Power Quality Monitoring and Analysis.

Case Study for 220/110 kV Substation

Marius Cornoiu*, Constantin Barbulescu*, Dan Jigoria-Oprea*, Stefan Kilyeni*, Gabriela Prostean**, Razvan Teslovan*
* “Politehnica” University, Power Systems Department, Timisoara, Romania
** “Politehnica” University, Management Department, Timisoara, Romania
marius.cornoiu@et.upt.ro, constantin.barbulescu@et.upt.ro, dan.jigoria@et.upt.ro, stefan.kilyeni@et.upt.ro,
gabrriela.prostean@mpt.upt.ro, razvan.teslovan@et.upt.ro


Abstract—Power quality is the set of regulations of electrical
properties that allows electrical systems to function without
significant loss of performance or aging. The term is used to
describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the
load's ability to operate properly with that electric power.
Without the proper power, an electrical device (or load) may
malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are
many ways when poor quality electric power is recorded and
many more causes of such poor quality power. The purpose
of the paper is to analyze the impact that different consumers,
acting on the open market, has with respect to the power
quality aspects. Within the paper a real case study is analyzed.
It is represented by a real substation within the Romanian
Power System. The power quality monitoring process has
been performed in case of the respective substation. The links
with the rest of the power system, such as two important
hydro power plants and the neighbouring area has been also
considered.
Keywords—power quality, monitoring, analysis, substation
I. INTRODUCTION
Power quality (PQ) is a term which has captured increas-
ing attention in power engineering within the recent years.
For most of the electric power engineers, the term refers
to a certain sufficiently high grade of electric service.
Usually the term quality refers to maintaining a sinusoidal
waveform of bus voltages at rated voltage and frequency [1].
One of the fundamental challenges facing utility and
working staff is the need to become familiar with and stay
informed about issues dealing with power quality. Power
suppliers and also the customers are going to find a solid
background in power quality not only useful, but necessary
too, for continued productivity and competitiveness. These
facts are supported by the utility industry which undergoes
restructuring and as customers find their service needs
changing with increased use of equipment and processes
more susceptible to power system disturbances.
Power quality is a growing concern for a wide range of
customers. Industrial customers can experience interruptions
of important processes during momentary voltage sags asso-
ciated with faults within the utility system [2]. Commercial
customers are installing high efficiency lighting and
electronic office equipment, resulting in higher harmonic
levels in the buildings. These harmonic sources cause
excessive neutral currents and transformer overheating.
Even residential customers are concerned about surge
protection for sensitive electronics in the home and the
impact of momentary interruptions on their electronic
equipment.
Power quality within the electric distribution system is a
growing concern. Customers require higher quality service
due to more sensitive electronic and computer-controlled
loads. Capacitor switching events and voltage sags asso-
ciated with remote faults that never caused problems in
the past, now cause equipment tripping and even failures
within customer facilities. Also, customer loads are gener-
ating increasing amounts of harmonic currents that can
be magnified on the distribution system due to resonance
conditions [3].
As technology becomes more advanced, equipment has
become more sensitive to fluctuations in voltage along
the distribution line. New equipment that increases
productivity for a plant may also cause power quality
problems for other equipment down the line [4]. Power
quality is now viewed from a systems perspective rather
than as an isolated instrument problem. Understanding
the entire scope of the problem helps in identifying the
solution and preventing future occurrences.
The existence of disturbances requires analysis, monitoring
and taking measures to ensure the quality of electricity.
Therefore, disturbances are those that significantly reduce
the quality of electricity affecting the generation, trans-
mission and distribution process, but also the electricity
consumption [2].
Voltage is the main qualitative element that conditions
the proper functioning of the receptor. That is why the
voltage quality practically defines the power quality [5], [6].
The paper is focusing on the power quality monitoring in
case of an important substation within the Romanian
Power System.
Power quality monitoring systems continuously measure
and analyze the power quality, and can carry out additional
functions, such as communication with an internet network,
statistical analysis through uninterrupted measurements, and
web-based deployment. Generally, the PQ monitoring
systems are classified in three generations, which vary
according to functions performed [2]. In the 1
st
gen-
eration, the functions are displaying electrical parameters
(voltage, current, and power, etc.) and evaluating power
quality. In the 2
nd
generation, the functions are event
detecting, power quality parameter computing, serial com-
munication and feature display. Finally, the functions in
the 3
rd
generation are power quality parameter computing,
communication and web-browsing features [4]. Within
this paper the authors are presenting a 2
nd
generation
monitoring equipment.
EXPRES 2011 • 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources • March 11-12, 2011, Subotica, Serbia
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Concerning the structure of the paper, following the
introduction, presented within the 1
st
section, the 2
nd
one
is discussing the issues regarding the link between the
consumers and the power quality aspects. The case study
is presented within the 3
rd
section: a real substation from
the Romanian Power System. The 4
th
section is dedicated
for the analysis and discussion of the data obtained from
the acquisition process and of the results. The final
conclusions are synthesized within the 5
th
section.
II. QUANTIFYING THE CONSUMERS
The electric consumers react and take part at changes
in electric system parameters, influencing its entire behav-
iour [3]. The change of the system electric quantities
(voltage and frequency) from the receptor point of view is
described by the system characteristics (real and reactive
power variation versus voltage and frequency). They are
static, if the dependency corresponds to the steady state,
or dynamic, if a transient operating condition is considered.
The knowledge of static characteristics is very important
in voltage and frequency control issues.
Regarding the static characteristics of the complex
consumer, their identification is a special issue. It can be
tackled on analytical basis (assembling the characteristics of
the individual components) or experimentally (considering
the measurements) [7]. In [7] are presented in detail the
solutions for the aforementioned aspects, having as a goal
to analyze the sensitivity of the real and reactive consumed
power regarding the voltage.
The daily load curves provide a graphical qualitative
and quantitative image of the real and reactive power
consumption [7].
Characteristic quantities for the daily load curves:
- the daily real energy:

24
a
0
( ) [kWh], [MWh] W P t dt = ·
}
(1)
- the daily reactive energy:

24
r
0
( ) [kVArh], [MVArh] W Q t dt = ·
}
(2)
- the maximum

/

minimum real

/

reactive consumed
power (P
min
, P
max
, Q
min
, Q
max
);
- the average daily consumed power:

24
0
avg
( )
24
P t dt
P
·
=
}
or
24
0
avg
( )
24
Q t dt
Q
·
=
}
(3)
- the daily flattening coefficient:

med
P
max
P
k
P
= ;
med
Q
max
Q
k
Q
= (4)
- the daily non-uniformity coefficient:

min
P
max
P
P
o = ;
min
Q
max
Q
Q
o = (5)
- the daily maximum power usage:

24
a
max max
0
( )
UP
W P t
T dt
P P
= = ·
}
;
24
r
max max
0
( )
UQ
W Q t
T dt
Q Q
= = ·
}
(6)
- the average power factor:

a
med
2 2
a
cos( )
r
W
W W
¢ =
+
(7)
- the power factor of maximum load:

max
max
2 2
max max
cos( )
P
P Q
¢ =
+
(8)
- the average square power:
( )
24
2 2
0
1
P P t dt
T
= ·
}
; ( )
24
2 2
0
1
Q Q t dt
T
= ·
}
(9)
- the form factor (being the ratio between the RMS
value and the average value):

2
PF
P
k
P
= ;
2
QF
Q
k
Q
= (10)
- the real power variation coefficient:

2 2
P
avg
P P
c
P
÷
= ;
2 2
Q
avg
Q Q
c
Q
÷
= . (11)
The quantities (1)-(11) are computed and their numerical
values are presented in [7].
III. CASE STUDY
The case study refers to Iaz 220/110 kV substation and
neighbouring network area, within the Romanian Power
System:
- Ruieni Hydro Power Plant (2x70 MW) and Ruieni
substation with two step up power transformers
(2x90 MVA) and a double circuit 110 kV OHL
Ruieni-Iaz;
- Raul Alb Hydro Power Plant (2x20 MW) and 110 kV
OHL Raul Alb-Caransebes-Iaz;
- Iaz substation (Fig. 1) with two 231/121/10.5 kV
autotransformers (AT1 and AT2 - 2x200 MVA).
The used measurement equipment was TOPAS 1000.
This equipment is produced by LEM NORMA GmbH –
Austria was used to monitor the electrical quantities. This
equipment is property of Romanian Power Grid Company
Transelectrica S.A [8], [9].
The base unit has 8 shielded analogue inputs that can
be used for any kind of measurements for both current
and voltage. The total measurement error for the voltage
or current sensor is under the Class A error according to
EN 61000-4-7 norm.
The measurement equipment is fitted with a 420 MB HDD
allowing to be connected to a MS Windows compatible
PC through an Ethernet network connection. It can be
part of any Ethernet based network (10 Base 2 – twisted
M. Cornoiu et al. • Power Quality Monitoring and Analysis. Case Study for 220/110 kV Substation
- 134 -
pair). Alternatively, the communication with the equipment
is established via serial port (RS 232) and serial modem.
It is further noted that it has complex software allowing
the obtaining of complete protocols that compliance with
EN, IEC, IEEE norms [10].
The measurements were conducted between May 14
th

and May 20
th
, 2010. Measurements and records have
been conducted in the following points:
- on the 110 kV bus bar of the 110/10.5 kV step up
transformer corresponding to the 2
nd
hydro generator
from Ruieni hydro power plant;
- on the 110 kV bus bar from Raul Alb Power Plant;
- on the 110kV bus bar of each autotransformer from
Iaz substation.


Fig. 1. One-line scheme of the Iaz substation

During the measurement and recording period, the
ancillary services for all the hydro power plants were
supplied directly from the hydro generators. During the
period when some hydro generators were unavailable,
ancillary services for Ruieni hydro power plant were
supplied from the 110 kV network and for Raul Alb from
20 kV network. Also, AVR for all the hydro generators
was enabled. Starting with May 18
th
, at 7:50 a.m., AT1
from Iaz substation was retired from service.
The configuration of the electrical quantities acquisition
process is presented in Fig. 2.
A software tool has been developed in Matlab environ-
ment for data acquisition processing.

Fig. 2. Configuration of the power quality monitoring process.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Apart from voltage measurement and recording, real
and reactive power values have been also recorded for
different substation circuits:
- 110 kV OHL Iaz-Nadrag;
- 110 kV OHL Iaz-Otelu Rosu;
- 110 kV OHL Iaz-SRAa;
- 110 kV OHL Iaz-SRAb.
The corresponding load curves are presented in Fig. 3
to Fig. 6.
As it can be observed from Fig. 3, between 0:00 May
16
th
and 0:00 May 18
th
, the real power transfer on Iaz-
Nadrag OHL is characterized by very small variations
during this period. The value of peak real power is much
smaller, (almost five times smaller) compared with same
time period from previous days. During the same period,
the quantity of real power transferred on Iaz-Otelu Rosu
OHL (Fig. 4) decreases gradually.
Real power transfer on Iaz-SRAa OHL is characterized
by small variations, except from May 14
th
22:00 and May
15
th
10:00 when a power dip appears, the value of real
power decreases with 50%. During the same period, on
Iaz-SRAb is registered an real power peak, when the real
power increases suddenly from a few W to almost 5-5.5 kW.
EXPRES 2011 • 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources • March 11-12, 2011, Subotica, Serbia
- 135 -

Fig. 3. 110 kV OHL Iaz-Nadrag average real and reactive power

Fig. 4. 110 kV OHL Iaz-Otelu Rosu average real and reactive power

Fig. 5. 110 kV OHL Iaz-SRAa average real and reactive power

Fig. 6. 110 kV OHL Iaz-SRAb average real and reactive power
One of the analyses that had been conducted is repre-
sented by the voltage unbalances. For the monitored circuits,
the values for the voltage unbalance are presented in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Voltage unbalance for all the monitored circuits
For autotransformer 1 (AT1), voltage unbalance values
varies between 0.2% and 0.6% in the majority of the
monitored period, the minimum and maximum values are
0.134% and 0.817%. The Ruieni circuit is characterized
by a similar disposition of voltage unbalance values, with
a minimum of 0.287% and a maximum of 0.757%.
For Raul Alb circuit, voltage unbalance values variations
are bigger and also appear some important peaks (e.g.
1.874% on May 17
th
at 4:40, 1.66% on May 17
th
at 14:00).

Fig. 8. Iaz-Raul Alb circuit voltage unbalance
In Table I to Table III, the harmonic voltage values are
presented and also the values of the THD (total harmonic
distortion) for all the monitored circuits.
TABLE I
HARMONIC PHASE VOLTAGE VALUES – RUIENI
Quantity Admissible limit [%]
a
U [%]
b
U [%]
c
U [%]
THD 0-8 1.44 1.50 1.23
3 0-5 0.54 0.49 0.33
5 0-6 1.20 1.35 1.08
TABLE II
HARMONIC PHASE VOLTAGE VALUES – RAUL ALB
Quantity Admissible limit [%]
a
U [%]
b
U [%]
c
U [%]
THD 0-8 1.70 1.74 1.70
3 0-5 0.64 0.35 0.68
5 0-6 1.38 1.61 1.36
M. Cornoiu et al. • Power Quality Monitoring and Analysis. Case Study for 220/110 kV Substation
- 136 -
TABLE III
HARMONIC PHASE VOLTAGE VALUES – AT1
Quantity Admissible limit [%]
a
U [%]
b
U [%]
c
U [%]
THD 0-8 1.45 1.48 1.47
3 0-5 0.51 0.46 0.56
5 0-6 1.27 1.38 1.29
Analyzing the values in the tables above, no over-
comes are recording for neither harmonics. All values are
in the admissible limit.
For Raul Alb monitoring point, the 3
rd
harmonic voltage
profile presents both high values and high variations on the
C voltage phase, corresponding to the same time frame when
are recorded the high values of the voltage unbalance (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9. 3
rd
harmonic voltage profile for Raul Alb
Compared with the other monitored circuits, large varia-
tions of the 3
rd
harmonic voltage are recorded on A-phase
(Fig. 10) and C-phase of Raul Alb (Fig. 11).
In Fig. 12 the voltage THD variation (VTHD) is
plotted for Ruieni. A plot with similar shape characterizes
Raul Alb too. As it can be observed, the THD values
variation is similar for each voltage phase, higher values
and variation is present during the time frame when the
voltage unbalance value is bigger (17 May) (Fig. 13). As
soon as AT1 is disconnected (starting with May 18
th
at
7:40) smaller values for THD are recorded on each phase
both on Ruieni and Raul Alb.

Fig. 10. A-Phase 3
rd
harmonic voltage profile

Fig. 11. C-phase 3
rd
harmonic voltage profile

Fig. 12. Voltage THD variation for Ruieni

Fig. 13. B-Phase Voltage THD variation for Ruieni
V. CONCLUSION
The case study refers to a real substation from the
Romanian Power System.
Based on the performed analysis, significant issues
regarding the power quality aspects in case of the moni-
tored substation have not been pointed-out. The voltage
quality is suitable. Only the presence of several distortions
within the voltage waveform has been highlighted.
Additional measures are necessary to be taken in case
of harmonic attenuation, for the ones having a significant
value, as presented within the paper. To achieve this
goal, the authors are currently working on optimal sizing
EXPRES 2011 • 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources • March 11-12, 2011, Subotica, Serbia
- 137 -
of harmonic filters. They current stage refers to their
implementation within the substation. The results are
going to be presented within a future paper.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
This work was supported by the European Economic Area
EEA grant RO 0018, "Improvement of the Structures and
Efficiency of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Generators with
Non-Regulated Blades".
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