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Each Filipino generates between 0.3 kg and 0.7 kg of solid waste daily, with the National Capital Region (NCR) posting the highest rate per capita per day, and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao the lowest. Total waste generation amounts to 35 154 tons per day, or 12.8 million tons every year. Compliance with the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act, 2010. Solid waste management is a polite term for garbage management. As long as humans have been living in settled communities, solid waste, or garbage, has been an issue, and modern societies generate far more solid waste than early humans ever did. Daily life in industrialized nations can generate several pounds of solid waste per consumer, not only directly in the home, but indirectly in factories that manufacture goods purchased by consumers. Solid waste management is a system for handling all of this garbage; municipal waste collection is solid waste management, as are recycling programs, dumps, and incinerators. Solid waste is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities in a given area. It may be categorized according to its origin (domestic, industrial, commercial, construction or institutional); according to its contents (organic material, glass, metal, plastic paper etc); or according to hazard potential (toxic, nontoxin, flammable, radioactive, infectious etc). These include monitoring, collection, transport, processing, recycling and disposal. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All wastes materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management Waste management practices can differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or international controls. Waste Management Concepts

Characteristics of wastes Corrosive: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding metal containers, e.g. tanks Ignitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition, e.g. waste oils and solvents Reactive: these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated. Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb.

Types of waste Non Hazardous waste: refuse, garbage, sludge, municipal trash. Hazardous waste: solvents acid, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemical sludge Radioactive: high and low-level radioactive waste Mixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids, radioactive heavy metals.

Problems Associated with Solid waste Increasing population Uncollected wastes often end up in drains, causing blockages which result in flooding and unsanitary conditions. Mosquitoes breed in blocked drains and in rainwater that is retained in discarded cans, tires and other objects. Mosquitoes spread disease, including malaria and dengue. Lack of Discipline Improper waste disposal

Effects of Improper Solid Waste Disposal Groundwater Contamination If waste isn't discarded properly on land, when it rains the waste is soaked and is then carried through the landfill, eventually making its way into the water you may drink. Especially dangerous chemicals are volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, which usually come from household cleaners and industrial solvents used in operations like dry cleaning. These compounds have been linked to everything from cancers to birth defects.

Disease Outbreaks Another danger, especially with open pits, comes from the spread of diseases--usually carried by rodents and bugs. An example of this is malaria, which festers in open areas with standing water and particularly hot and muggy temperatures. In addition, there may be a propensity for people to scavenge wastes in landfills and open pits, which again can create unsanitary conditions and aid the spread of disease.

Habitat Destruction Disposal locations may encroach upon existing habitat for native flora and fauna, especially when sited in areas near wetlands. In some cases, people have taken steps to reclaim the land by capping the landfill and later attempting to grow vegetation on it.

Climate Change As waste begins to break down, methane is produced. Methane is considered a greenhouse gases that is responsible for some of the spike in the earth's temperatures.

Air Quality When wastes are burned, especially toxic chemicals like dioxin, they're released into the surrounding environment and can then cause serious public health risks.

Impacts of solid waste on health Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation Uncollected waste can obstruct the storm water runoff resulting in flood Low birth weight Cancer Congenital malformations Neurological disease Nausea and vomiting Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury

Effects of Solid Waste on Animals and Aquatics life Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the rivers. Plastic found in oceans ingested by birds Resulted in high algal population in rivers and sea. Degrades water and soil quality

Methods for Solid Waste Disposal Agencies Waste Collection Waste from our homes is generally collected by our local authorities through regular waste collection, or by special collections for recycling. Within hot climates such as that of the Caribbean the waste should be collected at least twice a week to control fly breeding, and the harboring of other pests in the community. Compost Ideally, everyone should create a compost with yard waste like leaves and branches, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Compost not only benefits the environment and keeps unnecessary refuse out of landfills, it can even provide economic benefits. Organic matter creates methane in landfills and contributes to greenhouse that cause global warming. Instead of throwing out yard trimmings, using them as a compost replenishes soil and reduces the need to pay for land reclamation . Landfills For non-hazardous waste that cannot be reclaimed or recycled, landfills offer a reasonable and fairly cheap solution. Not just any open area will do--landfills must abide by certain federal guidelines set forth by the EPA and receive proper monitoring and maintenance. A good landfill has lining to protect from toxins leaking into water supplies and covers for full landfills. Burning A landfill may offer a cheap solution to large amounts of trash, but incineration can quickly reduce the volume. An efficient and environmentally sound incinerator does not simply burn whatever trash there is lying around. Scrubbers and filters prevent acidic gases from release and prevent ash from burning into the air. Some incinerators recycle and reuse refuse as fuel to burn non-recyclable materials. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Methods of waste reduction, waste reuse and recycling are the preferred options when managing waste. There are many environmental benefits that can be derived from the use of these methods. They reduce or prevent greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the release of pollutants,

conserve resources, save energy and reduce the demand for waste treatment technology and landfill space. Therefore it is advisable that these methods be adopted and incorporated as part of the waste management plan. Waste reduction and reuse Waste reduction and reuse of products are both methods of waste prevention. They eliminate the production of waste at the source of usual generation and reduce the demands for large scale treatment and disposal facilities. Methods of waste reduction include manufacturing products with less packaging, encouraging customers to bring their own reusable bags for packaging, encouraging the public to choose reusable products such as cloth napkins and reusable plastic and glass containers, backyard composting and sharing and donating any unwanted items rather than discarding them. All of the methods of waste prevention mentioned require public participation. In order to get the public onboard, training and educational programs need to be undertaken to educate the public about their role in the process. Recycling Recycling refers to the removal of items from the waste stream to be used as raw materials in the manufacture of new products. Treatment and Disposal This refers to processes that involve the use of heat to treat waste.

Incineration Incineration is the most common thermal treatment process. This is the combustion of waste in the presence of oxygen. After incineration, the wastes are converted to carbon dioxide, water vapour and ash. This method may be used as a means of recovering energy to be used in heating or the supply of electricity. In addition to supplying energy incineration technologies have the advantage of reducing the volume of the waste, rendering it harmless, reducing transportation costs and reducing the production of the greenhouse gas methane Pyrolysis and Gasification Pyrolysis and gasification are similar processes they both decompose organic waste by exposing it to high temperatures and low amounts of oxygen. Gasification uses a low oxygen environment while pyrolysis allows no oxygen. These techniques use heat and an oxygen starved environment to convert biomass into other forms. A mixture of combustible and non-combustible gases as well as pyroligenous liquid is produced by these processes. All of these products have a high heat value and can be utilized. Gasification is advantageous since it allows for the incineration of waste with energy recovery and without the air pollution that is characteristic of other incineration methods. Open burning Open burning is the burning of unwanted materials in a manner that causes smoke and other emissions to be released directly into the air without passing through a chimney or stack. This includes the burning of outdoor piles, burning in a burn barrel and the use of incinerators which have no pollution control devices and as such release the gaseous by products directly into the atmosphere (Department of environmental quality 2006). Open-burning has been practiced by a number of urban centers because it reduces the volume of refuse received at the dump and therefore extends the life of their dumpsite. Garbage may be burnt because of the ease and convenience of the method or because of the cheapness of the method. In countries where house holders are required to pay

for garbage disposal, burning of waste in the backyard allows the householder to avoid paying the costs associated with collecting, hauling and dumping the waste. Open burning has many negative effects on both human health and the environment. This uncontrolled burning of garbage releases many pollutants into the atmosphere. These include dioxins, particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic compounds, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, hexachlorobenzene and ash. All of these chemicals pose serious risks to human health. The Dioxins are capable of producing a multitude of health problems; they can have adverse effects on reproduction, development, disrupt the hormonal systems or even cause cancer. The polycyclic aromatic compounds and the hexachlorobenzene are considered to be carcinogenic. The particulate matter can be harmful to persons with respiratory problems such as asthma or bronchitis and carbon monoxide can cause neurological symptoms. The harmful effects of open burning are also felt by the environment. This process releases acidic gases such as the halo-hydrides; it also may release the oxides of nitrogen and carbon. Nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rain, ozone depletion, smog and global warming. In addition to being a greenhouse gas carbon monoxide reacts with sunlight to produce ozone which can be harmful. The particulate matter creates smoke and haze which contribute to air pollution.

Biological Waste Treatment Composting Composting is the controlled aerobic decomposition of organic matter by the action of micro organisms and small invertebrates. There are a number of composting techniques being used today. These include: in vessel composting, windrow composting, vermicomposting and static pile composting. The process is controlled by making the environmental conditions optimum for the waste decomposers to thrive. The rate of compost formation is controlled by the composition and constituents of the materials i.e. their Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio, the temperature, the moisture content and the amount of air. The C/N ratio is very important for the process to be efficient. The micro organisms require carbon as an energy source and nitrogen for the synthesis of some proteins. If the correct C/N ration is not achieved, then application of the compost with either a high or low C/N ratio can have adverse effects on both the soil and the plants. A high C/N ratio can be corrected by dehydrated mud and a low ratio corrected by adding cellulose. Moisture content greatly influences the composting process. The microbes need the moisture to perform their metabolic functions. If the waste becomes too dry the composting is not favored. If however there is too much moisture then it is possible that it may displace the air in the compost heap depriving the organisms of oxygen and drowning them. A high temperature is desirable for the elimination of pathogenic organisms. However, if temperatures are too high, above 75 degree Celsius then the organisms necessary to complete the composting process are destroyed. Optimum temperatures for the process are in the range of 50-60 degree Celsius with the ideal being 60 degree Celsius. Aeration is a very important and the quantity of air needs to be properly controlled when composting. If there is insufficient oxygen the aerobes will begin to die and will be replaced by anaerobes. The anaerobes are undesirable since they will slow the process, produce odors and also produce the highly flammable methane gas. Air can be incorporated by churning the compost.

Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic digestion like composting uses biological processes to decompose organic waste. However, where composting can use a variety of microbes and must have air, anaerobic digestion uses bacteria and an oxygen free environment to decompose the waste. Aerobic respiration, typical of composting, results in the formation of Carbon dioxide and water. While the anaerobic respiration results in the formation of Carbon Dioxide and methane. In addition to generating the humus which is used as a soil enhancer, Anaerobic Digestion is also used as a method of producing biogas which can be used to generate electricity. Optimal conditions for the process require nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, it requires that the pH be maintained around 7 and the alkalinity be appropriate to buffer pH changes, temperature should also be controlled.

In addition to that, let us refrain from doing what have been prohibited under the law, to include but are not limited to the following:

a. Littering, throwing, dumping of waste materials in public places like roads, sidewalks, canals, esteros, parks and establishments; b. Open burning of solid waste; c. Allowing the collection of non-segregated or unsorted waste; d. Squatting in open dumps and landfills; e. Open dumping or burying of biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials in flood-prone areas; f. Unauthorized removal of recyclable material intended for collection by authorized persons; g. Mixing of source-separated recyclable material with other solid waste in any vehicle, box, container or receptacle used in solid waste collection or disposal; h. Manufacture, distribution or use of non-environmentally acceptable packaging materials; i. Establishment or operation of open dumps; and j. Importation of consumer products packaged in non-environmentally acceptable materials. One of the main concerns of RA 9003 is the promotion of the 3Rs: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle and this will become more relevant as climate impacts increase and intensify.

Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP) The Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP) is a non-profit membership organization composed of solid waste practitioners from Local Government Units, National Government Agencies, Non government organizations, and the Academe. The Association was established May 22, 2000 under SEC Registration No. A200006764.

VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES Vision: A leading non-profit multi-sectoral network of solid waste management (SWM) volunteers and practitioners whose aim is to empower local governments, communities, and private sector towards a clean, safe and sustainable environment.

Mission: To build the capacity of LGUs, communities, and private sector to manage solid waste problems in their respective areas through research, trainings, technical assistance, information exchanges, and network building. Objectives: Enhance the knowledge and skills of SWM practitioners to plan and implement integrated solid waste management programs; Disseminate information and promote exchanges and partnerships among SWM practitioners; Advocate for policy reforms to strengthen LGU capacity to implement SWM programs; and Conduct SWM researches in aid of policy advocacy and program development. SERVICES OFFERED Technical Assistance SWAPP offers a wide range of technical assistance on SWM to its varied clients. It also conducts researches on various SWM concerns. Trainings and Conferences SWAPP designs and implements customized SWM trainings, facilitates SWM study tours and convenes annual national SWM conferences, seminars, and roundtable discussions. SWAPP also coordinates, facilitates and documents trainings and conferences. Information Services - SWAPP maintains a website (, develops SWM multimedia trainings and information materials, and publishes SWM trainings and instruction manuals. All collected materials are housed in the SWAPP Resource Center. SWM Advocacy - SWAPP raises awareness on SWM policy issues and enhances the capacity of LGUs to address local SWM policy issues through training and information.

NETWORK AND LINKAGES SWAPP has an extensive network of SWM professionals from LGUs, government agencies, other NGOs and the academe. It has been the recipient of various grants from respectable donor agencies like United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Coca-Cola Foundation, DED, and Rotary District International, just to name a few. Locally, SWAPP has partnered with the National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC), Local Government Academy (LGA), PLAN-Philippines, Solid Waste Contractors of the Philippines (SWACAP), Earth Day Network, and Philippine EcoSan Network. SWAPP is established linkage with international organizations such as the Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA), Collaborative Working Group (CWG) for Low and Middle Income Countries (Switzerland) and Southeast Asia Urban Environment Management Network (AIT, Thailand), and Australia Waste Management Association. Services Offered The Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP) is an organization of professionals and practitioners in the field of solid waste management is prepared to assist Local Governments like yours to meet their obligations under R.A. 9003 (The Ecological Waste Management Act). All towns and cities of the country are required to have implemented by now, waste segregation, established a Materials Recovery Facility (MRF), established a SWM Board, and closed their open dumpsites, among other things. However, what most LGUs are unaware of is that there are things that have to be done first to be able to accomplish these objectives, such as, waste assessment, organizing and planning for waste management, and making sure that waste management is sustained because there is a policy that supports it, there is participation from the communities and other sectors of the town or city, and the LGU has allocated a regular source of funding to sustain the system. These activities and many more are within the capabilities and expertise of SWAPP that can be made available to you and other LGUs. A major part of knowing how to set-up a SWM system and how to

sustain it is acquiring the knowledge, skills and values associated with SWM. SWAPP offers capacity development and training for LGU staff that can be customized to the particular needs of the LGU. SWAPPCon 2012: Reducing Climate Change Impacts and Disaster Risks Through Solid Waste Management One of the main concerns of RA 9003 is the promotion of the 3Rs: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle and this will become more relevant as climate impacts increase and intensify. SWAPPCon 2012 with a theme Reducing Climate Change Impacts and Disaster Risks through Solid Waste Management shall serve as a forum on how effective solid waste management can be used by local governments to improve adaptation, mitigation and disaster risks reduction. The conference shall include sharing of policies, tools, experiences and lessons learned on ESWM as disaster mitigation measures and climate change adaptation. The Conference aims to achieve the following objectives: 1. To update participants on National Solid Waste Management Commissions (NSWMC) strategies and guidelines related to disaster risks prevention/reduction and climate change measures; To share local experiences and lessons learned on ecological solid waste management and disaster risks reduction; To share knowledge about methane avoidance strategies, landfill gas management and monitoring, and other related technologies for energy recovery from solid wastes; To share knowledge about the role of the informal waste sector in climate change mitigation; and To help participants identify funding mechanisms for climate and disaster-proofing of waste facilities.

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R.A. No. 9003 Republic Act No. 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act provides the legal framework for the countrys systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program that shall ensure protection of public health and the environment. It underscores, among other things, the need to create the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives, as well as imposes penalties for acts in violation of any of its provisions. The implementing rules and regulations of R.A. No. 9003 are contained in DENR Administrative Order No. 2001-34. Solid waste management related projects In the field of Engineering: Project feasibility study on a step towards an automated segregator - Segregates biodegradable from non-biodegradable - (ECE-March 10,2011) Project study on biomass Gasifier Stove - Substitute for an LPG Stove - Make use of waste as fuels particularly rice husks, wheat straw, corncob, coconut shell, bagasse, and any other agricultural residues - (ME March 16,2012)

Project study on beach litter collector - Provides a technological solution to the blooming problem with regards to waste management - Focuses on beach litter/beach debris - Provide a technological solution to the problem of time consuming manual picking of garbage and effort-intensive device of collecting beach litter in selected coastal communities in Bataan - (ME - March 12,2010) Resiklo Balangueno: Balanga City Garbage Segregation and Recycling Facility - (Architecture - May 2009) Project Study on "Development of a small-scale screw type briquetting machine for briquetting of saw dust and rice husk - (ME 2012)

Contribution of Electronics Engineers to Solid Waste Management Software development Instrumentation and controls Automation

Balanga City Solid Waste Management

Based on comprehensive solid waste management ordinance no. 104, S-2002 ARTICLE VI Waste Processing and Resource Recovery Section 9- Residential Areas a) Segregated recyclables shall be properly stored before collection. These recyclables shall be collected separately and brought to recycling centers, eco centers, and junk dealers. b) Cooperatives shall be designated in every barangay who shall oversee the collection of recyclables and shall be responsible in coordinating with accredited dealers or manufacturers of recycled products. c) Food and kitchen refuse shall be collected as fodder or feeds for animals. Those that are not suitable as fodder shall be composed either at source, at the barangay level or at the central MRF. d) Residents shall avoid open burning and dumping and adopt recycling the Fs scheme (feed fermentable, food, fuel) , (a ) Fuel Material- consist of twigs, branches, leaves, husks, shells, cobs, chaff, sawdust, wood shavings, soiled papers, bagasse, stalks, etc. and (b) flammable gas produced by aerobic decomposition of all biomass or biodegradable materials in biogas digester. Section 10 Agricultural areas (including farms for livestocks, poultry, etc.) Agricultural wastes (e.g. rice straws, corn, cobs, etc.) shall not be burned but shall be stockpiled in a proper location and composted. Animal manure can also be collected by the City Government as an ingredient for compost or used for biogas production. ARTICLE VII Collection and Transportation of Solid Waste Section 11 Residential Areas a) The concerned residents shall ensure that the Solid Waste are brought out in front of his gate door and/or along the collection route of the collection vehicle/cart, during the collection period. b) He/she shall report to the office of the City Health Officer or concerned official for any uncollected solid waste within the vicinity of his/her residence. c) Garbage not segregated and placed in approved containers by the local government shall not be collected and shall be treated as disposed of in violation of the anti- littering provision of this ordinance and shall be penalized accordingly. The NO SEGREGATION, NO COLLECTION Rule will be strictly implemented. d) The specific date and hour of garbage collection in particular locations shall be scheduled and announced for strict compliance by all concerned. ARTICLE VIII Disposal of Solid Wastes Section 12 Residential Areas

a) Incinerator or open burning of solid waste shall be prohibited. Residuals of solid wastes after resource recovery, recycling and composting shall be disposed of and be stored by controlled landfilling.