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december 2012 Vol.8 no.12


Cover Story

Green Korea Green World

Going Green with the Globe Korea Leads the Green Way

Green Growth for All

12 Pen & brush Folk art painter Lee Yong-ae

16 People a Grandma With a Stethoscope Dr. Cho byung-kuk

20 Great Korean a Great thinker and Revolutionist Shin Chae-ho

22 Seoul Yeouidos IFC mall bringing Vibrancy to Koreas Wall Street

26 Travel a pure White town Under the azure Sky Jeongseon in Winter

30 festival the pyeongchang trout Festival

32 Now in Korea play anytime anywhere in Korea anipang

34 Sports taekwondo around the World

36 Entertainment Setting Sights on new heights K-pop evolves

38 Global Korea South Korea Leads Global trend for e-Government System

40 Summit Diplomacy South Korean Leader Visits Cambodia for Regional Cooperation Summits

42 Special Issue a new home for the Korean Government Sejong City

45 flavor Garaetteok & Jocheong

46 My Korea oriental Clinic

49 Learn Korean It seems it will snow.

publisher Woo Jin-Yung, Korean Culture and Information Service editing the booK CompanY e-mail printing Jeonkwang printing&Information all rights reserved. no part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without permission from KOrea and the Korean Culture and Information Service. the articles published in KOrea do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher. the publisher is not liable for errors or omissions. If you want to receive a free copy of KOrea or wish to cancel a subscription, please e-mail us. A downloadable PDF file of KOrea and a map and glossary with common Korean words appearing in our text are available by clicking on the thumbnail of KOrea on the homepage of



Green Growth for All

green korea green world

The advanced countries have for too long turned a blind eye to the degradation of the environment for the sake of economic growth. This path is termed brown growth in contrast to green growth, a more environment-friendly and sustainable path of economic growth. Advocates of green growth call for the suppression of all sorts of pollutive activities through appropriate regulations and taxation and by revamping pricing systems. Korea has strived to promote green growth domestically and internationally by helping develop green technologies and industries and by exercising green diplomacy. Two of the outcomes of such endeavors are the launch of the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) and the selection of Songdo as the host of the United Nations Green Climate Fund (GCF) Secretariat. No doubt, Korea is among the pack of the global leaders in green growth.

2 korea december 2012

The Hangwon Wind Power Generation Complex in Jeju is Koreas first wind power generators generating 21,900 MW of energy annually.

Presidential Committee on Green Growth and organization related to green growth. His

the more difficult launching of an international government has followed through, and after four years, the nation is celebrating the first fruits of its success.


On October 20, the Board of the Green

Climate Fund (GCF) announced that Songdo the competition to host the GCF. Five other

International Business District in Incheon won countries including Germany, Mexico, Namibia, Poland, and Switzerland had also made bids. fund founded three years ago within the on Climate Change to assist and finance The GCF is a multibillion-dollar UN-operated

framework of the UN Framework Convention developing countries adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change. At the Copenhagen COP in 2009, developed nations

agreed to increase climate aid, now about USD ten billion a year, to an annual USD 100 billion by 2020 to help developing countries curb

greenhouse gas emissions and cope with floods,

Going Green with the Globe

droughts, heat waves, and rising sea levels. By

KoreA leAds the Green wAy

The past four years have seen Korea make stellar progress in low-carbon green growth. The government established legal and institutional frameworks to facilitate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and has invested increasingly heavily in green technologies and industries, leading the international community in the green way.
by Lee Jeong-eun and Chung Da-young / in cooperation with the Presidential Committee on Green Growth

South Koreas Green Leadership

In celebration of the 60th anniversary of the foundation of the nation in 2008, President Lee Myung-bak announced the beginning of the green growth paradigm. I propose a new vision for the nation:

that time, the fund should be comparable in size to the International Monetary Fund, and the GCF should be commensurate in status with the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. South Koreas hosting of the GCF Secretariat evidences the nations international status and influence within the world as an active player in green growth. When the GCF secretariat establishes its headquarters in Songdo next year, it will be the first major international

Low Carbon Green Growth. Green growth is sustainable growth that also reduces It will be a new paradigm for national of growth for the nation. greenhouse gases and environmental pollution. development that creates jobs and new drivers His ambitious plans included setting up the

organization to be based in South Korea and

the first environmental organization in Asia.

Korea had already established two centers for strategy and technology development in the

Before the bid for the GCF secretariat, South

field of green growth: the Global Green Growth


4 korea december 2012


Institute (GGGI) and the Green

Technology Center Korea (GTCK) government.

initiated and set up by the Korean The GGGI, established in June

2010, is a think tank that develops strategies for environmentfriendly economic growth. It is

an outgrowth of President Lees commitment to next-generation energy sources and technologies for acknowledged as an international

developed countries. The GGGI was organization at the Rio+20 Summit in Brazil establishment of a national carbon exchange system by January 2015. The three organizations (GCF, GGGI, and

days after the announcement of Songdo. The GTCK was launched in March this year as a center of green technology R&D.

broader effort by Korean officials to turn Asias fourth-largest economy into a greener one and share its experience with other countries. Since President Lee Myung-bak proclaimed

The establishment of the two was part of a

GTCK) will be the finance, strategy, and

technology entities of the Green Triangle

initiative envisioned by the South Korean

seven global green powerhouses by 2020 and one of the top five by 2050. Since 2009, the government has developed and invested in proposed policies.


government to build a sustainable platform

The current government also aims to increase for all energy needs from 2.4 percent last year to over 11 percent by 2030. The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), mandatory usage

for green growth. South Korea has secured a

green growth as a new national vision in 2008, the government has allocated two percent of the nations GDP per year toward reducing fuels, increasing use of alternative energy,
1 President Lee Myung-bak visited Ilulissat during his official visit to Greenland in September. 2 The GGGI was acknowledged as an international organization at the Rio+20 Summit 2012.

position in the international society as a political bridge through numerous achievements such as hosting events including the G20 Seoul Summit in 2010 and the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. And now with the Green Triangle

new green technologies and implemented the

South Koreas dependence on renewable energy

1 The Songdo I-Tower in Incheon will house the GCF Secretariat. 2 A hydrogen car fuelled by a hydrogen fuel cell. It is recognized as the ecofriendly car of the future.

local economies heavy dependence on fossil and development of green industries. In 2009,


One of the ideas the government has been pushing for is a carbon-trading system requiring companies to reduce greenhouse

of renewable energy for public buildings, the

One Million Green Homes Project, and green

pieced together, South Korea is better positioned to establish itself as a global environment leader.

car development are some of the governments The usage of renewable energy for public

the country pledged to cut its greenhouse gas

emissions by 30 percent from business-as-usual nearly unanimously passed legislation for the

levels by 2020. This May, the National Assembly

Green Technology
South Korea is one of the first countries to enshrine green growth in its national development strategy. In 2008, the country dedicated 80 percent of its fiscal stimulus plan to green growth projects, particularly

gas emissions. Under the so-called cap-and-

plans that are under way to realize this scheme. buildings was implemented in 2004, but

trade system on the emissions of greenhouse gases, firms will have to trade allowances on in a marketplace like a stock exchange. emissions measured in tons among themselves In the initial stage, the government will hand

this policy has been strengthened after the

governments green growth plan. Before, five percent of the total construction fees for new public buildings was set aside for installing renewable energy systems. Now, ten percent of total energy consumption must be met by and geothermal power as sources of energy homes were transformed into green homes with support from the government. South Korea is also leading the global renewable energy. More homes are using solar instead of gas and fuel. In 2010, nearly 30,000

out most of the allowances free of charge. The

cap will vary by company and industry. Then, emissions below the cap, or buy quotas from

infrastructure and transportation. The following year, the government announced plans to invest USD 85 billion in clean energy technologies and implement its green growth plan, creating a clean-tech export industry.

starting in 2013, the firms will have to keep their other firms who have excess allowances. The and demand in the market.

price will be naturally determined by supply Local business associations have opposed the

more than one million new jobs and bolstering These plans were disclosed in 2009 during a

scheme, citing the cost. However, officials assert reducing the heavy dependence on oil and gas imports and developing alternative energy sources that are friendly to the environment.

session overseen by the Presidential Committee on Green Growth Strategy and Five-Year Green

that the carbon-trading system is crucial toward

industry in green technology development. Companies such as Samsung SDI and LG Chemical have claimed more than 40 percent of the global market for lithium secondary batteries that are used to power smart phones

Growth Plan (2009-2013). The government

presented its goal to become one of the top

6 korea december 2012


1 A view of the Sihwaho Lake Tidal Power Station 2 Batteries being recharged at the solar power plant in Koh Slar, Cambodia

and electric cars. Exports of secondary batteries reached USD four billion in 2011, nearly double the USD 2.5 billion level in 2009. The countrys competitive edge in the

extremely poor. What is more, roughly 70 power.

percent of Cambodian territory has no electric The only electricity the villagers of Ta Ken

clear criteria for green ODA, but the OECD Development Assistance Committees aidto-environment policy marker and the Rio green

secondary battery market is also influencing eco-friendly green car development. In 2010, Hyundai Motor Company developed the

Koh Sla could use was battery power, and the

Markers must generally apply. Put succinctly, environment and green growth. Korea also considers new and renewable energy in addition to those factors. The EACP helps residents in poor,

batteries had to be recharged at a private diesel

ODA considers the recipient countrys

nations first full-speed battery electric vehicle has promised to support the private sector in

power plant once every three or four days. That is, until they got their own solar plant last May. The Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) constructed two solar plants of 30

(EV): the BlueOn. The South Korean government developing the parts and materials needed for

EV manufacturing, and it is already providing a subsidy of USD 18,000 for each first-time EV buyer.

kW and 60 kW capacity as part of the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP), KOICAs flagship program. The 60 kW plant serves Ta Ken Koh Sla, allowing the villagers to read and watch TV as they please.

underdeveloped areas use a range of new and renewable energy sources including solar energy, hydroelectric power, biomass, and waste, thereby facilitating job creation and boosting projects in ten countries including Sri Lanka and Mongolia. incomes. The EACP is presently conducting 20 future for developing countries, but also more opportunities for Korean companies to enter potential. developing green markets with great growth As seen in the Cambodian case earlier,

The East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP)

Its so good to be able to read books at night! exclaimed Bopha, a 12-year-old boy living in Province, Cambodia.
1 The LED panel installed in the ceiling of the Expo Digital Gallery was a great hit during Expo 2012 Yeosu. 2 Smart grid and electrical installation

green growth in Asia and help developing

The EACP is KOICAs program to facilitate

countries better respond to climate change. suggestion at the G8 Summit held in July

It was initiated at President Lee Myung-baks 2008. The EACP has since become a byword assistance (ODA) for developing countries. A new buzzword in the international


the EACP helps improve the quality of life in the recipient countries, leaving a good impression of Korea in their hearts, and above all things heightens the awareness of green of the recipient countries. growth among the governments and peoples Koreas green ODA will stimulate its own

The Korean government has more plans for Green Growth (PCGG) foresees green ODA

the small village of Ta Ken Koh Sla in Kampot Ta Ken Koh Sla was established for disabled

green ODA. The Presidential Committee on representing at least 30 percent of Koreas total ODA by 2020. Korea is especially competitive in such areas as new and renewable energy, energy efficiency, and water management.

for environment-friendly official development

military veterans. This means that it is the

women and children who labor to earn a living. The general living conditions are, naturally,

community is green ODA, and the EACP is a green ODA initiative. There are not yet any

growth and instill hope and dreams in the underdeveloped places across the world.

Increasing green ODA not only means a greener

hearts of numerous kids like Bopha in many

8 korea december 2012


Chairman Yang Soo-gil of the Presidential Committee on Green Growth

Korea has been in the vanguard of shaping the worlds green growth paradigm for the past four years. Chairman Yang Soo-gil of the Presidential Committee on Green Growth (PCGG) tells us the outcomes of Koreas effort for green growth so far, the hurdles ahead, Koreas role in the international community as a green growth leader, and future directions. by Lee Jeong-eun

From Brown to Green Growth


growth an integral part of the everyday life of Koreans, the government is promoting green cities, buildings,

transportation, education, and lifestyle in numerous ways. For example, we plan to lay more railways, encourage the use of bicycles instead of cars for commuting, and induce people to generate less food waste. More and more businesses are

opting for green management with a more in green technology to create a new source of competitiveness. Why do we need green growth as a new economic growth model? Humanity, especially in advanced is needed more desperately than ever, expected to expand. the roles of the three organizations are

forward-looking attitude. They invest

Environment-friendly companies are perceived as consumer-friendly, and the public also feels the need for a reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

countries, has, since the Industrial depleting natural resources and

change in lifestyle to save energy and

Revolution, pursued economic growth, damaging the environment. This path growth. As a result, the planet,

What are the major outcomes of green growth in Korea? For the past four years, the PCGG agencies, many businesses, and

What are the challenges that the next administration should tackle for green growth?

of economic growth is termed brown humanitys only home, faces a serious environmental crisis. Green growth is meant to address the adverse side all sorts of activities that damage

along with other relevant government citizens have all made efforts to lay the foundation for green growth. For example, we now have an overall framework, a system to

government has focused on paving the way for green growth, the next government should make aggressive

Korea as the chair incorporated its growth in the summit agreement,

The groundwork for green growth,

support for the promotion of green and at the 2012 Rio+20 summit, Korea

including the legal and organizational frameworks and mid- and long-term detailed institutional reforms are plans, has been established, but more necessary to achieve a more substantial outcome. The reform of pricing and taxation systems and other specific institutional improvements should be made to encourage businesses

advances by making the case for green their awareness into real practice.

growth so that the public will translate

presented green growth as an inclusive action-oriented strategy for sustainable development and announced its plan to pursue a Global Green Growth Partnership. The launch of the GGGI, which is of which founding was led by

effects of brown growth by suppressing the environment through regulation pricing systems to the effect they Green growth is also about more and industries.

facilitate reductions in greenhouse

and taxation and thereby revamping become more environment-friendly. support for eco-friendly technologies Fully aware of the need for a new in the international community. What is the meaning and role of the so-called green triangle? The green triangle refers to a green architecture for all with the three organizations for green growth that involve Korea. They are the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), the Green Climate Fund (GCF) of

gas emissions, and green industries economic growth. Of course, it is

What are the primary diplomatic

that are ready to help drive national premature to evaluate the outcome of meaningful change.

outcomes so far and Koreas role to in regards green growth?

play in the international community Koreas multifarious efforts to

the first international organization Korea, Songdos hosting of the GCF Secretariat, and KOICAs EACP are promotion of global green growth. The green way is a long way. As a leader in green growth, Korea needs examples of Koreas leading role in the

Koreas green growth policy, but I see The paradigm for national economic

and individuals to save more energy, thereby reducing greenhouse gas system for green technology and emissions. Deregulation and a support industries are called for to make new and renewable energy more feasible. The publics awareness of the

establish green growth as a new

growth paradigm in the international outcomes. At such international organizations as the OECD and

means of achieving long-term growth and a new economic paradigm, the vision with a focus on low-carbon Korean government declared a national green growth for the next 60 years at

growth changed from brown to green growth, and we have established the underpin the change. legal and institutional groundwork to A five-year plan for green growth

community have garnered significant

the United Nations, Korea has led discussions on green growth and resulting in the adoption of the suggested the adoption of declarations, Declaration on Green Growth by the OECD ministers. The OECD is also drawing up a Green Growth Strategy

national ceremony commemorating the Republic of Korea on August 15, 2008. Korea, but has become a shared asset

the United Nations, and the Green Technology Center-Korea (GTCK). has made Korea a global leader The completion of this green triangle in green growth. As international

and national targets on reductions in

importance of green growth has risen, but many still believe that green growth means a lower quality of life reason, the practice of green growth has been limited. If the incumbent

international climate change efforts, continue to promote green growth, its green efforts in concert with bear fruit for all. and devise effective policies so that countries around the world will

to continue contributing to

60th anniversary of the founding of the Green growth is no longer confined to

greenhouse gas emissions have been set, and green technologies and industries are receiving more investment. Green

with annoying inconveniences. For this

industries are becoming the next great growth driver. In order to make green

cooperation to counter climate change

Report. At the 2010 G20 Seoul Summit,

10 korea december 2012



Folk Art PAinter lee Yong-Ae

by Im Sang-bum / photographs by Moon Duk-gwan

Aesthetic Symbolism Captured on Canvas

Minhwa is a genre of traditional Korean folk art that has seen renewed interest in recent years. The minhwa paintings by Lee Yong-ae are humorous, imaginative, and unpresumptuous, capturing the lives of Koreans through symbolic figures and objects. As a contemporary traditional folk artist, she experiments a great deal while retaining the essential elements of traditional Korean folk painting.

ambling with a humorous facial expression, tigers pass by peony blossoms, which are

painting using bunchae (special color paints), beginning with white. Bunchae is not easy to an inkstone or plate to make it fluid paint. use. You have to rub a bunchae stick in water on Bunchae paints become solid or evaporate

expressed with sophisticated scrumbling. On a slender pine twig is a magpie with good news to share.

delicate touches of the brush. They feature

Lee Yong-aes paintings are creations of

quickly, says Lee, so I have to concentrate very hard for three or four hours at a time. The white bunchae is an especially sensitive paint, because the seashell powder tends to precipitate and stirred up.

animals, plants, and objects that have long

been familiar to Koreans, as well as the lives of minhwa is believed to be hundreds of years paintings depict peoples lives and wishes through humor and satire.

Koreans. Traditional Korean folk painting called old and is a treasured cultural legacy. Minhwa

renders different shades of white whenever it is When a painting is about 90 percent

completed, she brings it to a paper backing shop to make the paper smooth and even. As a final step, she paints the most important and exquisite parts, small as they are. Shes been following the same process for years, but that does not mean she didnt have any

immersed in this genre of art. It took her years are notoriously difficult to acquire.

beauty of minhwa 15 years ago, Lee has been

Ever since she discovered the value and

to master the basic techniques of minhwa, which The first step of painting is to dye paper

inner conflicts about the direction of her art. TRADITION OR REINTERPRETATION shall I cling to the tradition of minhwa or

using alder cones and gardenia seeds. The

possibilities for effect are endless. The shades of color depend on the thickness of the paper, the type and concentration of dye, and the number her paper herself. After the paper is ready, she decides what story to tell. The next step is to finally grab a brush. First, she does a rough sketch with meok

One day, she was at an important crossroads: creatively reinterpret it from a modern

of times the paper is dyed. This is why she dyes

point of view? The answer seemed elusive,

but she eventually decided to walk the two the symbolism and humor of minhwa, but creatively experiment with it on the way.

ways at the same time. She decided to keep

Happy. A painting with a very modern feature, the English word happy; 50 x 80cm, 2012.

(traditional black ink), and then colors the

12 korea december 2012

Painting the landscape as it unfolds before

Symbolism is what makes minhwa minhwa.


1 Artist Lee Yong-ae paints minhwa as if she is praying. 2 Lee uses a special paint called bunchae for her work.

young painters attempt to reinterpret minhwa,

Shall We Talk? A painting that Lee Yong-ae did when thinking of her son and herself. Its gold dust accents are beautiful; 90x 85cm, 2011.

Lee is not alone. Recent years have seen

Minhwa also leads

and she applauds them. Some paint minhwa on using clippings of photos and minhwa. It is

Lee to moments of

canvas using acrylic paints; some create collages now common to frame a minhwa painting and hang it in a modern space rather than hang it in the form of a scroll. Minhwa paintings from her eyes or an ideal world in an aesthetic how to respect the traditional form of minhwa not only in content but also in form. MINHWA AS PRAYERS

enlightenment. While

coloring her painting, to stop. When she

there comes a moment fails to stop, she soon realizes what human greed is, once again. is an ascetic means ae perfects herself as a human being Perhaps, minhwa

hundreds of years ago are different from todays

manner cant be minhwa, which has a clear

goal of depicting human lives using symbolic figures, creatures, and objects. Everything own meaning. Peony blossoms symbolize vases peace at home, and magpies good that is featured in a minhwa painting has its wealth and honor, pomegranates fecundity, news and blessings. Tigers are believed to and magpies also symbolize greedy and

but also rearrange the symbols in new and

varied ways. She doesnt constrain herself to the real sizes and proportions of things and even uses English words like happy in her

like a fine pearl in the mud. Only in recent years has the genre drawn renewed appreciation. To borrow Lees expression, minhwa is not fettered

The value of minhwa was hidden for so long,

by which Lee Yong-

paintings. In order to give a three-dimensional feel, she paints butterflies separately and glues them on afterwards. Her solo exhibition held this last October

and an artist. What

by a strict frame of form, but a genre of freedom, perhaps the best to encapsulate Korean humor for health, happiness, and abundance. and satire and human beings universal wishes In that sense, minhwa is like a prayer for Lee.

is admirable about her practice of asceticism is reaches out to the outer world.

that she does not remain in her inner world, but I can help others only just so much with

chase away evil spirits and bad luck. Tigers corrupt government officials and commoners

vividly demonstrated how she is walking the

two ways simultaneously. Half of the exhibited works were faithful to the tradition of minhwa, and the other half were minhwa paintings that

money, Lee says. My humble hope is that my paintings, even if only for a moment.

respectively. So a minhwa painting of a magpie perched on a pine tree teasing and provoking a tiger is full of humor and satire. Lee constantly poses questions to herself on

Deeply absorbed in painting, she consigns soul must go through, and gains peace at

people will smile and be at peace when they see Like those by painters of hundreds of years

incorporate modern formative arts. Some view her new minhwa style as pop art or Western painting.

to oblivion her lifes tribulations, which any heart, set free from all the noisy voices within.

many souls of her time.

ago, Lee Yong-aes minhwa paintings console

14 korea december 2012



A Grandma With a Stethoscope

Dr. Cho BYung-kuk

She spent about half a century at a clinic attached to Holt Childrens Services Inc. as a mother and physician of children waiting to be adopted. At nearly the age of 80, she still holds her stethoscope to the chests of patientsorphaned and disabledto hear their lungs and hearts. She tells us hopeful stories of one of the lowliest places in the world. by Lee Jeong-eun / photographs by Moon Duk-gwan

ood morning, Doctor!

nose. Im wearing five layers, but caught a cold anyway.

I have a cold. No temperature, just a runny

Hi, Matae. Are you sick?

stethoscope for a while due to serious shoulder

pains. Some time later, I received a call from the Holt Ilsan Center. They asked me to take care of already three years ago. disabled children just for four months. That was The Holt Ilsan Center opened in 1961 for

at this sweat. If you wear too much, you are

Oh, youre wearing too many clothes. Look

actually more likely to catch a cold. Driving hard.

children who are both disabled and orphaned. Their disabilities prevented them from being adopted. The center is home to 270 persons

the garbage truck early in the morning must be Matae (a Korean transliteration of Matthew)

with disabilities including some who came here when the center opened. Matae is one of them. The residents not only receive training and

frequents the clinic office of Dr. Cho Byung-kuk. He has a mental disability. Like a small child who looks around for his mom as soon as he

treatment, but learn how to live as independent human beings. Mataes disability is not too his wife and children. serious, so he works at the center to support

wakes up in the morning, Matae comes to her office at the slightest cough or scratch. It is his very heart that he wants to have cured. At a clinic attached to Holt Childrens

Services, Cho spent about 50 years as a mother be adopted. Today, she works for persons who were not adopted because of their disabilities. Next year, she turns 80, but she cannot leave Holt. I joined the clinic in 1974 and retired in


and physician of children who were waiting to

Chos reasons for becoming a medical doctor

are painful. After losing two younger siblings dying during the Korean War, she decided to from Yonsei University School of Medicine

become a life-restoring doctor. She graduated and did her internship at Seoul City Dongbu a resident. Before she joined Holt Childrens Services years later, she volunteered there. In the 1960s, Korea was an extremely

1993, says Cho. Because of the low pay,

nobody wanted to fill the vacancy. So, I worked director. One day, I had to put down my
16 korea december 2012

Childrens Hospital, where she also served as

there for another 15 years with the title, former

In cooperation with

to disease and then seeing people injured and



soon lifted, she had already suffered great

frustration, asking herself, Was what I did

a letter, says Cho. I feel the same way right to all those nurses and volunteers who have helped me with this mission in many ways.

merely to export orphans? She had only hoped to find new parents for sick and abandoned children to help them grow in loving homes, but there were few in Korea who were willing and turned her eyes toward willing and qualified qualified to adopt such children. Thats why she families in other countries. She nearly resigned out of distress but the thought of the children carry on. who would be deserted once again drove her to

now. If I could, I would like to make a deep bow

As long as my health allows, I want to meet the children who were at Holt while taking care of the residents here. That is why this old physicianDr. Cho

Byung-kuktakes up her stethoscope again today.


More than 60,000 adoptees were under the care of Cho at one time or another. When doing the paperwork for those children, she always abandoned in/at ________.

wrote, discovered in/at ________ rather than Well, I got the idea from Americans, says

About Dr. Cho Byung-kuk - Medical Director, Holt llsan Center - Yonsei University Medical School, Bachelor of Medicine - Order of Civil Merit, Camellia Medal on the 7th Adoption Day, 2012 - 26th Boryeong Medical Award, 2010 - Medical Director, Holt International Childrens Services Medical Clinic (1963-2008) - Medical Director, Holt llsan Center Medical Center (2008-present)

Cho. When an adoptee has a chance to see feel hurt deep down if they see the word,

their adoption document as a grownup, they abandoned. Children abandoned are sad, but 1980, I always wrote, discovered.
Dr. Cho Byung-kuk will turn 80 next year, but she still treats the disabled to this day.

children discovered are hopeful. So, ever since Cho has many well-thumbed photo albums

poor country, recalls Cho. Children were

abandoned at the door of the hospital, and a and inadequate medical treatment. More

rice, that helped the children grow and that

quarter of them died because of malnutrition than 2,000 children were left at the hospital

sending them abroad as adoptees was the only viable way to keep them alive and give them opportunities to pursue happiness. She resigned from the hospital where she had worked for 14 years, and moved to a clinic attached to Holt Childrens Services. At the new workplace, she rolled up her

sent by the adoptive parents, showing that those small, sick children had become all smiles and tears to her eyes from time to time. healthy. Seeing them is heartwarming, bringing There was a child who lost her legs, says

every year, and about 500 of these died soon

afterwards. Whenever I saw a child whose life

Cho in reminiscence, because her mom had

helplessly flickered away, I hated myself for not I had to write a death certificate, I asked myself accusingly, Am I a doctor, who is supposed to heal people? Back then, social interest in and the

jumped before a running train with the child

being able to do anything but watch. Whenever

sleeves to find new parents for children who were without families. When their faces regained their long-lost smiles upon meeting

in her arms. Thankfully, she was adopted by an American family. Some years later, her parents sent me photos of her climbing a jungle gym, and another some years later of her skating!

their new parents, her heart was overwhelmed. half a century.

governments support for such children were an impossible luxury. Children raised at institutions or hospitals were more likely to

That joy kept her at Holt Childrens Services for Of course, for all those many years, there

Who would have known such a miracle could eyes were brimming with tears.

happen? I was so thankful to the world that my These days, she lives at the Holt Ilsan Center

be sick and grow slowly even if they were fed

were frustrations, too. The international

adequately. However, once they were adopted of vitality. Cho concluded that it was love, not
18 korea december 2012

community attached the stigma of exporter of orphans to Korea, so the government completely banned the sending of children abroad as adoptees. Although the ban was

in order to take better care of those 270 persons with disabilitieschildren and grownups whom nobody was willing to adopt.

and had a family, they became chubby and full

working for a moment and say thank you, in

An adoptee wrote, Now is the time to stop



A Great Thinker and Revolutionist

Shin ChAe-ho

to establish an overseas base for the Korean

independence effort. In China, he immersed

independence activities were uncovered, and he was sentenced to ten years in prison.

himself in studies in search of ways to make historical sites to learn more about ancient

Shin Chae-ho was a great Korean leader during the turbulent period when the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) opened its doors to the wider world and eventually fell under Japanese colonial rule. He always matched his deeds to his words and died in a foreign land before his fatherland was liberated. His life as a true fighter for independence still resonates with Koreans today and is an inspiration for all.
by Im Sang-beom / photographs with courtesy of the Danjae Arts Festival Committee

the independence movement effective, explored history, and also studied English. People who stubborn and had a very strange method of

He died of a cerebral

personally knew him later recalled that he was study. His English pronunciation was also very peculiar, but he had no intention of fixing it. After spending about ten years studying

hemorrhage after eight

years of imprisonment, but to the very end, his remained as strong as ever before the stark reality of his nation. His unyielding uncompromising spirit

and fighting for the independence of Korea, Shin joined the Provisional Government of Korea in Shanghai. This was in the wake of the Samil Independence Movement (lit.

hin Chae-ho was one of Koreas literati

He defies easy definition. He lived an intense

by foreign forces and finally colonized.

during an era when the nation was buffeted

spirit as a fierce patriot is remembered with famous anecdotes. As a lost its sovereignty, he

March 1st Independence Movement) in 1919, When the provisional government became

life as a journalist, historian, militant activist, without ever wavering or compromising at a

a nationwide uprising against Japanese rule. mired in an internal power struggle, he began

and more. He persistently resisted Japanese rule time when many other intellectuals betrayed success.

subject of a country that eliminated his name from the census register and never bent forward when he washed his face.
1 Historical books opposing feudalism written by Shin Chae-ho during imprisonment. 2 The Joseon Dongnip Seoneon, a declaration of independence for the people. 2

to publish Cheongo, the first newspaper written encourage Koreans to fight for independence. resistance rather than subtle diplomacy or a cultural movement. In 1923, he announced of the Korean Revolution) in order to steel

their nation for their own personal comfort and Born in 1880, he lost his father when he was

only in Hangeul and wrote numerous essays to Shin was a hardliner who advocated violent

He also used to say, When I die, please cremate my body and scatter the ashes in the sea so that they will never touch the boots of the Japanese invaders when they walk.

only eight years old, so his grandfather, who

ran a seodang (traditional Korean schoolhouse), took care of him. When he was 18, he entered Seonggyungwan (which was comparable to a

the Joseon Dongnip Seoneon (lit. Declaration the members of Uiyeoldan (lit. Organization of the Righteous and Fierce) to the cause of independence. This of independence was an organization activists who held an

modern-day national university) where he was awakened to the necessity for reform in Korea and the changes that were occurring all around the world. In 1904, when Korea was threatened with annexation before Japanese imperial ambitions, he began to write for Hwangseong

psyche to this day. Koreans admire him as an uncompromising intellectual with a glowing love for his nation.

The iron spirit of Shin remains in the Korean

scathingly denounced Japans attempts to seize power in Korea and pro-Japanese Koreans, and imbued the readership with patriotism. Shin flatly opposed a feudal view of history focused on the dynasties or based on sadaejuui

Sinmun and Daehan Maeil Sinbo. His columns

uncompromising, violent logical and well-ordered declaration kindled independence.

line early in the 1920s. His

violent clashes for national Around 1925, Shin

(diplomatic subservience toward China, which was regarded as the center of the world). A THINKER AND DOER

became an anarchist

and joined the Eastern

Anarchist Association,

Just before Korea was annexed by Japan, Shin exiled himself to China together with Ahn Chang-ho, Yi Gap, and other colleagues in order
20 korea december 2012

which eventually led to police in 1928. His

his arrest by the Japanese




Bringing Shopping and Entertainment to Koreas Wall Street

In the forest of gleaming skyscrapers on Yeouido, the central financial district of Seoul, a new mega shopping center has opened its doors. IFC Mall brings new vibrancy to Koreas Wall Street. by Chung Da-young / photographs by Moon Duk-gwan

YeouiDoS iFC MAll

22 korea december 2012


eouido is one of Koreas three main

An island on the Hangang River in the western part of the capital, Yeouido is the nations financial center and home to many businesses and investment banks. So, it was with great surprise when IFC Mall opened in August of to the bankers and brokers of Yeouido.

downtown Seoul and the Gangnam area.

business districts, the other two being

this year, bringing shopping and entertainment IFC Mall is below street level, underneath the

International Finance Center. It was developed by AIG Global Real Estate Development
1 The mall houses over 50 stores of global brands. 2 The mall is part of the largest IFC project which includes three office buildings and the Conrad Seoul Hotel. 3 The CGV Theater is also a place for movie premiers including the recent Korean hit Masquerade. 4 The glass pavilion acts as a natural lighting system throughout the mall.

in conjunction with Seoul Metropolitan

Government and is operated by Taubman Asia. includes three office buildings and the Conrad Seoul Hotel, which opened in November. It is the first international-style shopping mall in Korea. an ambitious USD 2.2 billion retail project and

The mall is part of the larger IFC project, which


with the layouts of international malls. But the pavilion that lets in sunlight during the day,

highlight of the mall is the 17-meter-high glass acting as a natural lighting system throughout the mall. The open, airy atmosphere creates a new kind of shopping experience for visitors,

meters of retail floor space on three levels. The vast space and scale of the mall are

The mall has 40,000 square

unprecedented compared to the closely spaced layout of Koreas many department and wide halls afford a

and as you walk by the stores, you can almost

forget that the entire structure is underground. SHOPPING AND ENTERTAINMENT

stores. The absence of pillars space that bears comparison

The mall was built to attract the employees of nearby businesses as well as increase visitors to the Yeouido area. Whereas the area bustles during the workweek, it can be very quiet on the weekends. The primary customer target is office employees in their mid-20s to early 40s, primarily young career women. Most of the fashion-conscious but savvy spenders. stores offer trendy and affordable clothes for The mall houses global SPA brands such as bestsellers at YP Books or see a movie at the nine-screen CGV multiplex. All the places to eat are on the lowest level,
The open, airy atmosphere creates a new kind of shopping experience for visitors.

L3. There are many different types of restaurants and cafes including Korean, Japanese, Mexican, to more upscale restaurants like Wasedaya, a Japanese-style grill, shoppers can stop for a delicious meal in the mall. During the lunch the nearby businesses. and American to choose from. From McDonalds

H&M, Zara, and Uniqlo along with flagship stores of popular brands such as Banana Republic and Hollister. The opening of the

Hollister flagship store in the mall created a first Hollister store to open in Korea.

hour, the food court throngs with workers from The mall is connected to Line 5 and 9 on the


buzz among young trendsetters as it was the The stores are more spacious and offer a

Seoul Subway System through an underground passage, making shopping easier rain or shine. Even before you get to the actual mall, stores pop in. and restaurants entice you off the walkway to

wider selection. They also have unique facades

3 4

that are representative of each brand concept. Window shoppers can check out the latest

Open 10 AM 10 PM (restaurants and CGV Theater have their own hours) Tel +82-2-6333-5700 Website: www. Subway Yeouido Station, Line 5 and 9, exit 3

24 korea december 2012



A Pure White Town Under the Azure Sky

JeongSeon in Winter

When it snows, Jeongseon becomes a winter wonderland. Snowflakes cover every branch like blooming white flowers, and in the low temperature you can see your breath whenever you exhale. A truly blissful experience in this land of snow is to have a bowl of warm buckwheat noodles at Jeongseon Oiljang, the Gangwon-do towns traditional market open every fifth day. by Lee Jeong-eun / photographs by Moon Duk-gwan

26 korea december 2012



n the mountain ridges in the two

Yeongwol is a network of trails on which trucks once transported coal from what today are abandoned mines. People left the area after

Gangwon-do towns of Jeongseon and

is the only casino open to Korean citizens. EATING AND RAILBIKING While visiting

the mines closed, but the trees, shrubs, and and luxuriantly than ever. All sorts of

grasses began to flourish much more vigorously wildflowers dot the mountains from spring to autumn, and snowflakes pile up on every tree pure white flowers. branch, making them appear as ever-blooming The beautiful scenery has renewed interest

Jeongseon, you should definitely go to the Jeongseon Oiljang opens every fifth itinerant market. It day as its name, Oiljang (lit. five-day market) After a hearty lunch

in the area. People have started referring to the network of coal trails as Haneul Gil (lit. Paths to the Sky). The paths run past Mt. Hambaeksan (1,573m), Mt. Baegunsan (1,426m), and up and down many steep hills. High1 Resort, a ski and leisure resort, is establishing a 160km

suggests, but there are also modern stores open living in remote mountain hamlets come

every day. Even so, the grandmas and grandpas down to the marketplace every fifth day with authentic life stories. The second and seventh tourists.

at Jeongseon Oiljang, runs about an hour

try railbiking. The rail from Gujeol Station

wild herbs, homemade trinkets, and the most days of every month are most recommended for After browsing through all sorts of wild

to Auraji Station, and biking along the rail isnt as tough or cold other than on your

network of trekking trails out of Haneul Gil in and the Korea Forest Service.

cooperation with the county office of Jeongseon Of all routes of Haneul Gil, High1 Resort

as one would expect, face. So, wear a face mask or a hat.

2 1 Shoppers can find all sorts of wild herbs collected from the mountains. 2 Railbiking along the abandoned train rails is a unique activity in Jeongseon.

herbs collected from deep in the mountains

especially recommends a three-hour route

(and buying some of them), among other things, you should visit Meokja Golmok (lit. Lets-Eat Alley). Both sides are lined with restaurants

that links Hwajeollyeong Hill Gil (lit. Path of Hwajeollyeong Hill), Nagyeopsong Gil (lit. Path of Larches), Cheonyeochima Gil (lit. Path

rocky cliffs on both sides, run through a

Biking the 7.2km track, you can enjoy the

that sell specialties of Gangwon-dogondeure namul bap (rice mixed with mountain greens called gondeure), (buckwheat noodles),

tunnel decorated with pretty lighting, and Pedaling slowly through the landscape of

pass Songcheon Valley and farming villages. Gangwon-do, you will soon find yourself at Ho train back to Gujeol Station.

of a Girls Skirt), and a nearby observatory. The at the 18th hole of the High1 Country Club.

route starts at the Kangwonland Hotel and ends This route, which goes around High1 Resort, should set out early in the morning, as it not only takes more time to finish, but the sun goes down early. The most challenging part

memil jeonbyeong (buckwheat pancake), memil buchujeon (buckwheat pancake with Asian susubukkumi (sorghum pancake). Gondeure chives), nokdujeon (mung bean pancake), and

Auraji Station, where you can ride the Ariari

is not particularly difficult, but in winter you

namul bap is a kind of bibimbap in which rice is cooked with the herb gondeure namul (Cirsium setidens). The herbs fragrance is unique, and Kotdeungchigi guksu is a kind of buckwheat

what to eat Yerim Sikdang Yerim Sikdang is a restaurant in the Jeongseon Oiljang marketplace, especially frequented by Jeongseon natives. The restaurant is famous for its gondeure namul bap and kotdeungchigi guksu , of which doenjang soups are Seoul especially appetizing.

of the route is the 3.6 kilometers from the hotel to Hwajeollyeong Hill, but this shouldnt be
The Jeongseon Oiljang is filled with herbs and specialties of Gangwondo. It is one of the most representative markets in Korea.

the rice is mixed with soy sauce before eating. noodle. The name literally means nose-ridgehitting noodles because people tend to eat the noodles so enjoyably and quickly that the is made with doenjang (fermented soybean

a problem even for unskilled mountaineers.

They can ride a cable car from the resort to the walk down to Hwajeollyeong Hill. One thing

summit of Mt. Baegunsan, from where they can to note: you wont be able to wade through the knee-deep snow at the summit without sticks and spats.

noodles hit their noses. The soup for the noodles paste). Memil jeonbyeong is comparable to crepes and is often eaten in the form of a roll with and spicy. minced kimchi packed inside. It tastes nutty

casino with 100 tables and 960 slot machines. It

28 korea december 2012

High1 Resort is also home to Koreas largest

how to get there Car Seoul Jungbu Expressway Hobeop Junction Yeongdong Expressway Saemal Interchange Wonju (National Road 42) Anheung Pyeongchang Jeongseon Train Trains run six times a day from Cheongnyangni Station in Seoul to Jeongseon. The trip takes three and a half hours.



came to the festival last year alone. The greatest attractions are of course the thrilling moment just taken the hook, and the anticipation. when the line jerks, indicating that the trout has The temperature of Odaecheon Stream is

already just right for trout, and the Pyeongchang Trout Festival Committee lets loose more than one or two trout in three or four hours. 100,000 trout for the festival. Anyone can catch The trout let loose for the festival are

rainbow trout, which are raised in extremely clean water at nearby fish farms, says an chubby and yummy. insider of the festival committee. They are Chairman Ham Seung-ju of the festival Trout tend to nibble more lightly or aggressively depending on the weather and time of day. From 10 to 11 in the morning, the trout tend to in the afternoon.

committee says the trout raised in Pyeongchang have a strong umami taste, and there are sets of equipment tourists can use to eat trout, raw or broiled, on the spot.

bite rather hard, but the best time is from 2 to 3 Ice fishing isnt the only activity at the

way, which the festival committee recommends, is to troll. You may buy a troll fishing kit at any store that sells fishing equipment

So, just how does one catch trout? The easiest

festival. One thing that really makes you feel

the winter intensely is catching trout with your bare hands. Speeding through the cold, fresh air is also extremely fun and memorable for the entire family, so come ice sledding, ice karting, one of those activities just sounds exciting, doesnt it? ice biking, snow sledding, or snow rafting. Any

near Odaecheon Stream. For the skilled and

experienced, lure fishing is also recommended.

Ice Fishing for Trout

The Pyeongchang Trout Festival

The 6th Pyeongchang Trout Festival will run through half the winter on Odaecheon Stream: from December 22, 2012 to February 5, 2013. If you want to have a very cold, snowy, fun wintertime, then this global winter festival is for you.
by Lee Jeong-eun / materials provided by the Pyeongchang Trout Festival Committee

SCENIC SNOWSCAPE OF PYEONGCHANG Pyeongchang will be the host city of the

2018 Olympic Winter Games and is one of

Koreas most famous cities for breathtaking

snow landscapes. Packs of tourists come every winter to Daegwallyeong Pass in the Taebaek other tourist attractions including cattle and Mountain Range for its snow festival and many sheep ranches and especially the fir forest which nestles Woljeongsa, an old temple believed to be built in 643. Within the vicinity of Odaecheon Stream

coldwater fish, trout is especially delicious in the winter. When filleted raw, its flesh looks clear and reddish like pine wood. Its Korean

rout live in clear freshwater with an average temperature between 7C and 13C. A

name songeo in fact was given for this reason as the syllable song signifies the pine tree. Every winter, Pyeongchanga city famous for its
The Pyeongchang Trout Festival is visited by many foreign visitors each year.

are major ski resorts including Yongpyong,

Alpensia, and Bokwang Phoenix Park. Many foreign skiers from China, Russia, Southeast Asia, and other parts of the world come to
First-timers can easily catch one or two trouts among the thousands.

snowthrows a trout festival where you can go ice-fishing for trout and enjoy many other ice, snow, and folk activities. About 450,000 people

Pyeongchang for skiing. Some of them end up also enjoying the Pyeongchang Trout Festival, making the city a global village in the winter.

30 korea december 2012



Play Anytime Anywhere in Korea

of matches you can play is limited. At first, you might think this kind of game is only for kids, but not really. AniPang is addictive. People of once they try to play it. all ages get stuck on this simple-looking game Sundaytoz, a social game developer, rolled


One out of every ten smartphone users in Korea is an AniPang fanatic. This social game was an immediate hit with the Korean public when it was launched last September. Now, AniPang is a byword for successful social games. What explains the craze?
by Im Sang-beom / photographs by Moon Duck-gwan and courtesy of Sundaytoz

out AniPang this last September as a free

application. In 20 days, the number of people recorded one million, and now more than 20

who simultaneously connected to play the game million of the 30 million smartphone users in

Korea have downloaded the game application. It wouldnt be an exaggeration to say that half of Korea is in an AniPang frenzy. Sundaytoz is on cloud nine, smiling at their insight that the smartphone platform business would increasing number of smartphone users, whose personal computers are now idle most of the time.

become the next jackpot and noting the rapidly

competition is a major success factor. In order to continue to play AniPang, you need hearts; in or receive one from a friend. This mechanism with other users whom they know. Your order to get a heart, you should invite a friend encourages users to continue to communicate friends, relatives, teachers, business associates, or anyone in the offline world becomes your counterparts to play an AniPang match in the to a sense of connectedness. Even people who themselves out once they get in on AniPang. The AniPang craze in Korea reveals the

1 AniPang, Koreas No.1 match game. 2 AniPang is the hottest issue among Koreans.

Unlike typical mobile-based games, AniPang


is linked with KakaoTalk, a free text messaging

service on smartphones. KakaoTalk also created

smartphones from the moment they wake up in the morning till they fall asleep at night. They are all heavily engrossed in a mobile-based

owadays, the eyes and hands of many Koreans are almost glued to their

a stir in Korean society, pushing the three major communications service providers in Korea to lower their rates for text messaging. With

online world. Separation anxiety thus gives way didnt previously to play games at all cannot get

KakaoTalk, you can send not only text messages, but also photos, videos, and audio files. You can even have a group chatin text or voice. As of December 2011, the number of text messages

puzzle game called AniPang, which gave rise to the AniPang phenomenon in Korean society. AniPang is a matching game. You score when

sent via KakaoTalk per day reached one billion, or 690,000 per minute, whereas Facebook sees 695,000 status updates per minute across the

essence of social games. Cable TV broadcasters and department stores are now holding AniPang matches, and theres no sign that

you bring at least three of the same animated characters together horizontally or vertically and thereby blow them away. The animal characters are Ani (rabbit), Nero (cat), Pinky Theres another character: Pang (bomb). The

entire world. Ka-Talk hae, (meaning, Contact me via KakaoTalk) has become an everyday means of expression among the Koreans. You can play AniPang with those who are

this addiction will fade away any time soon.

Whenever Pang (bomb) explodes with a pow, your stress flies away; when you compete with your Kakao Talk friend, youre thrilled; and

(pig), Mongi (monkey), and Mickey (mouse). game is named after the key animal character Ani and the bomb character Pang (the sound pang in Korean is synonymous with pow in English). Your game money is indicated by

on your KakaoTalk friends list. If you want to

when you see your score go up, you delight like a child. Who wouldnt want to have such fun? A second and third AniPang will appear to

play with a KakaoTalk friend, you just need to

send an invitation. You can compete with your the game currency, are good gifts for your friends. This friendship building disguised as

KakaoTalk friends in score rankings. The hearts,

cheer you up when you are mentally exhausted your smartphone to enjoy fun social games like AniPang anytime anywhere in this IT powerhouse of Korea.

in busy 21st-century Korea. All you need is only

the number of heart symbols. With one heart,

you can play one match, and the total number

32 korea december 2012



taekwondo studios were Chinese restaurants but soon found themselves shouting Korean expressions under heavy concentration, mesmerized by this mysterious martial art.

In 2010, it included a program to teach the values of the Olympic Games. This year, the camp took place in Seoul and Muju. Sheila Radziewicz, who earned her black belt in taekwondo despite having been born without arms, was invited to deliver a special lecture and was a tremendous inspiration to the children. The construction of a taekwondo institute

about attack. The martial art is also designed to cultivate the mind as well as train the

Taekwondo is more about defense and less

body. These noble aspects make taekwondo a children were in the past regularly sent to


JUNBI STANCE Junbi Stance: Get ready in Korean. Open your leg shoulder width apart. Put your hands down in front of your belt. Make tight fists in a downward motion in front of your belt. When you go into junbi stance, say Yes, sir! KICKING STANCE Your right foot steps back. Put your hands up to protect your body. (Left hand protecting your face, right hand protecting your body.) This stance gets you ready for kicking. HORSEBACK RIDING STANCE Separate your legs. Toes facing forward. Bend your knees. Put your hands on your waist in tight fist. This stance gets you ready for punching.

dignified martial art. That is why most Korean taekwondo studios, and also why overseas, the trainees (and even their families) respectfully called their taekwondo instructors master. Taekwondo became a sport for the entire global village when it was made an official

is under way in Muju. Once will be open to people from

completed in 2013, the institute around the world who want research on the martial art. been a martial art for all.

to learn taekwondo or conduct Taekwondo has for years

Olympic sport at the 2000 Summer Olympic

Games in Sydney. With the new scoring system and electronic protectors adopted at the 2012 even more thrilling to watch. London Olympics, taekwondo matches are now

Whether you are Korean or not, young or old, the moment you put on the white taekwondo uniform, you become a taekwondoin (taekwondo


Korea hosts matches and events for taekwondo practitioners worldwide. Tournaments where superb athletes compete and strut their stuff

practitioner) and are at one with other taekwondoin with upright posture, precise movements, powerful energy, fast reflexes, and a respectful attitude. You will grow with taekwondo, and taekwondo will spread further with you worldwide.

In cooperation with the Organizing Committee of the Gyeongju Korea Open International Taekwondo Championships and Takwondo Promotion Foundation

Taekwondo Around the World

Taekwondo has become the worlds most practiced martial art since becoming an Olympic event in 2000. Lets look at why taekwondo is so avidly pursued today.
by Im Sang-beom

are great opportunities for people from around the globe to become one with each other. The most authoritative competition is the World Taekwondo Championships by the World

Taekwondo Federation, founded in 1973. Since

then, the championships have been taking place biannually all around the world in places such and Spain. It is likely that Mexico will host the championships next year. as the United States, China, Canada, Germany,

from kimchi to K-pop songs including PSYs Gangnam Style and Korean TV dramas.

ore and more people around the world

are falling in love with all things Korean,

the leaders of the six studios were masters in such martial arts as taekkyeon, taegeukgwon, subak, kung fu, and karate. In the process of of taekwondo took shape.

For the last six days of October 25, 2,190 athletes representing 293 teams from 43 countries competed in the seventh Gyeongju Korea Open International Taekwondo Championships. The championships were especially meaningful

There was a major competition this year, too.

This worldwide surge in popularity of Korean culture is often termed Hallyu (Korean wave), and at the root of Hallyu is taekwondo. A time-honored traditional martial art

their exchange and research, the modern form Taekwondo techniques are broadly divided

of Korea, taekwondo is believed to have

assumed its present form in the years after According to experts, there were six major

(blocking)and powerful foot techniques bandal chagi (crescent kick), to name a few.

jjireugi (thrusting), chigi (striking), and makgi

into hand techniquesjireugi (punching),

because the host city was Gyeongju, the ancient capital of the Silla Kingdom (57 BCE 935 CE), strewn with historic sites and monuments.

Koreas liberation from Japanese colonial rule.

Taekwondo performance in Times Square New York

ap chagi (front kick), yeop chagi (side kick), and It was in the early 1960s that taekwondo was

Taekwondo Promotion Foundation, children learn about Korean culture and taekwondo.

At the World Youth Taekwondo Camp by the

martial arts studios following liberation, and

introduced overseas. People at first thought

34 korea december 2012



k-PoP evolveS

Setting Sights on New Heights

Gangnam Style with slightly different lyrics, racked up more than 100 million views within 69 days of its launch on YouTube.

ten million YouTube views in the shortest period of any Korean music video. The media has also noted her potential for becoming a global star. In its report on the release of HyunAs Ice

Ice Cream, her latest music video, garnered

1 HyunA, featured in PSYs Gangnam Style music video, is stepping up to become the next world star with her latest song and music video. 2 Frances iTunes introduced songs by popular singers in the 1990s such as Shin Seung-hun and Kim Gun-mo. 3 Kim Junsu is the first korean to go on a world tour as a solo singer.

The global sensation caused by PSYs Gangnam Style has pushed K-pop into the next phase of its evolution. The worldwide success of PSY has spurred K-pop stars to reach new heights by unleashing their inimitable creativity and individuality. Lets meet some Korean singers who are ready to ride the new wave of K-pop. by Yang In-sil

Cream, UK daily The Guardian said, In fact, if anyone could follow PSY's success, it would be Popjustice introduced HyunAs Ice Cream 4Minute's very own HyunA. The music website along with music videos by global stars such THE FUTURE OF K-POP

Ever since singers from leading

Korean entertainment agency SM

as Justin Bieber. After the news of her eminent

Entertainment performed in Paris in

comeback, MTV Russia showed great interest in her performance and dubbed her one of Koreas sexiest stars. This past August, Kim Junsu (aka Xia Junsu),

June 2011, Korean boy and girl bands, concerts across the globe, spawning news and stories and fueling the K-pop Hallyu (or the K-pop

often dubbed idol groups, have had

ho on earth is that girl?

a member of boy group JYJ, had a successful concert as a solo singer in the Hammerstein

string of comments under PSYs Gangnam Style video on YouTube, which has been

That is a typical remark in the long

wave). About a year after the Paris

Ballroom in New York. The concert was a

performance, K-pop gained tremendous new iTunes Charts in almost all countries where

meaningful step for Xia Junsu himself and also for all K-pop singers, who have been seeking to break out into the global market. Last May, Xia Junsu released his first single

momentum thanks to PSYs Gangnam Style. iTunes has a presencein the United States, Canada, France, and the United Kingdom simultaneously launched a new category for

shaking the world for weeks and weeks with its signature horse-riding dance. Featured in the viral hit video along with other Korean stars is HyunA, who dances sensuously in the video

album, Tarantallegra, and set out on a world tour. Including the first concert of the tour in Seoul, Xia Junsu has put on a series of concerts in 11 cities in Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia, China

while flashing a never-fading smile on her cute face, leaving a strong impression in the minds of viewers worldwide. The lead singer of girl

K-pop, probably because the Gangnam Style fever had been stirring up such great interest in popular Korean songs. K-pop songs from 20 years ago are also
PSYs Gangnam Style viral song suppressed Baby as the most viewed video of all time on YouTube. As of November 24 6:50 pm, PYSs Gangnam Style music video recorded 803,695,387 views topping Justin Biebers Baby of 803,442,177 views. It took only three months for Gangnam Style to break the record that Baby took to set for three years. Even now, the number of views for Gangnam Style is still increasing and it seems that it will be a matter of time before it hits 900 million views.

group 4Minute, which was taking a break, she PSY. In her video for Oppan Ttak Nae Style

(Shanghai and Hong Kong), the United States

is now seen as a viable candidate for the second (lit. Oppa, Youre Just My Style), a variation of

(New York), Mexico, and other countries so far. The world tour will finish with a concert at the

drawing interest overseas. Lists of K-pop Classics are being announced by foreign websites, which include songs by Korean

Some 55,000 fans have packed his concert venues. Turbinenhalle in Oberhausen, Germany, making Xia Junsu the first Asian singer to ever perform there. The album Tarantallegra (and the song, too)

singers who were popular in the 1990s such as Shin Seung-hun, Kim Gun-mo, Kim Bum-soo, and DJ Doc.

has been well received. Before its release,

K-pop worldwide to an unprecedented degree, but it should also be noted that before him were such groups as Wonder Girls and Girls

It is true that PSY is fueling the popularity of

the album was at the top of Tower Records pre-order list, and after its release it soon topped Japans iTunes pop album chart (May), Germanys Asian Music Chart (July), and Chiles EtcTV Pop Chart (July). It was also

Generation, who cleared the way for Korean pop music in the global market. What now matters most is helping new artists to reach for their dreams and venture out into the world with

ranked tenth on the Billboard World Album

Chart (June). The leading K-pop news source


their inimitable creativity and individuality. recently dubbed Tarantallegra the best K-pop song of 2012.

They will shape the future of K-pop to entertain and move everyones hearts, including yours.

36 korea december 2012


with an e-government platform. The United in 2002, and the United Kingdom, Japan,

States already enacted an e-government law and Switzerland have implemented electronic voting systems. But no other country uses In 2002, import-export procedures, which were streamlined into a one-stop service system. As a result, import-export cargo average of 9.6 days to 3.6 days. e-government more effectively than Korea. were previously overseen by multiple agencies,

countrys IT solutions and e-government system. MOPAS also agreed to assist in setting up

the Flood Prevention Warning System in the mountainous regions of Mindanao Island, Philippines, which suffered the brunt of

devastation by Tropical Storm Washi last year.

was first promoted, exports of the e-government system totaled USD 100,000. Just ten years later, the annual export volume was as much as USD 240 million. The government expects annual exports to reach USD 300 million this year.
1 MOPAS is initiating smart e-government solutions and various online services to increase work efficiency. 2 Korea hosted the Global e-Government Forum 2012.

Back in 2002, when the e-government system

processing time has been shortened from an Over years, South Koreas e-government has

been evaluated as one of the worlds best by

organizations worldwide, and its effectiveness is widely acknowledged by the international Korea has ranked first in the e-Government Development Index of the UN Global

community. For the second consecutive year,

e-Government Survey 2012 of 193 countries, and it is on record for having achieved the greatest e-government development. SOUTH KOREAS


An increasing number of countries have its technology and obtain expertise in

South Korea leads Global Trend for e-Government System

An IT powerhouse, South Korea is also setting the standard for e-government. Find out how countries throughout the world are adopting it to make paying taxes more convenient for everyone. by Chung Da-young

been knocking on Koreas door to import e-government. The E-Indonesia network in


Java, Sumatra, and Bali, e-government training in Thailand, online registries in Kazakhstan, cooperation committees with Indias Union Government, and elaborate e-government

plans for regional governments in Russia are some of the recent projects based on South Koreas e-government solution.

ith the click of a mouse, the residents

for their parking tickets and check for any

of Songpa-gu, Seoul can pay the fines

offices in person. The Internet Tax Payment

System also allows citizens to track and pay their regional taxes or parking fines online, without having to visit a bank. Most district and regional offices throughout the country now provide digital administrative services for their residents. EFFECTIVE

Administration and Security (MOPAS), visited the Philippines last month to sign an MOU and Technology and provide assistance in Center in Manila. with the Philippines Department of Science constructing the Government Integrated Data The signing of the MOU took place in

Maeng Hyung-kyu, Minister of Public

outstanding taxes. They can request and print a copy of their residence registration, take part in various administrative surveys, and receive the latest local news. The Songpa-gu Office has developed its

Internet civil application issuance system to

Koreas e-government system is being adopted by many countries.

facilitate the administrative tasks and eliminate the inconvenience of having to visit public


accordance with a request from the government of the Philippines for stronger governmental relations with South Korea to develop the

Of course, South Korea is not the only country

38 korea december 2012



willingness to provide intensive support

in sectors in which Korea is strong such as

information and communications technology to improve connectivity among ASEAN countries. ASEAN-Korea Forest Cooperation which took effect this year and agreed to strengthen their cooperation in green growth and climate They also welcomed the agreement on the

change countermeasures through the activities

South Korean Leader Visits Cambodia for Regional Cooperation Summits

President Lee Myung-bak visited Cambodia to meet with the leaders of ASEAN, China, Japan, Russian and the US to chart future cooperation. by Chung Da-young

of the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF). President Lee also attended the ASEAN+3

Summit that was held later on to discuss cooperation in the future. Leaders from

measures and actions to further enhance the Association of Southeast Asian Nations

(ASEAN) as well as Korea, Japan, and China crisis, and economic integration, expressing

exchanged views on food security, the financial their will to forge closer ties during the summit.

outh Korean President Lee Myung-bak

a trio of annual meetings: a summit with the ten member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN); a meeting between

visited Cambodia on November 18 to attend

their accomplishments from the last five years Free Trade Agreement (FTA), establishment of the Korea-ASEAN center, and hosting of

including the completion of the Korea-ASEAN

made since the establishment of the ASEAN+3 Summit in 1997, taking note of its role in expanding cooperation in all spheres, and education. The leaders agreed to

The national leaders reviewed the progress

ASEAN and South Korea, China and Japan; and The President first attended the 15th Korea-

the Korea-ASEAN commemorative summit in

in particular finance, culture, agriculture, work together to address the complicated

a meeting of the East Asia Summit (EAS) forum. ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asia Nations) Summit held at the Peace Palace in Phnom by the leaders of the ten member states of Penh, Cambodia on November 19. Also joined ASEAN, he reviewed the status of cooperation between Korea and ASEAN countries and
Leaders of 13 nations join hands during the opening of the ASEAN+3 Summit.

2009 as well as the establishment of a strategic led by the New Asia Diplomacy Plan of the the establishment of the Korean Mission to

partnership between Korea and ASEAN in 2010, Korean government. In addition, they welcomed ASEAN in September, promising to strengthen The president confirmed that Korea will

international and regional challenges they cooperation mechanism.

face, making full use of the well-established On the last day of his visit, the Korean

are committed to "achieve a modern,

The declaration said the participants

comprehensive, high-quality and mutually establishing an open trade and investment environment in the region to facilitate the

beneficial economic partnership agreement

actual cooperation between Korea and ASEAN. expand its development assistance to ASEAN for the common prosperity of Korea and ASEAN, especially reinforcing its support in the Mekong area. He also announced the countrys

president also took part in the 7th East Asia

Summit (EAS), an 18-nation forum involving the 10 ASEAN nations plus six dialogue partners issued to declare the launch of negotiations to forge what is dubbed the "Regional of the Asia-Pacific region. A joint statement was

expansion of regional trade and investment."

1 President Lee Myungbak (right) meets with Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung on the sidelines of the Summit. 2 President Lee sits at the ASEAN+3 Summit tables with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda.

exchanged thoughts on the direction for future cooperation. The president and the ten leaders evaluated

economic integration in the EAS region should

President Lee said during the summit that

aim for "open regionalism" and lead ultimately Pacific region together.

Comprehensive Economic Partnership" or RCEP.

to an economic community that bonds the Asia-

40 korea december 2012


special issue

A New Home for the Korean Government

Sejong City
by Yang In-sil

Last September 14, the office of the South Korean Prime Minister moved from Seoul to Sejong, and other central government agencies and national research institutes will soon follow suit to make Sejong the administrative heart of Koreaits second capitalby 2014.

office of the South Korean Prime Minister from

he era of Sejong City was ushered in last September 14 with the relocation of the

new heart of the administration of the Republic of Korea both in name and substance. It is not government but also an indication of a more only a change of address for the South Korean balanced development model of the country in the future as well as a shift of administrative power from Seoul to the geographical center of


Dubbed the Multifunctional Administrative City or Happy City, Sejong will be home to 36 government agencies including the Office commissions, which account for 10,452 jobs phase relocation plan by 2014. The city will

Seoul to Sejong, ten years after former President an administrative capital. The moving of the

Roh Moo-hyun pledged in 2002 to establish such six departments under the Office of the Prime of 36 central administrative agencies and 16
The Office of the Prime Minister in Sejong City

of the Prime Minister, 11 ministries, and two in total. They will all be in place by a threealso become a national research hub with 16 Development Institute (KDI) and the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements

Minister is the first step in a gradual relocation national research institutes. When the relocation is completed in 2014, Sejong will become the

the country and beyond. It is also expected that the relocation will facilitate the diffusion of the national population, of which about one-fifth lives in Seoul.

national research institutes including the Korea last April, and the office is already bustling with 119 people. The buildings for those organizations that
Government departments have started to move into Sejong City. Employees of the Ministry of Land, Transport Maritime Affairs are settling into their new office in the Government Complex Sejong.

(KRIHS), which employ 3,353 people combined. 2012, covers 12 organizations (including the The first phase of the relocation, slated for

will find a new home in Sejong are expected to be ready for inspection by the 15th of this month and to open the day after Christmas

Office of the Prime Minister, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs) as well as their 4,139 employees. In 2013, the Ministry of Education, Science
In cooperation with the Multifunctional Administrative City Construction Agency

Strategy and Finance, the Ministry for Food,

for thousands of civil servants relocating from Seoul. The buildings to house the government agencies in the second relocation phase including the Ministry of Education, Science

and Technology, the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, and 16 other organizations with a total of 4,116 civil servants will have a new

and Technology and the Ministry of Culture, about 28 percent complete. Groundbreaking for the third-phase buildings took place in September, and excavation and other

Sports and Tourism are under construction and

address in the second phase of the relocation will welcome 16 national research institutes with 2,197 research personnel as well as six

plan. Finally in 2014, the Happy City of Sejong

foundational works are underway to be ready

for the Ministry of Government Legislation, the Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission, is slated for 2014. and the other organizations for which relocation

government agencies including the Ministry Patriots and Veterans Affairs.

of Government Legislation and the Ministry of The total relocation budget is a whopping

KRW 22.5 trillion, of which KRW 9.26 trillion, or 41.2 percent, had been executed by the end of this past October. The construction of the Office of the Prime Minister was completed


Sejong will be accessible from major cities of Korea by 13 intercity roads that connect to high-speed KTX railways and expressways.

42 korea december 2012

special issue


Last March, a road linking Sejong to Daejeon

and Yuseong opened, which was followed by Osong Station, from which people can easily access the subway of Daejeon by a bus rapid transit (BRT) system. Bike lanes with a combined length of 354

in fact, pushed MACCA into the happy worry of having to build more such schools. A U-school has a ubiquitous educational

the opening of a road running from Sejong to

environment provided by wireless Internet

access that allows the teachers and students to are in the school. There are about 600 students per school and only 24 students per class, which is within the range of the OECD average of 20 to 25.

teach and learn using smart pads wherever they

kilometers will also be constructed. Alongside and between the Cheonmaeul complexes and the government complex, some 39 kilometers August this year. of bike lanes came into use around the end of

general roads, around the government complex,

past ten years to build Sejong as a happy city hand may still have felt overwhelming when ground was broken for the city back in July

For those who have worked so hard these

for the country and for its citizens, the task at


Sejong is a planned city intended to facilitate national competitiveness. In order to grow,

the balanced growth of the country and raise helping its citizens settle and enjoy a high quality of life is important. One of the most critical factors for Sejong to live up to its moniker, the To that end, MACCA plans to construct more than 150 schools by 2030. There are already six schools in Cheonmaeul Village. What is unique to the schools in Sejong is so-called

2007, but their hopes must have been renewed residents last winter, followed by the formal

when Cheonmaeul Complex I received its first establishment of Sejong Special Self-Governing

City on July 1 and the initiation of the relocation of government agencies on September 14. Sejong is taking shape gradually as a model city to lead the countrys balanced growth. We have a dream, says an insider at

Happy City, is accessibility to quality education.

MACCA. Its to grow Sejong as a model city for all the world, not only to meet the goals of its more balanced manner. construction of helping the country grow in a

U-schooling. This was covered heavily by the

domestic and foreign media. Rising demand has,

New roads and facilities, such as this bike lane, are built to facilitate the lives of government officials and residents.

Garaetteok & Jocheong

of different types of tteok, garaetteok can be transformed into many different dishes ranging from soups to desserts. Garaetteok is a long white cylindrical tteok made only from rice powder. During the cold winter, Tteok, or rice cake, can be cooked as a meal or dessert and enjoyed all year round. Among the hundreds Koreans roast the white garaetteok over fire to enjoy the soft inside and the crispy slightly charred surface.

Jocheong is made with steamed rice that is fermented and boiled for a long time. The cooked starch turns into a sweet syrup that is used as a condiment for cooking or hardened to make taffy-like sweets. Hot crispy garaetteok dipped in sweet jocheong is the perfect snack for a cold winter night.

Roasted garaetteok wouldnt be complete without a small dish of traditional starch syrup called jocheong.

by Chung Da-young / photographs by Lee Jin-ha / food & styling by Kim Young-bin

44 korea december 2012


Curing Every Indisposition with Needles and Incense

Imagine curing a sprained ankle, indigestion, or weight problems with only a few needles and herbal incense stuck to your body. Impossible you say? Susan Tiffin tells her amazing experience at the Oriental clinic that has turned her into a true aficionado of Oriental treatments. by Susan Tiffin / illustrations by Cho Seong-heum

orientAl CliniC

has experienced something great here and cant

n my past seven years in Korea, Ive become

one of those people. You know, the kind who

help but bring it up into every conversation they have with any particular person - even strangers, if need be. For some people, its hiking (Oh, you absolutely MUST go to Jirisan!). For

some people, its food (Youre hungover? You transportation system (Its so easy to just go to the bus station, buy a cheap ticket and see where it takes you. Do it!) For me, its the have to try haejangguk!). For others, its the

experience of having thin, solid needles tapped into the skin for any reason under the sun. Ever since my first positive treatment at an

Oriental clinic here, I cant help but recommend acupuncture to anyone complaining of any health issue they might be experiencing. Ive recommended it to people with sore muscles, to people with skin problems,

to people with poor immune systems, to

people with insomnia, and to people with

headaches. Clearly I hang out with a group of very sick people, and it only makes sense to get them healthy so that their company is more acupuncture? It works! (between the acupuncture and me, not between my coworker and myself, even though she was a very lovely lady).

enjoyable. Besides, how could I not recommend

FIRST ACUPUNCTURE ExPERIENCE A few nights before I went to the Oriental clinic for the first time, I was at my Hapkido class trying to act as though I had any athletic ability whatsoever. It was my turn to do a simple front roll, but my clumsiness won that night and My first experience with it was in 2007.

cost. I had been to a Chinese medicine doctor back home in Canada but had never needed

Of course I was initially concerned about the

acupuncture before and assumed that it would be expensive. Thankfully, theres a reason why there are so many of those people who declare their love for the cost of Korean healthcare, and the incredibly affordable prices that allow us to get 300 pills for a cold for under four dollars as well. My initial visit with a doctor - which included consultation and treatment - would

I landed incorrectly jarring my leg bone through my body and into my teeth bone - thats what it felt like, anyway. For days I struggled with the pain in my leg and limped to and from

apply to most experiences at the Oriental clinic

classes, hoping the injury would fade with time. When - after heat packs and cold packs and massages and stretches - the pain didnt fade,

end up costing about the same as two pints of I hobbled into the closest Oriental clinic

beer and made me feel about as good. Bargain! I could find simply by following my nose. Many expatriates here have noticed the strong smell

a coworker suggested that I go for acupuncture treatment to ease it. And so, a love was formed
46 korea november 2012




How is the weather these day? In winter in Korea, it gets very cold with temperatures dropping under zero at times. It normally snows quite a bit. Do you know weather expressions in Korean? Lets talk about the weather in Korean.
A: , .
of herbs on the speak of. He put a heat lamp over my leg, set a

B: , .

clinics, so its easy one. I lived in a enough to find

streets by Oriental

timer, left the room, and I didnt see him again sit still for ten minutes, and then I grasped the

Naoko, look out the window. naoko ssi, chang bak jom boseyo.
A: .

Wow, its snowing. wa, nuni wayo.

that day. Meanwhile, I waited. It was difficult to concept of relaxation and allowed myself to let

Its snowing a lot.


B: .


similar to my own ability in Korean at the

only very basic English - which was

time and my doctor spoke

rural area at the

go. Later when the timer rang, it definitely woke me out of a dazed nap that I rather appreciated. A nurse removed each needle, wiped the spots with an antiseptic pad and led me to a sort of warm waterbed that bubbled underneath me and helped massage my muscles to get my circulation going. It seriously felt like I was

I think the snow will pile up fast. jeongmal mani oneundeyo. nuni ssaigesseoyo.
clue possibility

If the snow piles up, there is going to be heavy traffic. nuni ssaimyeon giri makigesseoyo.

my leg was hurting and that I couldnt put

It seemed relatively easy to explain that

--2 expression

much pressure on it. Immediately, the doctor that perhaps my pronunciation of the word pain was totally off and had sounded like

grabbed my wrist to check my pulse. I thought

at a spa without having to pay the price of a without limping for the first time in days. AFICIONADO OF

spa. Happily after that treatment, I could walk

something that would require the doctor to be that pulse diagnosis in Oriental medicine is

concerned about my heartbeat, but then realized common regardless of the health issue one is


Since that first experience, Ive been to an

experiencing. Needless to say, I was surprised

Oriental clinic for numerous reasons ranging

when he then asked to check my tongue (and at

from pain to mild sickness to stress. Now, Im

least mildly embarrassed that I had indulged in to pulse diagnosis, tongue diagnosis can show plan treatment. Knowing that made me all the all the more likely to watch what I ate before I visited my doctor.

even going to the clinic for moxibustion a type of therapy involving burning incense stuck on the toe that can help in numerous situations and will hopefully turn my breech baby. Everything about the last sentence might seem completely bizarre, but I had absolute faith the moment the incense was lit and my baby started rolling and kicking. The babys really moving! I said to to the therapy. Yep, he said calmly and knowingly. Thatll happen.

--- is used to construct the future tense and indicates conjecture, a persons intention, or possibility. This suffix is used with a verb stem to express the assumption or supposition based on the situation or the state at moment of speaking.

nuni ssaigetta nuni oda nuni ssaida

biga ogetta gureumi kkida biga oda

enjoying a blue lollipop earlier that day). Similar clues to a persons condition and help the doctor more curious about the art of acupuncture, and

chuwojigetta barami bulda chuwojida

knew what was going on, he led me into a room

Susan Tiffin is a Canadian who moved to Korea for one or two years in 2006 and has yet to return home. She loves to pet and feed treats to her husband and take long walks next to the river with her dog, Jjigae, a three-year-old Jindo. Soon shell be adding a newborn to her life, at which point shell be grateful to reacquaint herself with her good friend, Hite.

When the doctor was fully satisfied that he

my doctor, surprised by the immediate reaction

full of small curtained booths in the back of

the office and picked up the needles. I hadnt having small pins hammered into my body,

been afraid of the pain that might come from and didnt really have much time to think about it as he found specific points on my feet and hands to tap the needles into. Although there

methods of acupuncture or the effectiveness of the treatment. So, when I encounter someone whos still skeptical or fearful of a visit to the Oriental clinic and cant rid themselves of a

Nothing surprises me anymore about the

-() -() indicates the condition for the following sentence similar to if in English. - is attached to the verb and adjective stem ending in a consonant, and - is attached to the stem ending in a vowel and .

Lets practice

<> . A: , . B: , . A: . . B:

chronic problem, Im definitely that person who tries to convince them otherwise. Ive got an back me up. ache-free body and an active baby as proof to


was a small point of pain with the entrance of

each needle, there was very little discomfort to

48 korea december 2012


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