issue is that human beings have existed for at least 2½ million years, possibly closer to 5 million, but no written records survive before 4,000 BC, i.e., 99.9% of man's existence on earth occurred in pre-history. Therefore we are forced to fall back on things like tree-rings, ice cores, evidence of meteor craters, etc. These phenomena will tell us many things, but not as much as some of the experts claim. Perhaps the single most powerful and sustained long-term galactic impact on the evolution of the human species has come from the repeated changes in the effects of cosmic and solar radiation on the biosphere of our planet. As has been ably demonstrated by the Basement Team, this virtual sea of various types of radiation, surrounding our planet and penetrating our atmosphere has effected everything from weather patterns to volcanic activity, earthquakes, the development of viruses, and the neg-entropic development of life on the earth. The movement of our solar system both through the arms of the galaxy and through the galactic plane, the effects of radiation arriving from distant bodies, such as the Crab Nebula, and the ongoing continuing evolution of those effects have impacted our planet in ways that are still only very partially understood. . There are many answers still hidden from us, many that are awaiting an expansion of mankind's noetic powers out into the solar system and beyond. For now, let's limit ourselves to looking at a typical representation of geological and other events that have occurred within the relatively short life span of the human species.

The galaxy acts
One caveat before proceeding. Please do not interpret anything said below as “A caused B, and B caused C,
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and the combination of A,B, and C caused D.” Such linear causality is always faulty reasoning. That said, it is known that, at least since the emergence of H. erectus, the entirety of human existence has taken place during a 2½ million year ice-age known as the Quaternary Period. Current opinion is that this type of iceage is NOT symptomatic of the earth's biosphere, going back hundreds of millions of years. In fact, the simultaneous emergence of the human species and the onset of the ice age is a very remarkable coincidence, and in this, our current report, it is best to take the approach that coincidences don't exist. This ice-age seems to have gone through a series of cycles of roughly 90,000 year periods of advanced glaciation, interspersed with warmer 10 to 15,000 year long inter-glacials. All of recorded human history has taken place within our current inter-glacial period which is now approximately 11,000 years old, and seems likely to be ending very, very soon. The origin and cause of these 100,000 year climatic cycles is unknown. The Milanković theory that the advance and retreat of the glaciers is associated with cyclical changes in the orbital eccentricity of Earth seems plausible; however, it does not explain why there were no glacial periods before 2.5 million years ago, so clearly there must also be other processes at work. This continual advance and retreat of the glaciers, the change in sea levels, in climate, in ocean currents, in topography, and in vegetation had a profound effect on all animal and plant life on earth, including human beings. For example, during the last glacial maximum – only 19 to 25 thousand years ago – the Late Pleistocene Extinction killed off the vast majority of “large mammals” (megafauna) on the planet, including not only the famous Woolly Mammoth, but 101 of an estimated 142 megafauna species in Eurasia, the Americas, and Australia. The extinction also killed numerous families of plants, birds, amphibians and reptiles. 15 And, of course, at the end of the glacial period, the only remaining representative of the Homo genus walking the planet was H. sapiens. Animals are entirely at the mercy of the universe. Even early cognitive man lived “close to nature,” and was dependent for his food on habitat-fixed life forms. In the list presented below, the oscillations between stadials and interstadials16 is discussed. Bear in mind, many of those shifts were sudden and threatening. It didn't just get a little hotter or colder. Temperatures could drop 10 to 15 degrees Celsius within five years, and the topography could go from alpine forest to Siberian tundra (or vice-versa) within decades. It was only fire – and not just physical fire, but the fire of thought – that gave humanity the means to survive. Lets look at some evidence of what could be called “catastrophic events” that have occurred during the existence of the human species. Evidence from the “early” period – say roughly 100,000 to 2 million years ago is sparse. It is known that there were several eruptions of “super-volcanoes” 17 (including in New Zealand, Argentina, and Wyoming), catastrophic events far beyond the explosive power of anything we have experienced in recorded history. The last magnetic pole reversal occurred in 800,000 BC, which was followed by a 600,000 year period of the spread of mammals on the planet. There were undoubtedly major asteroid or comet impacts, but most of this evidence has yet to be uncovered. And there were also major galactic events, such as the Geminga supernova in 340,000 BC. Astrophysicists HYPOTHESIZE that the dazzling radiation from Geminga could have destroyed more than 20 percent of the earth's high-altitude ozone layer. During the last glacial period there were two more super-volcanoes: at Toba, in Indonesia, about 72,000 BC and the 24,500 BC Oruanui eruption in New Zealand, the last known VEI 8 magnitude eruption. The Toba eruption is a matter of some controversy, as a number of scientists have posited that its effects produced a worldwide “volcanic winter” which almost caused human extinction and created what they term a bottleneck in human evolution.18 Evidence seems to indicate that the eruption deposited an ash layer approximately 15 centimeters thick over the entirety of South Asia and as far away as the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian and South China Sea. The list below provides details on some of the more famous “catastrophes” of the last 25,000 years: • 25,000 BC – the Vela supernova: at maximum light it would have out-shown the full moon. The radiation from this event would have affected humans worldwide. About 1,300 light-years away, the Vela is more than three times closer to Earth than the next nearest human-era supernova event.
15 One plausible theory proposes that we are still living in the Late Pleistocene Extinction period, and that the current extinction threats to Elephants, the Rhinoceros, and other remaining primarily tropical megafauna, far from being man-made, are part of that process. 16 A stadial is a sharp cold period within an interglacial, and an interstadial is a extended warm period within a glacial. The “Little Ice Age” is the only stadial that has occurred within our current interglacial period. Shifts into stadials or interstadials can be very sudden. 17 Volcanic eruptions with a VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) of 8 18 There are some claims that the entire human population was reduced to 10,000 or even 2,000 in the centuries following the eruption. No actual evidence exists to conclusively prove this. 15

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

24,500 BC – The Oruanui (VEI 8) eruption, the largest known volcanic eruption in the past 70,000 years. 24,500-17,500 BC – the last glacial maximum 18,000 BC – Sea level 120 meters below present. 16,000-13,000 – Oldest Dryas stadial - Europe is treeless, similar to the arctic tundra. 12,600 to 12,100 – Bölling interstadial – VERY sudden warming. Sea level rose more than 100 meters due to glacial melt. Ice uncovered large parts of north Europe and temperate forests covered Europe. 12,000 to 11,700 BC – Older Dryas stadial - The glacier advanced again and the trees retreated southward, to be replaced by arctic tundra, which stretched from Siberia to Britain in an unbroken expanse. 12,000 to 11,000 BC - Allerød (interstadial - foreshadowed the modern climate, mixed evergreen and deciduous forests prevailed in Eurasia, much as today. 10,800 to 9500 BC - Younger Dryas stadial, also referred to as the Big Freeze - a rapid return to glacial conditions, with a sub-arctic environment in much of northern Europe. The transition occurred VERY rapidly, perhaps in as few as 5 to 10 years. Temperatures 14 degrees Celsius below today. 9500-9000 BC – the Pre-Boreal Age. Global temperatures rise 13 degrees Fahrenheit. Sea levels rise rapidly, drowning entire sections of the coast. 9000-7000 BC – Boreal Age - previously connected landmasses become separated by rising sea level 7000-3700 BC – Atlantic Age - the warmest and moistest period of the Holocene, warmer than today; Sea levels rose to 3 meters above its present level. 5600 (?) BC – the Great Flood. Rising seas of the Mediterranean burst through the narrow Bosporus Valley, and the salt water of the Mediterranean poured into the Black Sea, engulfing all the coastal areas. 1628 BC - Catastrophic eruption of volcanic island Thera, in northern Mediterranean. This eruption was at least partially responsible for the demise of the Minoan Civilization on Crete. 600 BC to present – Subatlantic Age 185 AD – Super Nova 185 appeared near the direction of Alpha Centauri. Observed by Chinese astronomers in the Book of Later Han; remained visible in the night sky for eight months. 450-900 AD – the Migration Period Pessimum (a so-called “bond event”) a period of rapid cooling indicated from tree-ring data as well as sea surface temperatures which saw the retreat of agriculture. 535 AD – UNCONFIRMED theory of a catastrophic volcano eruption or possible meteor impact. [there is some evidence from tree-ring and ice-core measurements, ash and pumice distribution] 535-536 AD – extreme weather events: the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2,000 years. 775 AD – tree ring data (radioactive carbon-14) and Antarctic ice-core data (beryllium-10) indicates this as a period of intense cosmic rays showers on the Earth. The cause – and effect – is currently unknown. 950-1250 – Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climatic Anomaly) 1006 – Super Nova 1006 - appeared in the southern constellation of Lupus. This was the brightest stellar event in recorded history, and its presence was noted in China, Egypt, Iraq, Italy, Japan and Switzerland. 1054 – another supernova, seen by Arab, Chinese, and Japanese astronomers It appeared in the constellation of Taurus, where it produced the Crab Nebula remnant. 1200 – POSSIBLE supernova from the vicinity of the Vela Supernova Remnant 1250-1,850 – Little Ice Age (last stadial) - Pack ice advanced southwards in the North Atlantic, as glaciers expanded worldwide. The Baltic Sea froze over in 1303, 1306 and 1307, something never before recorded. Norse settlements in Greenland were cut off and grain cultivation ceased in Iceland. The coldest years of the stadial were associated with the Spörer Minimum (1,460-1,550) and Maunder Minimum (1,6451,720), episodes of very low sun-spot activity. In 1,506 the Mediterranean froze at Marseilles, and during the winter of 1780, New York Harbor froze, allowing people to walk from Manhattan to Staten Island. 1815 – Eruption of Mt. Tambora in Indonesia. At VEI 7, it was not a “super volcano,” but it remains the most powerful volcano in recorded human history. The sound of the explosion was heard on Sumatra Island, more than 1,200 miles away. The volcano produced the worldwide “year without a summer.” 1908 – The Tunguska event – Either a large meteoroid or comet fragment exploded in the low atmosphere near what is now Krasnoyarsk Krai, in Russian Siberia. It is the largest impact event in recorded history,
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with an explosion about 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. The list presented above is a standard rendition, the likes of which may be found on many websites. The mere listing of such “facts” proves nothing; however, as background, it is very useful, particularly if you cross reference some of the geological events with various crises which have affected human society. For example, several of the worst disease pandemics (in the 3rd, 6th, and 14th centuries) were preceded by violent shifts in weather patterns, weather patterns largely determined by an array of galactic influences. Ominously, one inescapable reality that the list does show us is that we have been living, so far, in a “grace period.” It's as if the universe is giving us a break to get our act together to meet the challenges ahead. Throughout our species' existence, the human race has never experienced a VEI8 super-volcano; we have never experienced an asteroid impact like the one which struck Mexico 60+ million years ago; we have never experienced a change in the earth's atmosphere which threatens our actual breathable habitat. But those things are coming, sooner or later. At the same time, humanity – since the advent of thermonuclear weapons – now possess the ability to do something absolutely unique to our species: to commit will-full self-extermination. We are, today, living through an imperial monetary breakdown crisis in which the use of such weapons is becoming ever more possible. Would an all out thermonuclear war kill every last human being? Well, it would certainly annihilate the entirety of human civilization. And a “nuclear winter” – unlike the the effects of even the worst super-volcano or asteroid impact – would saturate our atmosphere with radioactive fallout.

More about asteroids
Just a few more comments to emphasize why the United States MUST accept the Russian offer to build and deploy a Strategic Defense of Earth. Rocks from space hit Earth every single day. Overwhelmingly they are tiny and pose no threat. But from time to time something bigger comes along. Four events from the 20 th century should make the point: 1) the aforementioned Tunguska impact in 1908, with an impact force of probably 20+ megatons; 2) the Sikhote-Alin meteorite which struck near Vladivostok in 1947 with impact of at least 100,0000 kilotons; 3) the 1972 near miss over Rocky Mountains when a meteor 10 times larger than Sikhote-Alin passed only 50 kilometers overhead; 4) the collision of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. It struck in fragments, the largest of which – fragment G – was estimated to have released an energy equivalent to 6,000,000 megatons of TNT (600 times the earth's nuclear arsenal). Recent research by NASA and other agencies has indicated that there are about 20 million asteroids/meteors in Near Earth Orbit capable of a one megaton impact. Of those, about 800,000 of them are structurally strong enough to strike the surface of our planet. Objects with a diameter of 1 kilometer or more could have an explosive force of several gigatons, and, according to NASA. there are about 700 to 1,000 asteroids of this size in Near Earth Orbit.

Disease
I have left the issue of disease to the last in this chapter because it is the least understood and the most controversial of the subject-areas. Fundamentally the real issue is not disease itself , but the still very mysterious role played by bacteria and viruses throughout the history of life on our planet. As two videos which were produced by the Basement Team have shown,19 there is overwhelming evidence that these organisms have effected many POSITIVE contributions to the evolution of life, but there are still many unanswered questions as to their ultimate nature. At the same it has also been conclusively demonstrated that there exists an interrelationship of, in particular, viruses with the overall cosmic environment and changes in the galactic “weather.” People tend to think, “I got infected by this bug,” sort of like being stung by a bee. It isn't that simple. For more information on this, visit the Basement web page. Otherwise, as we proceed, keep all of of this in the back of your mind. This report deals more specifically with the topic of empire and extinction. And, in that regard, it can be stated, unequivocally, that in the short span of recorded human history there is an empirically stunning concurrence of deadly pandemics occurring at a point of crisis or collapse of imperial systems. 20 Examples include – but are not
19 See http://larouchepac.com/sde-viruses and http://larouchepac.com/sde-viruses-ii 20 More on the nature of specific empires in Section VI of this report 17

limited to – the Great Plague of Athens (430–427 BC), the (Roman) Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, the (Roman) Plague of Cyprian in 250 AD, the series of malaria, smallpox, and gonorrhea epidemics which struck the Roman Empire from 300 to 450 AD, the Plague of Justinian of the late 6th century, the Black Death of 1347–1351, and the dual outbreak of bubonic plague (which entered India in 1894) and the Spanish influenza of 1918-1920, both of which occurred in the wake of the decision by the British Empire to launch World War. These aforementioned epidemics include the deadliest diseases in recorded human history. They ALL occurred at a moment of crisis or collapse of an imperial system. Historical coincidences of this type are extremely suspect, even in the absence of any other empirical evidence. This is not to say that “A causes B,” that empires cause disease. The 1918 influenza epidemic originated inside the United States, among healthy, strong, young men at several U.S. military bases, where medical screening and treatment was substantially better than among the civilian population at large. But these coincidences do say something about how the self-destructive character of all imperial systems and the extinction-threatening spread of deadly diseases go hand in hand. What is known is that the looting policies of monetary empire, at the very least, expose a weakened population to the ravages of disease, and it is most likely that somehow the entropic nature of those policies and their impact on both the people and the biosphere flip a “trigger” for deadly epidemics. Any linear “chicken vs. egg” discussion of which comes first – disease or empire – is pointless. However, it were possible to say that the anti-cognitive policies of empire are imposing a directionality within the earth's biosphere which the galaxy “doesn't like.” In all of the relevant cases, we see empires seemingly at the height of their “glory” – e.g., Athens under Pericles, or the Rome of Marcus Aurelius – felled by epidemic disease. What characterizes all of these imperial systems is the ostentatious display of monetary wealth – the construction of palaces, public stadiums and oligarchical estates – while the truly creative arts of science and technology are diminished. All of these imperial systems exhibit a reduction in per-capita energy consumption and a downward decline in the energy-flux-density of society. These are also the precise conditions which have been re-created during our own recent 40 years. The Black Death It may come as a shock to some readers to find out that bubonic plague was not identified as a specific disease until 1894, when, during (what is called) the “Third Pandemic,” medical researchers in Hong Kong isolated the Yersinia pestis bacterium as the causative agent of the disease, and then, in 1898, further research identified fleas from black rats as the vector for transmission. The term “bubonic plague” was invented in 1894 to describe this new disease. It had never been used before that time. Throughout human history the word “plague” was used to describe any disease which ravaged an area and killed large numbers of people. It was a catch-all term, and could include epidemics of leprosy, measles, diphtheria, typhus, smallpox, typhoid, malaria, and other diseases. Nevertheless, during the Third Pandemic, medical agents of the British Empire rewrote history by going back thousands of years to rename numerous past epidemics as earlier outbreaks of the 1894 bubonic plague. This was done – almost ALWAYS – with no evidence, and often in the face of contrary evidence. The most famous of these historical revisions was the Black Death. Why would they do this? Well, one obvious reason is to be able to say, “The rats did it.” And that's no joke. It enables them to divorce the murderous policies of their own empires from the lethal reality of epidemic disease, and to blame it all on a creature everybody hates. At the same time, by claiming that ALL of the worst epidemics in history were bubonic plague, and since we now have anti-biotics to cure it, we never have to worry about global pandemics again. There are many, many reasons to doubt that the Yersinia pestis bacterium was the sole agent in the Black Death. It might have been present. It might have played some role – perhaps even a significant role – in the epidemic, but it could not have acted alone. It could not possibly have been the SOLE causative agent. I will not go into all of the reasons here for that assertion, but there are several good items in the bibliography, particularly the work of Samuel Cohn. For the present I will mention just one thing – the rapidity of the spread of the disease. The 19 th century Third Pandemic spread across China at the rate of 100 yards every six weeks; in South Africa in moved at the rate of 10 miles per year; and elsewhere even slower. The Third Pandemic is the most thoroughly documented outbreak of bubonic plague in history, and how the disease acted during that epidemic defines its character. In the 14th century, the Black Death moved across Europe at rates of up to 25 to 50 miles per day, and not just
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be water transport. It swept across Europe from Sicily to Iceland to Russia and everywhere in between in less than three years. To put it bluntly, it is simply impossible for a rat born disease to do that. 21 Nor is it possible to claim that it was the pneumatic variant of the plague that was responsible for the speed of transmission. In every documented outbreak of plague, it has been proven that pneumatic plague cannot exist in the absence of the bubonic form, i.e., bubonic plague must first establish a threshold reservoir within a locality before pneumatic plague can appear, and this pattern has to be re-created in each new locality. So it still comes down to the speed and stamina of the rats. A final point on rats. The black rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) does not live on human beings; it lives on black rats, i.e., the fleas CAN NOT live or travel on humans, in the absence of the rats. The flea only begins to seek out humans to bite when its natural host (the rat) has died off. The rat itself is not a carrier; it is the first victim . It is killed by the the fleas which carry the Yersinia pestis bacterium. In order for the bubonic plague to have killed millions of Europeans, it would have first had to kill MILLIONS of black rats; yet in all of the written reports from that time – and there are thousands – there is not one single mention of a mass rat die-off, of dead rats in the streets, of dead rats in people's homes... no mention of rats at all, and no 14 th century medical professional linked rats to the spread of the disease. It is 100 percent certain that without a hell of a lot of dead rats, an epidemic simply can not be bubonic plague. Rats, Cosmic Radiation, and the Oligarchy Why would I deliberately risk seeking out arguments about the nature of the Black Death in a report like this? In order to make the point that deadly pandemic disease, pandemics which might possibly kill a billion or more people, are NOT A THING OF THE PAST. Any truly honest assessment – i.e., one unencumbered by the truthsquads of academic peer-review – must come to the conclusion that we don't know what the Black Death was. We also don't know what the Plague of Justinian was. And both of those pandemics killed HALF or more of the population of Europe. More than anything, both of those epidemics – in their symptoms, transmission and lethality – resemble some form of highly infectious hemorrhagic disease. We just don't know. We do know that there are apparent solar or galactic-influenced cycles for influenza epidemics. Humanity saw in 1918 what a flu pandemic could do. We have also witnessed the emergence of several unbelievably deadly viruses – such as Ebola – which could easily replicate the death toll of 1918, if their mode of transmission and incubation were only slightly different. And of course, as will be elaborated more in the chapter below, we know of the correlation between the death throes of empire and deadly epidemic disease. So don't sleep soundly just because we don't have to worry about rats anymore.

VI – LEGACY OF EMPIRE
What follows is a selected synopsis of the policies and effects of monetary empire since the close of the Bronze Age. The following chronology is certainly not all-encompassing, just merely indicative of the suicidal effects resulting from the toleration of oligarchical rule.

Athens
Following the conclusion of the Trojan War, the Eastern Mediterranean witnessed the creation of an organized slave-based economy, which became dominant by the time of the Athenian-controlled Delian League in 477 BC. 22 This Athenian empire, with its monetary treasury initially based on the island of its colony Delos (a center of worship for the god Apollo), ruled through a four-fold policy of: 1) control over the monetary and commodity wealth of the eastern Mediterranean, 2) permanent warfare to enforce its domination, 3) massive taxation of the
21 To believe it were possible, you would have to imagine hundreds of thousands of little black rats, on tiny dirt bikes (maybe with helmets, goggles, and little rat scarfs), racing across Europe at break-neck speed, sort of a medieval rodent Tour de France. 22 Prior to the Trojan War, the mass enslavement of adult males as manual laborers was not a common practice. 19

cities and provinces under its control, and 4) the transformation of the economy into a slave-based system. Delos, itself, became the primary slave market for Athens and all of the Greek city-states. By the time of the Peloponnesian Wars almost all of the labor in the silver mines and wheat fields throughout the Aegean region was carried out by slave labor, and in the city of Athens between 30 and 50 percent of the urban population were slaves. Also, in imperial Athens (as in all subsequent empires), rule of the oligarchic principle was characterized by an extreme ostentatious display of monetary wealth, while the earlier glories and accomplishments of Greek science and culture were all but snuffed out. In 430 BC – one year into the Peloponnesian Wars – our universe responded to these anti-human developments with the unleashing of the Plague of Athens. The infectious agent of this plague is unknown. It has been hypothesized as smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, anthrax, typhus, or even some unknown hemorrhagic fever. The Greek historian Thucydides, who lived through the plague, relates that people were suddenly stricken with severe headaches and inflamed eyes and began to cough blood. Chest pains, stomach cramps, intense vomiting, diarrhea, and unquenchable thirst followed. The skin became flushed and broken with small blisters and open sores. Most of the victims became delirious and died on the seventh or eighth day. The epidemic swept Athens for four years, in several waves. It is estimated that in the first outbreak 39 percent of the population died, and that the second wave took an additional 26 percent, including Pericles, the leader of the Athenian empire. Chaos, moral breakdown, and 20 more years of war followed, as the promise of earlier Greek civilization was brought to an end.

Rome
Before continuing, something must be asserted as to the commonplace usage of the term “dark ages.” Almost all historians describe the period AFTER the fall of the Roman Empire as a dark age. Let's look at it differently. If we define a healthy human society as one whereby there is a recognition of mankind's actual noetic nature, and where there is both actual scientific discovery as well as the application of technological innovations which increase the overall physical productive power of that society, then it is inarguable that the entirety of the existence of the Roman Empire was a dark age, from which mankind did not begin to recover until that Empire was annihilated. What is also clear is that this dark age, while it greatly intensified in its self-destructiveness under Roman rule, really goes back to the period following the Trojan War, or, at the very least, to the Peloponnesian Wars. If one looks at the breathtaking technological innovations of the Bronze Age or the amazing achievements in China under the Han and Tang dynasties, the comparison is revealing. As was shown in the immediately previous chapter of this report, it was only in the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries that Europe began to RECOVER from this ancient dark age. The common argument against this view is something like, “What about Plato? What about Eratosthenes, or Archimedes, or Cicero, Socrates, etc. How can you call it a dark age?” Well, first of all, half of those people were murdered by the rulers of their respective states. 23 Secondly, the human spirit does not cease to exist under oligarchic rule. If it did, the eventual extinction of our species would be guaranteed. Today, we are blessed with the life of Lyndon LaRouche, but we are not threatened with an impending dark age today... WE ALREADY LIVE IN ONE, and we have lived in one since at least the unleashing of continual world war by the British King Edward VII. Roman Rule If one traces the worst period of oligarchical rule in Rome – from the Third Punic War in 149 BC to the death of the last emperor in 476 AD – by that latter date, the total population of the empire was lower than it had been 600 years earlier. To put it bluntly, that is all you really need to know to conclusively define the anti-human nature of Roman culture. Despite the massive displays of oligarchic wealth, Rome was a society of zero-technological growth, built entirely on slave labor and economic looting. For six centuries there were no improvements in the methods of agriculture – from tillage, to fertilizer, to tools. No major technological innovations of any kind. Even previously known technologies such as water wheels and water pumps were hardly used, considered “more expensive” than the use of slave labor.24
23 As was Jesus Christ 24 This, actually, is also largely true of the Athenian empire. Most later Greek technology had come down from the Bronze Age 20

The initial expansion of the empire was carried out through genocide, enslavement, and massive economic looting. Julius Caesar, in fewer than ten years in Gaul exterminated over 800 villages and sold over 1 million captives into slavery. By 117 AD, however, Rome had stopped expanding, and a new dynamic, with two facets, then defined the empire's policies: 1) intense economic plundering of the existing provinces of the empire, through tribute, taxation and the looting of both raw materials and agricultural products, and 2) the deliberate reduction of the Italian population itself to a slave-like existence. As foreign sources for new slaves disappeared, nonaristocratic Roman citizens were used to replace them; what developed was a system which eventually became known as serfdom, later granted legal recognition by the Emperor Diocletian. This growing impoverishment and de-facto enslavement the Roman citizenry particularly intensified during what historians like to call the ‘good’ Antonine period. As for monetary and financial policy, the historian Abbott Payson Usher has demonstrated 25 that what is usually considered to be the “modern” form of global finance did not have its origins in London, or Amsterdam, or even Venice. Usher shows that the entirety of the 13th through 17th century “financial innovations” all had their legal and political roots in the “concept of debt,” as it was understood in the axioms of Roman and Byzantine Law. In a very real sense, the Roman Empire is the “mother” of everything we are fighting today. The Reckoning From no later than 165 AD, continuing all the way through to 450 AD, the Roman Empire was devastated by an ongoing series of epidemics and plagues, which, really, never let up. During this entire period, the economic looting of the population together with sustained military warfare (now almost entirely defensive) continued unabated. Two of these epidemics, the Antonine Plague and the Plague of Cyprian, are often referred to as “great plagues,” but, in addition to these, wave after wave of disease struck the empire for more than two centuries. It is suspected, but not proven, that the two “great plagues” were both smallpox, but it is also known that the continual series of diseases included malaria, gonorrhea, leprosy, and measles. The Antonine Plague struck in 165 AD, and the first wave of the epidemic killed 4 to 7 million people throughout Europe. During a second wave nine years later, reportedly 2,000 people a day were dying in the city of Rome. By 180 AD, it is estimated that somewhere between 25 to 50 percent of the entire population of the empire had perished. The Plague of Cyprian ranged from 250 to 270 AD. Sources from the period report that at the peak of the epidemic 5,000 people a day were dying in Rome. During an outbreak in Carthage, a local deacon named Pontius wrote of the disease: “There broke out a dreadful plague, and excessive destruction of a hateful disease invaded every house in succession of the trembling populace, carrying off day by day with abrupt attack numberless people, every one from his own house. All were shuddering, fleeing, shunning the contagion, impiously exposing their own friends, as if with the exclusion of the person who was sure to die of the plague, one could exclude death itself also. There lay about the meanwhile, over the whole city, no longer bodies, but the carcases of many...”

Byzantium
What can one say about the Byzantine Empire? The zombie that refused to die? For more than a thousand years Byzantium contributed nothing to human posterity. A parody of the Rome of Claudius, utilizing the same Roman methods of military conquest and economic looting, it was finally brought down when it was murdered by its own incestuous spawn, its former colony, Venice in 1453 AD. Byzantium was a millennium-long dark age. Not one single technological or scientific innovation was introduced during its entire history. Not one! Magnificent palaces and churches were built, a fortune was spent on the navy, and the wealth of the aristocracy was legendary. But the churches – sumptuously ornate – were based on the architectural methods of 500 years before, and the Byzantine navy used ships not much different than the Romans employed against Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Meanwhile, the tax farming and related monetary policies of Rome were brought in lock-stock-and-barrel. It was an empire based – in its entirety – on monetary wealth.
25 The Early History of Deposit Banking in Mediterranean Europe – see bibliography 21

Under Byzantine rule, cities declined, roads fell into disrepair, and local industries disappeared. Agricultural mills were abandoned. Some cities were conquered by outside forces, but many others were simply abandoned. In many areas water became scarce, as infrastructure fell into disrepair. Whole sections of previously urbanized territory became ruralized or simply returned to wilderness. The Plague In 533 AD, the crazed Emperor Justinian decided that he was going to militarily reconquer the western Mediterranean and recreate the Roman Empire. Eight years into the war one of the worst epidemics in human history struck Constantinople. The first wave of the epidemic lasted from 541 to 549 AD, spreading throughout Europe after the second year. In the capital, the peak of the epidemic lasted some four months and the death toll rose to a staggering 5,000 to 10,000 a day; More than 200,000 people were said to have died in Constantinople in the first year alone. By the time Justinian's plague had run its course, it had killed as many as 100 million people – half the population of Europe – brought trade to a near halt and destroyed the empire. As one commentator said, “It then seemed to spread all over the [known] world; this catastrophe was so overwhelming that the human race appeared close to annihilation.” For years, researchers and historians have insisted that what struck Constantinople was the bubonic plague. Recent genetic studies of the bubonic plague germ, however, carried out from samples taken from skeletal remains in London by researchers from the University of Tübingen, suggest that the Justinian Plague was not the 1894 bubonic plague, but arose from either a now-extinct strain of bubonic plague genetically distinct from that which caused the 19th century pandemic, or from pathogens entirely unrelated to bubonic plague, or possibly some completely unknown disease.. Seven hundred years of Byzantine rule produced the following: Population of the Byzantine Empire: Year People [these figures are at best estimates] 350 AD 18 to 26 million 600 10 to 16 million 780 7 million 1025 10 to 12 million

Venice and the Mongol Empire
Beginning in the 8th century and arising like a lion with the reign of Charlemagne, humanity began to recover from the Roman Empire and began to act human again. Chapter III of this report adequately described the revolution in technology, culture and society which began to take hold. What needs to be added here is that this progress was fought, sabotaged and ultimately almost entirely destroyed with the rise of the monetary empire of Venice, beginning in the 11 th century, but ascending to an evil crescendo by the year 1300. Members of LaRouchePAC organization have written extensively on the subject of Venice, and there is no reason to repeat all that here. I would particularly refer interested readers to the article by Paul Gallagher, listed in the bibliography to this report. That said, a few things must be fleshed out. Venice began its imperial career as the primary financier and logistical organizer of the Crusades, and then used those Crusades to expand its maritime empire into the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea, usually at the expense of Byzantium. At ports in the Levant and the Black Sea Venice then consolidated an alliance with the Mongol empire, becoming the primary intermediary in the massive Mongol slave trade and taking a controlling interest in the silver trade of the east. By no later than the 13 th century, Venice had become the monetary and financial capital of Europe, and it had imposed a system of usury and economic looting throughout the continent. Like its mother, Byzantium, Venice produced nothing. Its sole industry was the Arsenal which built the ships for Venetian merchants and the Venetian navy. Otherwise there was no technology, no science, no industry of any kind. Money poured into Venice from its control over the Eurasian gold and silver markets and the slave trade.
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The details of the 14th century financial crash are not relevant here, but it is crucial to make the point that the usury imposed on Europe during that period had genocidal results. Europe was stripped of its physical productive capabilities and the population was impoverished and weakened. It was not the financial crash of 1345 which killed half the population of Europe, it was the anti-human policies of the Venetian Empire. Governments became so ensnared in the web of usury that they were forced to hand over ownership of food supplies, wool, clothing, salt, and iron to the bankers. Monumental taxes were imposed to finance royal debts. The technological innovations which had increased the physical productivity of the population during the 12 th and 13th centuries came to a halt. By 1300 both food production and population began to decline, as the most productive agricultural regions of Italy and France began to be depopulated. Throughout Europe, the steady population growth of the previous three centuries was reversed and population density decreased. The Mongols Venice's partner in these crimes was the Mongol Empire, and for more than a century the Mongol/Venetian alliance destroyed what earlier generations of Homo sapiens had created. The Mongol Empire was the the largest and most murderous empire in human history. The Mongols eliminated, by slaughter and disease directly in their domains, perhaps 15 percent of the world’s population, and destroyed all the greatest cities from China west to Iraq and north to Russia and Hungary For example, speaking of Mongol rule in Afghanistan and Iran, the Islamic chronicler Ibn Khaldun wrote: “Towns were destroyed from pinnacle to cellar, as by an earthquake. Dams were similarly destroyed, irrigation channels cut and turned to swamp, seeds burned, fruit trees sawed to stumps. The screens of trees that had stood between the crops and invasion by the desert sands were down. ... This was indeed, as after some cosmic catastrophe, the death of the earth, and Khorassam was never wholly to recover.” It is estimated that 70 million people were killed in various Mongol invasions and conquests. After the Mongol conquest of Baghdad – earlier the home to the Arabic Renaissance of the Abbasid caliphate – the city's population shrank to 10 percent of its former size. It was never to fully recover. In China, following the Mongol overthrow of the Song Dynasty, in a span of fewer than 100 years, 50 percent of the population died. The Mongols had no science, no industry, no intellectual skills of any kind. They improved nothing, and they destroyed everything in their path – with one exception. Everywhere they went they hunted out advanced military technologies which could be integrated into their war machine. They stole from the Persians, the Arabs, and particularly the Chinese. Everything else was obliterated except what could be used to kill. Famine & Death What climatologists call the “Medieval Warm Period” came to an abrupt end in 1314 with the onset of brutally cold and incessantly wet weather. This was the opening phase of the so-called “Little Ice Age,” which would continue for centuries, bringing even much colder weather by the 17 th century. By 1315 there were universal crop failures. Food simply disappeared. People died of starvation on a massive scale. There was no corn, no bread, no anything, and hunger was universal. Diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, typhoid fever, dysentery, diphtheria, and tuberculosis finished off many of the weakened population who did not starve outright. Throughout Europe most of the livestock died, either from starvation, or from the accompanying spread of epidemic diseases such as rinderpest. By the time it was all over in 1322 somewhere between 10 and 20 percent of the population of Europe, north of the Alps, were dead and the region was a wasteland. How did Venice respond? By intensifying the usury of the previous period, increasing the demands for taxation and debt payment, financing both sides of the Hundred Years War which began in 1337, and, in 1340, they built a new palace for the Venetian Doge. More Death Up until a few years ago, the general view had been that the Black Death killed perhaps one third of Europe's population, but, in recent years, new data has been painstakingly extracted from sources in England, Spain, Italy,
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and France, all of which points to an average mortality of 60 percent or higher during the first outbreak in 1347– 1350. This figure can probably be applied to all of Europe, and it is likely that the death toll in the Mongol Empire was at least that high. Perhaps the mortality rate of Justinian's Plague was comparable; there is no way to know. In terms of the “modern” era nothing even comes close. It seems almost certain that the epidemic originated among Venice's ally, the Mongol Empire. As early as 1331, chroniclers recorded that 90 percent of the people of Hopei Province had died. China had included some 123 million inhabitants at the beginning of the thirteenth century, but by the end of the fourteenth century the population dropped to as low as 60 million. Consequences The consequences of Venetian-Mongol imperial rule are with us now, even 650 years later. Despite some attempts in the Ming and even the early Chin Dynasties, China was never to regain the premier role in human civilization it had exhibited earlier. If you appreciate the outstanding contributions made by Chinese culture to science, metallurgy, energy production, manufacturing, and navigation – all of which increased the power of the noösphere within our galaxy – this loss from a population which at times has made up over 20 percent of the human species has been devastating. It is only today, in the 21 st century, that we see China beginning to rise once again. Similarly, the Arab world – and its earlier advanced culture – was destroyed, and has still not fully recovered. In Europe the destruction was not limited to population loss. Technologies such as the use of anthracite coal, steam power, and steel production – technologies which should have flowed easily from the accomplishments of the 12th and 13th centuries – were delayed centuries. The British Empire To list all of the crimes of the New Venetian British Empire would require thousands of pages, and those crimes have already been documented in many, many locations. Here, since the destructiveness of epidemic disease has been a featured topic of this report, we will limit ourselves to one true story. Beginning in 1855, on the border between India and China, an outbreak of what has been proven to be bubonic plague occurred. After striking several cities across China, it entered Hong Kong in 1894, reached Macao a year later, and then Singapore and Bombay in 1896. Transported rapidly by British steamships throughout the empire and beyond, bubonic plague took only a few years to reach every continent. Not counting the initial death toll in the Chinese interior, this epidemic – sometimes called The Third Pandemic – was entirely limited, with very minor exceptions, to territories within the British Empire. Before it petered out in the mid-twentieth century it had killed at least 20 million people worldwide, mostly between 1894 and 1901. Over half of the total deaths came in the region of Bombay, India, where British authorities ordered that all medical care be withdrawn and that the disease should be allowed to “run its course.” By 1899 the disease was in Alexandria, Egypt (at the time a de-facto British protectorate) and by 1901 the deadliest outbreak of the disease outside of Asia surfaced in Capetown, South Africa. Here, again, British officials segregated all black Africans with the disease and allowed them to die. British imperial ships brought the disease to ports-of-call – such as Honolulu, Rio de Janeiro, and San Francisco – throughout the world, spreading not just the disease but establishing wild rodent reservoirs for the disease on every continent, whereas, previously, bubonic plague had only been endemic to central Asia. The pathogen's permanent installation in so many environments has greatly enhanced its chances to survive, reproduce, and mutate, thus increasing, for all time, the potential for the development of lethal epidemics.

VII – RESTATEMENT
7,500 years ago human beings lived in the final stages of the Neolithic (Stone Age) era. 5,000 years ago we were creating machines from bronze. Socrates lived 2,500 years ago. Columbus discovered America 520 years ago. And a mere 43 years ago Homo sapiens walked on the moon.
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It is stunning. It is breathtaking. It is numbing. It requires, in the words of Friedrich Schiller, nothing less than an “Ode to Joy.” These accomplishments should be considered in two interrelated ways. First is simply an acknowledgement of the brevity of time we are considering. If one looks at the age of our planet – let alone the age of our galaxy – 7,500 years is nothing, not even the blink of an eye. Even if you take John Fitzgerald Kennedy on Human it back to when Homo erectus began using fire to transform the Evolution biosphere, two or more million years ago, it is still a blip in the Rice University, Houston, Texas, 1962 time scale of galactic evolution. Yet, in that brief blip, consider the work that has been done in upgrading the galaxy. We have No man can fully grasp how far and how fast we transformed our planet's biosphere. We are poised, with projects have come, but condense, if you will, the 50,000 like NAWAPA, to transform it even more. We are capable of years of man¹s recorded history in a time span of but moving out into the solar system to begin to shape the biosphere a half a century. Stated in these terms, we know of this entire region of space. Through the work of Cusa, very little about the first 40 years... Then about 10 Riemann, Max Planck, Einstein, and others, our species has years ago man emerged from his caves to construct other kinds of shelter. Only five years ago man begun to pierce the veil of the “glass darkly,” to unlock learned to write and use a cart with wheels. processes previously hidden to us by sense perception. Christianity began less than two years ago. The Not bad for 7,500 years. Actually, not bad for even 2 printing press came this year, and then less than two million years. months ago... the steam engine provided a new However, much more important than just the brief linear source of power. Last month electric lights and span of time within which this has all been accomplished, is a telephones and automobiles and airplanes became more fundamental quality of “acceleration” that has available. Only last week did we develop penicillin characterized it. The apostles of Jesus used to speak of the and television and nuclear power, and now if “quickening of the soul;” without delving onto the dangerous America¹s new spacecraft succeeds in reaching ground of theology, I would nevertheless ask readers to Venus, we will have literally reached the stars before contemplate the evolutionary “quickening” of the Homo sapien midnight tonight. This is a breathtaking pace... species. Look back at the statue of the Venus de Brassempouy in Chapter II of this report. Contemplate the aesthetic quality of Mind which created that, or the paintings at the Chauvet Cave and other sites, almost 30,000 years ago. Were these “animals” who did this? The evidence is shocking, jaw-dropping. There is a quality which defines our species, and – what is more – the universe is now beckoning us forward. It really is. If you listen closely you can hear it... not with your ears but with your mind. Reflect for a moment on the non-linear growth in human population which is portrayed in the “population chart” from Chapter IV. This represents not merely a growth in the number of human beings, but a non-linear growth in the potential power of the noösphere within our planet, our solar system, and our galaxy. Furthermore, that growth reflects not simply a RESULT of human cognition, but a necessity to continue that directionality if we wish to avoid extinction. We can not stop that non-linear growth; in fact, we can not afford to even slow down the rate of non-linear “quickening.” Our only pathway to avoid extinction is to accelerate the noetic power of Mind within the heavenly biosphere. We must proceed with the upgrading of our solar system and then move out into the stars. That is clearly what the universe desires from us. And there is nothing, nothing, other than the suicidal monetary policies of empire and a culture permeated by the Oligarchic Principle, to stop us. We are Human Beings. As Pip advised Estella, it is time to abandon the culture of death, throw open the curtains, and go out into the sunlight. -30-

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Bibliography: Any and all of Lyndon LaRouche's major documents released during the last 24 months; available at http://larouchepac.com/larouche Planetary Defense, by Deniston, Fan-Chiang, Martinson, et al., 2012, LarouchePAC, together with related material from the Basement Team; available at http://larouchepac.com/basement NAWAPA XXI, by Kirsch, et al., available at http://larouchepac.com/infrastructure Other - (Selected): Barry, John M. - The Great Influenza, The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History, (2004), Viking, the Penguin Group Bell, Adrian; Brooks, Chris; Moore, Tony - The credit crunch of 1294: Causes, consequences and the aftermath, (May, 2009), University of Reading Childe, V. Gordon - The Bronze Age, (1930), Cambridge University Press Cohn Jr., Samuel K. - The Black Death: End of a Paradigm, The American Historical Review, Vol. 107, No. 3 (June 2002), The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the American Historical Association Deniston, Benjamin - Mass Extinctions as Shadows of Anti-Entropic Growth: Macro-Ecological Revolutions, (2012), @ www.larouchepac.com & What's the Matter With The Economy?: Have You Asked Your Galaxy? (2012), unpublished Finlayson, Clive - The Humans Who Went Extinct, (2009), Oxford University Press Foss, Daniel A. - Third and Sixth Century Crises East and West, (October, 1996), Hartford Web Publishing Gallagher, Paul - How the 14th-Century Lombard Banks Created the Dark Age, (February 29, 2008), Executive Intelligence Review Gies, Francis & Joseph - Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages, (1995), Harper Perennial Gordon, C.D., Procopius and Justinian's Financial Policies , Phoenix, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Spring, 1959) Hartwell , Robert - A Revolution in the Chinese Iron and Coal Industries During the Northern Sung, 960-1126 A.D. , The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Feb., 1962) Hunt, Edwin S. - A New Look at the Dealings of the Bardi and Peruzzi with Edward III, (March, 1990), The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 50, No. 1 Kershaw, Ian - The Great Famine and Agrarian Crisis in England 1315-1322, (1973), Past & Present, No. 59, Oxford University Press Laiou, Angeliki E. - The Economic History of Byzantium, (2002), Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington,D.C. Lewis, John S. - Rain of iron and ice : the very real threat of comet and asteroid bombardment, (1996), AddisonWesley Pub. Co., Reading, MA Lucas, Henry S. - The Great European Famine of 1315, 1316, and 1317, (Oct., 1930), Speculum, Vol. 5, No. 4 , Medieval Academy of America Morley, Neville - The Roman Empire - Roots of Imperialism, (2010), Pluto Press, London, New York Narcisi, Proposito, & Freuotti - Ice record of a 13th century explosive volcanic eruption in northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica , Antarctic Science 13 (2): 174-181 (2001) Rosen, William - The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention, (2010), Random House Publishing Group Russell, Josiah C. - Effects of Pestilence and Plague, 1315-1385, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 8, No. 4, Cambridge University Press Scott, Susan & Duncan, Christopher - Return of the Black Death: The World’s Greatest Serial Killer, (2004), John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Spannaus, Nancy, The Empire’s Genocide Policy, Key Threat to Man’s Survival, Executive Intelligence Review, April 8, 2011 Usher, Abbott Payson - The Early History of Deposit Banking in Mediterranean Europe, (1943), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA Usher, Abbott Payson – A History of Mechanical Inventions, (1929), McGraw Hill Book Company, New York Wood, James, Ferrell, Rebeca – The Temporal Dynamics of the Fourteenth-Century Black Death: New Evidence from English Ecclesiastical Records, Human Biology, August 2003, Wayne State University Press

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