Shielded Metal Arc Welding What Is Welding?

    Process of joining metals / alloys The process performed by Heat with or without Pressure Filler metal may or may not be used The joint will be homogeneous

Classification of Welding
 Pressure Welding – With Heat & Pressure  Fusion Welding – With Heat & mostly with Filler

Pressure Welding Process
    Metal parts heated to forging temperature Heating by Oven, Oxy fuel flame or Electric Resistance Pressure applied on heated parts – by Hammer, Hydraulic Press or Mechanical lever The Parts remain permanent homogeneous joint

Types of Pressure Welding
    Forge Welding Resistance Butt / Flash Butt / Stud Welding Resistance Spot Welding Resistance Seam welding

Fusion Welding Process
    Metal parts locally heated to melt along the joint. Heating by oxy fuel flame or electric Arc. Invariably filler metal added to molten pool. On cooling, molten puddle solidifies to permanent homogeneous joint.

Types of Fusion Welding
        Shielded Metal Arc Welding- SMAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding - GTAW Gas Metal Arc Welding – GMAW (MIG / MAG / FCAW) Submerged Arc Welding – SAW Gas welding – Oxy Fuel Gas Electron Beam Welding – EBW Laser Welding Thermit Welding

SMAW Process
     An electric Arc struck between electrode and base metal joint Base metal melts under arc Electrode tip melts in drops and transfers to molten pool of BM Electrode with Arc moves along the joint keeping constant arc length On cooling pool solidifies

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Core Wire

Flux Coating

Pool Arc Base Metal

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Accessories & tools  Power Source  Welding Cables. A Linear – Cons. Chipping Hammer & Wire Brush Types of Power Source      Inverter. Hand gloves.Equipment. Holder & Earthing Clamp  Head Screen. V V V1 V2 V Vertical Curve V1 V2 Horizontal Curve A A1 A2 A1 A2 Electrode     Consumable Metallic Wire Coated with Flux Conducts Current and generates Arc Wire melts & deposited as filler in joint Flux Coating on Electrode         Sodium Chloride Potassium Chloride Titanium Dioxide Sodium Silicate Ferrosilicon Iron Powder Alloying Elements Binding Material Function Of Flux in welding            Stabilizes Arc Prevents contamination of weld metal Cleans the weld from unwanted impurities Increases fluidity of molten metal Generates inert gas shielding while metal transfers Forms slag after melting & covers weld Allows deposited metal to cool slowly Introduces alloying elements in the weld Increases deposition efficiency Minimizes the spatter generation Helps in even & uniform bead finish 2 .DC Thyristor – DC Diesel Generator Set -DC Rectifier – DC Transformer – AC Characteristic of Power Source Manual welding Automatic / Semi Automatic welding Drooping – Cons.

15 3. 2= only 1G.000 PSI SFA 5-1 E7018 = All Position E7028 = Only 1G.15 350 31.000 PSI E10018D2 = 100.2.3 Length 300 350 450 450 450 450 14 12 10 8 6 4 Gage Time Average required for electrodes burning in consumed in seconds 8 Hrs shift 50-55 60-65 80 -85 85-90 90-95 95-100 ----120 . 2. 1F & 2F. 4. 3. Current & Polarity (0. 1F & 2F E7048 = All Position with 3G Down E7018 = Type of coating.000 PSI.00 ASME Classification of Electrodes SFA 5.5 3.CS & LAS Electrode Sizes & Recommended Currents Core Wire (in mm) No Dia 2 2.7.30 Core Wire ( in mm ) Dia 3. 4= All with 3G Down) 8 = Type of coating & Current + Polarity (0.1 E 7018 E = Electrode 70 = UTS in 1000 psi (60/70/80/90/100/ 110) 1 = Position (1= all.60 3.1.30 22.6.8.5. 6. 5. 1.15 450 350 6. 8.15 Length 450 Cost Per Piece ( in Rupees) 3.5 E8018B2 = 80.000 PSI.90 60 -70 Current 1 2 3 4 5 6 40 – 60 A 60 – 85 A 100 – 130 A 130 – 180 A 150 – 210 A 240 – 250 A Apex.140 110 . 7. SFA5.15 4 5 6. E9018D1 = 90. 9) 3 .9) ASME Classification of CS / LAS Electrodes E7018A1 =70.4. Cost of CS & SS Electrodes Electrode Quality AWS Classification E6013 CS E7018 E308L SS E309 3.3.120 80 .

Ve AC or DC . Elec + Ve AC or DC .0.347. 310. 0.5Cr.05% C= 0. H.Ve AC or DC. Iron Powder Iron Oxide Titania Potassium High Iron Oxide High Iron Oxide High Iron Oxide.Moly Electrode Chrom.5Mo 5Cr. limit of alloy Alloy Content Remarks C ≤ 0. 317. Elec + Ve / .4 E308L-15 E316H-16 E317-26 E310Mo-16 E309Cb-16 E347–17 E = Electrode 308.Ve AC or DC .9Ni 1. High carbon.07 – 0.35Mo.25Cr.G Type of LAS Electrode Carbon Moly Electrode. 0.5Mo 0. 0.05% C ≤ 0.Moly Electrode Chrom.9Ni 1. 0.15% C=0.12% C ≤ 0. Moly. 0-5Mo 1/1.5Ni 1. 6 &7 = Type of coating + current & polarity Baking Of Basic Coated Electrodes  Bake the loose electrodes in a baking Oven  Baking temperature 250° C to 300° C  Baking time 2 Hrs to 3 Hrs 4 .1% C ≤ 0. Elec + Ve / .Moly Electrode Chrom. Elec + Ve / .1V Mn= 1.5Ni. 0.05V 1.5% Mo 0.2Mo.ASME Classification for CS Electrodes AWS Classification E6010 E6011 E6012 E6013 E6018 / E7018 E6019 E6020 E6022 E6027 / E7027 E7014 E7015 E7016 E7018M E7024 E7028 E7048 Type of Coating/Covering High Cellulose Sodium High Cellulose Potassium High Titania Sodium High Titania Potassium Low Hydrogen Potassium. 0.SFA5. 0. 0. Elec + Ve / . Elec + Ve AC or DC.0. 316.0. Chrom.25Cr.5Ni 3.65 – 2% Mn= 1. 0.25Cr. 2 = Only Flat & Horizontal fillet 5.75Mn.05% ASME Classification of SS Electrodes SFA 5. Elec + Ve DC. 0.5Mo 2. 0. 0.05 – 0.5Mo 2. Iron Powder Low Hydrogen Potassium. Columbium (optional) 1 = All position.8% Max. 1Mo 2Cr. 0. Iron Powder Welding Position All All All All All All F & H Fillet F & H Fillet F & H Fillet All All All All F & H Fillet F & H Fillet All With V Down Current & Polarity DC .Moly Electrode Chrom. 1Mo 2.Moly Electrode Chrom. Mo.0.3Cr.5Mn. Iron Powder Iron Powder Titania Low Hydrogen Sodium Low Hydrogen Potassium Low Hydrogen Iron Powder Iron Powder Titania Low Hydrogen Potassium.12% C= 0.0 – 1. Elec + Ve / .35Mo. 0.05V 5Cr.5 AWS E7018-A1 E8018-B1 E8018-B2 E8018-B2L E8018-B3 E8018-B3L E8015-B4L E8016-B5 E8018-B6 E8018-B6L E8018-C1 E8018-C2 E8018-C3 E8018-C4 E9018-D1 E9018. Elec + Ve AC or DC .0 – 1-75 % Mn= 1.Ve DC.12% C= 0.Ve AC or DC. 318 etc = Chemical Composition L.0.05 – 0.D3 E8018.Moly Electrode Nickel steel electrode Nickel steel electrode Nickel steel electrode Nickel steel electrode Manganese Moly electrode Manganese Moly electrode Manganese Moly electrode General LAS electrode 0.D2 E9018. Elec + Ve AC or DC . Elec + Ve AC or DC. 309.5Ni 1Ni. Elec + Ve ASME Classification for LAS Electrodes . 1Mo. Cb = Low carbon.Moly Electrode Chrom.12% C ≤ 0. Elec + Ve AC or DC. Elec + Ve / .9Ni 1Mn.05 – 0.25Cr.05% C= 0.5Mo 1/1. Elec – Ve AC or DC.15Cr.Moly Electrode Chrom.05 – 0.5Cr.Ve AC or DC .35Mo.Moly Electrode Chrom.5Mo.5Mn. Elec – Ve AC or DC.

 Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil  Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible  Temperature to be verified by thermo chalks prior to starting the weld  Preheating eliminates possible cracking of weld and HAZ  Applicable to  Hard enable low alloy steels of all thickness  Carbon steels of thickness above 25 mm. HIC. Delayed Crack. thickness & joint restraint Why Preheating? How does Preheating Eliminate Crack?  Preheating promotes slow cooling of weld and HAZ  Slow cooling softens or minimise hardening of weld and HAZ of CS & LAS  Soft material not prone to crack even in restrained condition What Is Post Heating/Dehydrogenation?  Raising the pre heating temperature of the weld joint to a predetermined temperature range (250° C to 350° C) for a minimum period of time (3 Hrs) before the weld cools down to room temperature. Cold Crack.  Post Heating applicable to joints welded with Preheat  Post heating performed when welding is completed or terminated any time in between.  Heating by Oxy fuel flame or electric resistant coil  Heating from opposite side of welding wherever possible  Temperature verified by thermo chalks during the period Why Post Heating?  Post heating eliminates possible delayed cracking of weld and HAZ  Applicable to o Thicker hard enable low alloy steels 5 .     Reduce the temperature to 100° C Hold the electrodes at this temperature till use Alternatively 15 baked electrodes can be packed in vacuum sealed foils and stored out side Consume all 15 electrodes within 2 Hrs after breaking the sealing Unused / left over electrodes to be re-baked Why Baking? To remove the moisture (H2O) from coating which will avoid possible cracking of weld?      How Does Moist Electrode Generate Crack Within Weld? Moist electrodes introduce atomic hydrogen at high temperature in weld On cooling. “Under Bead Crack”.HAZ Known as “Hydrogen Embrittlement” .  Restrained welds of CS & LAS of all thickness  Preheating temperature vary from 75°C to 300°C depending on harden ability of material. atomic hydrogen try to form molecules The attraction / force results in stresses and fine cracks Cracks occur within hardened metal . Important Terminologies used in Critical Welding Operation      Preheating Post Heating or Dehydrogenation Intermediate Stress relieving Inter pass Temperature Post Weld Heat Treatment What Is Preheating?  Heating the base metal along the weld joint to a predetermined minimum temperature immediately before starting the weld.

 This allows hydrogen to come out of weld / to grain boundaries in molecular form without cracks What Is Intermediate Stress Relieving?  Heat treating a subassembly in a furnace / locally along the weld joint to a predetermined cycle immediately on completion of critical restrained weld joint / joints without allowing the welds to cool down from pre heat temperature. Soaking temperature.  Cracks due to entrapped hydrogen. hardened HAZ and built in stress  “Intermediate stress relieving” makes the joint free from crack prone by o o o Relieving built in stresses Relieving entrapped hydrogen.  Applicable to o Stainless Steel o Carbon Steel & LAS with minimum impact Why Inter Pass Temperature?      Control on inter pass temperature avoids overheating. there by Refines the weld metal with fine grains Improves the notch toughness properties Minimize the loss of alloying elements in welds Reduces the distortion What Is Post Weld Heat Treatment?  Heat treating an assembly on completion of all applicable welding.o Restrained hard enable welds of all thickness  Post heating temperature and duration depends on harden ability of material. Soaking temperature. in an enclosed furnace with controlled heating/cooling rate and soaking at a specific temperature for a specific time. Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness  ISR applicable to joints welded with Preheat  Applicable to  Highly restrained air hard enable material Why Intermediate Stress Relieving?  Restrained welds in air hard enable steel highly prone to crack on cooling to room temperature. thickness & joint restrain How does Post Heating Eliminate Crack?  SMAW introduces hydrogen in weld metal  Entrapped hydrogen in weld metal induces delayed cracks unless removed before cooling to room temperature  Retaining the weld at a higher temperature for a longer duration allows the material to remain comparatively soft.Pass Temperature?  The temperature of a previously layed weld bead immediately before depositing the next bead over it  Temperature to be verified by thermo chalk prior to starting next bead on base metal adjacent to weld bead. Softening HAZ. Soaking time and rate of cooling depends on material quality and thickness  Applicable to  All type of CS & LAS  Welded joints retain internal stresses within the structure  HAZ of welds remains invariably hardened Why Post Weld Heat Treatment? 6 . Rate of heating. What Is Inter.  Rate of heating.

And the Welding Speed  It is measured in Joules Heat Input in Joules / mm = (A x V x 60) ÷ Travel Speed in mm / min What Is Heat Input In Welding? Why Control On Heat input?  “Heat Input” controls the grain size of weld metal. Dilution is the ratio of molten base metal volume (Area) to the volume (Area) of total fusion zone % Dilution = (Area of Diluted BM ÷Total Fused Area) × 100 Weld / Fusion Zone HAZ Diluted BM Fusion Line 7 .  Lower the Heat input finer the grain size. This reduces the cracking tendency of the equipment in service Welding Terminologies used in Qualifications      Heat Input Heat Affected Zone – HAZ Dilution Overlap In Weld Overlay Tempering Bead  The extent of heat energy generated in Joules per unit length while making each weld bead. Geometry of Bead size & distortion What Is Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) A small volume of BM adjacent to weld fusion line. width of HAZ.  “Heat Input” is the Function of Welding Current.  Finer the Grain size Better the impact properties  “Heat Input” Also controls Dilution. “Post Weld Heat Treatment” relieves internal stresses and softens HAZ. Arc Voltage. which is totally changed in its structure due to intense heat of each weld bead. is known HAZ Diluted BM HAZ Weld Zone Fusion Line Weld Zone Diluted BM What Is Significant Of HAZ?  It is a part and parcel of weld joint  It is inevitable  It has properties different from BM & Weld Metal Diluted BM HAZ Weld Zone Fusion Line Weld Zone Diluted BM What Is Dilution in Weld In all Fusion welding. a small portion of BM very close to the welding heat gets melted and added to weld zone / fusion zone.

More Thickness Less Thickness Less Dilution More Dilution 40 to 50 % Over Lap 10 to 15 % Over Lap What Is Significant Of Overlap In Weld Overlay?  Overlap of 40 to 50% results in Less Dilution & more weld overlay Thickness per layer  Less dilution results weld metal chemistry more towards filler metal chemistry More Thickness Less Dilution More Dilution Less Thickness 40 to 50 % Over Lap 10 to 15 % Over Lap What Is Temper Bead Technique?  In a multi pass groove & Fillet Welds. Temper beads are to be ground flush with the required reinforcement. except those in last layer.  Temper beads are the specially & carefully welded temporary beads on the top of final weld reinforcement without allowing to generate any HAZ within the BM.  Thus all beads & their HAZ. Weld metal chemistry changes depending on the extent of dilution  Chemical elements influence Physical properties of the joint. each bead & its HAZ are getting tempered (heat treated) by the welding heat of the next bead. Temper Bead  Temper Bead T1 & T2 Not To Generate HAZ In BM  Temper Beads To Be Ground Flush Rqd.  Weld chemistry influences corrosion resistance of weld overlays Diluted BM HAZ Weld Zone What Is Significant Of Dilution Fusion Line Weld Zone Diluted BM What Is Overlap In Weld Overlay?  The extent of covering or over lapping of previous weld bead by the adjacent bead. Reinforcement T1 5 4 3 T2 5 4 3 T1 & T2 To be ground Flush 2 1 HAZ 8 . are tempered.

9 . Pinhole 7. Slag 5.1. Burn Through 16. Under Flush 15. Excess Penetration 12. Crack 3. Porosity 6. Lack of Fusion 4. Lack of Penetration 11. Undercut 9. Suck Back 14. Piping 8. Spatters 13. Overlap 10. Uneven Bead 2.Stray Arcing Common Defects in SMAW Crack 1) 2) 3) 4) Cause Wrong Consumable Wrong Procedure Improper Preheat Excessive Restrain crack 1) 2) 3) 4) Remedy Use Right Electrode Qualify Procedure Preheat Uniformly Post heating or ISR Lack of Fusion Cause 1) Inadequate Current 2) Wrong Electrode angle 3) Improper bead placement Remedy 1) Use Right Current 2) Train /Qualify welder 3) Train/Qualify Welder Lack Of Fusion Slag Cause 1) 2) 3) 4) Inadequate Cleaning Inadequate Current Wrong Electrode angle Improper bead placement Remedy 1) 2) 3) 4) Clean each bead Use Right Current Train / Qualify welder Train / Qualify Welder Slag Porosity Cause 1) 2) 3) 4) Damp Electrode Damaged coating Wet surface of BM Rusted core wire Remedy 1) 2) 3) 4) Bake the electrodes Replace the electrodes Clean & warm the BM Replace the electrodes Porosity . .

Cause 1) Damp Electrode 2) Damaged coating 3) Wet surface of BM/WM 4) Rusted core wire Pinhole Pinhole Remedy 1) Bake the electrodes 2) Replace the electrodes 3) Clean & warm the BM 4) Replace the electrodes • Piping Cause 1) 2) 3) 4) Damp Electrode Damaged coating Previous beads wet Rusted core wire Remedy 1) 2) 3) 4) Bake the electrodes Replace the electrodes Clean & warm the weld Replace the electrodes Piping • Undercut Cause 1) Excess Current 2) Excess Voltage 3) Improper Electrode angle 5) Eccentric Coating Under cut Remedy 1) Reduce the Current 2) Reduce Arc length 3) Train & Qualify the Welder 5) Replace the electrode Overlap Cause Remedy 1) Wrong Electrode Angle 1) Train & Qualify welder 2) Inadequate current 3) Increase the current Overlap 10 .

Lack of Penetration* Cause 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Excess Root Face Inadequate Root opening Over size electrode Wrong Electrode angle Improper bead placement Improper weaving technique Remedy 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Reduce Root Face Increase Root Opening Reduce electrode size Train / Qualify Welder Train / Qualify Welder Train & Qualify Welder * Applicable to SSFPW LOP Excess Penetration* Cause Remedy 2) 3) 4) 5) Excess root opening Excess Current Inadequate root face Wrong Electrode angle 2) 3) 4) 5) Reduce root gap Reduce Current Increase Root face Train / Qualify Welder * Applicable to SSFPW Excess Penetration Spatters Cause 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Excess Current Excess Voltage Wrong Polarity Wet Electrodes Rusted BM surface Rusted Core wire Eccentrics coating Remedy 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Reduce to Right Current Reduce Arc length Correct the polarity Use Baked electrodes Clean BM surface Replace the electrodes Replace the electrodes Spatters • •• Suck Back* 1) 2) 3) 4) Cause Excess weaving in root Excess Current Inadequate root face Wrong Electrode angle Remedy 1)Reduce weaving 2) Reduce Current 3) Increase Root face 4) Train / Qualify Welder * Applicable to SSFPW in 4G. 3G & 2G Suck Back 11 .

Cause 1) 2) Under Flush Remedy 1) 2) 3) Weld some more beads in final layer Train / Qualify welder Train / Qualify Welder 3) Inadequate weld beads in final layer Inadequate understanding on weld reinforcement requirement Wrong selection of Electrode size for final layer Under flush Burn through* Cause 1) 2) 3) 4) Excess Current Excess Root opening Inadequate Root face Improper weaving Remedy 1) 2) 3) 4) Reduce the Current Reduce root opening Increase root face Train / Qualify Welder Burn trough Uneven Bead Finish Cause 1) Improper bead placement 2) Excess Voltage 3) Excess / inadequate current Remedy 1) Train & Qualify the Welder 2) Reduce Arc length 3) Train & Qualify the Welder Uneven bead finish Cause Stray Arcing Remedy 1) Wrong Arc Striking Practice 1) Train the Welder 2) Inadequate Skill of Welder 2) Train the Welder Arc Strikes 12 .

Do not keep electrode in the holder when work is not in progress Do not touch the electrode held on holder and the job when the power source is on Keep welding cables duly wound near power source when no welding is done Acetone / inflammable liquids (Chemical for dye penetrate test) shall not be brought near welding Gas cutting unit / fuel gas cylinders shall be away from welding area Wet safety Shoes or wet hand gloves shall not be worn while welding Do not breath welding fumes When working in confined area.  Only trained & qualified welders shall be employed for welding  Do not direct fan or blower to welding arc  Remove paint if any from the area near welding  While welding in open.Fillet / Reinforcement? Safety Precautions in SMAW                Welders shall use safety devises – Hand gloves. heat from opposite side of welding. ensure adequate ventilation / exhaust Gas cutting torch / preheating burner shall not be taken inside confined area unless the flame is lit When not in use. area shall be covered to protect from rain water & breeze  Weld edge preparation shall be free from serrations  Use poison plates between the job material & structural supports. Head screen with right glass & Safety shoes Welders shall use full sleeve boiler suit Use welding glass-DIN 11/12 up to 250 Amps and 13 above 250 Amps Do not look at the arc with naked eyes Do not throw Stubs on ground.  Remove visible defects from welds before placing the subsequent beads  Do not weld over a visible crack  Electrodes kept outside more than 2 Hrs shall be returned to baking oven  Maximum 15 electrodes at a time shall be taken from oven for welding  When preheat is required.  Tacks for set up shall be minimum 5 times the electrode diameter  Weaving shall be limited to three times the electrode diameter. switch off the power source from electric supply 13 . They shall be placed in stub collector.Good Engineering Practices in Shielded Metal Arc Welding  Do Welding with properly baked electrodes  Basic coated CS electrodes to be baked to 250°C to 300°C for two hours  Baked electrodes to be directly used on job or to be retained in a hold over oven at 100 °C until use  Unused balance electrodes shall be returned to baking oven  Do not weld with damp Electrodes  Do not try to heat electrodes by touching the job (Short circuiting)  Do not use electrodes with damaged coating  Do not use electrodes with cracked coating  Do not bend the electrodes after holding it in the holder  Do not weld on groove / surface with mill scale or rusting  Prior to welding.  Do not damage parent metal while removing temporary supports.  Use temperature indicating crayons for checking temperature  Does not Weld more than specified weld size.  Locations where from temporary supports are removed shall be touched up by welding / grinding and PT checked. clean the weld groove with power wire wheel  Do not weld with unidentified electrodes  Do not leave balance electrodes unattended on shop  All connections with earthing and welding cables shall be tight fitted  Earthing clamp shall always be tightly connected to the job  Burn the full length of electrode below 50 mm in stub length  Earthing cable shall directly connect to the job with an earthing clamp.

0 – 2.04 – 0.75 0.6 8.0 1.9 2.0 0.2.08 0.5 – 10.0-3.04 0.5 – 2.0 2.5 8.5 0.04 0.5 – 2.20 17 .04 0.75 0.5 – 2.16 E309H – 16 E309L .28 25 .0 0.14 12 .9 – 3.0 0.5 – 2.5 – 2.9 – 3.25 .15 0.03 AWS E318 .0 1.4 – 0.4) AWS E308 .0 1.04 0.5 – 2.5.5 1.16 E310H – 16 E310Cb – 16 E310Mo .75 0.5 0.7 0.5 2.11 9 .5 -23.04 0.5 – 1.14 12 .0-4.04 0.5 0.08 0.04 0.2.5 Cb 6*C 8*C 0. € N=0.08 0.04 0.16 E430Cb – 16 E2209 .75 0.18 15 .11 12 .16 E316L – 16 E317 – 16 E317L – 16 C 0.03 0.9 0.0 1.5 – 1.5-2.0 1.6 – 8. ¥ N=0.5 1.28 25 .21 22 .75 1.5 11. # N=0.0 1.25 22 .04 0.9 0.5 Si 1.5 0.5 – 2.35 – 0.04 0.11 0.5 – 4.12 0.0-3.0 1.5 – 1.5 – 2.25 25 .5 0.16 E316 – 16 E316H .14 11.04 – 0.5 – 2.08 – 0.75 0.04 0.0 1.16 @ E2553 – 16 # E2593 – 16 € E2594 – 16 ¥ C 0.5 24 .20.5 1.25.0 1.20 17 .04 0.45 0.04 S 0.1 0.75 2.5 .0 – 2.04 0.5 – 3.1 ------------Mn 0.0 1.75 0.3 14 .0 – 2.04 0.5 1.75 0.5 20 – 22.0 1.5 0.13.7 4.03 0.5 0.0 2.5 – 2.5 11-14 11-14 11-14 12-14 12-14 Mo 0.03 0.75 0.20 18-21 18-21 Ni 9 .14 9 .0 Si 1.0 3.04 0.5 0.16 E410NiMo .0-3.5 0.5 0.5 – 2.08-0. 0.0 3.16 E309 .04 0.5 – 2.5 1.11 9 .9 3.75 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.16 E309Cb .0-4.75 mAX Cb --------------------0.21 11 .75 0.5 ------ Mn 0.28 17 .0 1.75 0.5 0.06 0.27 24 .18 25.Commonly used SS Electrodes (Undiluted weld metal composition.04 0.5 – 2.27 Ni 11 .6 0.0 Cu= 0.16 E309Mo .16 E308H – 16 E308L .16 E409Cb – 16 E410 .03 0.0-3.5 20 – 22.08 – 0.7 .03 0.08 0.21 18 .15 0.03 0.04 0.12 0.0 1.1 0.5 – 2.5 20 – 22.03 0.0 0.5 0.21 18 .5 Mo 2.12.5.5 8 – 10.0 1.5 0.75 0.12 0.04 @ N=0.5 15 .04 – 0.16 E347 .0 1.27 24 .12 0.2 – 0.9 1.75 2.04 0.0 P 0.0 1.03 0.5 0.03 0.0 1.03 0.16 E310 .03 0.0 – 3.10 – 0.03 0.75 0.5 6.0 1.12 0.4 Cr 17 .14 12 .0 1.75 0.25 22 .0 0.0 1.04 0.0 0.03 0.20 18 .5 – 2.5 – 10.03 0.14 20 – 22.14 12 .0 1.0 2.08 0.0 P 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.0 0.08 0.06 0.16 E430 .03 0.04 Cr 18 .04 0.20 0.04 0.SFA5.75 2.5 ----0.03 0.25 22 .03 0.75 0.6 0.04 0.04 0-12 0.0-3.5 0.25 22 .28 25 .0 – 2.