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STRESS is the intensity of force inside a solid. The basic unit of stress is the Pascal (Pa) which is Newton per square metre. In engineering it is more convenient to measured as the force (N) per square mm. This gives the common engineering unit of stress, MPa. Lecture Notes: Tensile-Stress.pdf Tensile-Stress.one

Property

DENSITY: Mass per unit volume

Formula

Units

Example

Steel = 7800

= Mass (kg) / Volume (m3) kg / m3

STRENGTH: How much Stress it can 'take' Ultimate Strength (max stress before breaking) Yield Strength (max stress before plastic) = Force (N) / Area (mm2) Stresses: Tensile & Compression (Axial), Shear Fatigue: Max stress under millions of reps Working/Allowable; 'Safe' stress, design value HARDNESS: Resistance to indentation Size or depth of indent or abrasion STIFFNESS: How much Stress for a certain Strain = Stress (MPa) / Strain Young's Modulus, Elastic Modulus = Area under Stress-Strain TOUGHNESS: Energy to break curve ELASTICITY: Ability to Stretch with plasticity PLASTICITY: Permanent deformation: Ductility = tensile plasticity Malleablility = compressive plasticity POISSON'S RATIO: side strain to axial strain = Strain at yield = (L2 - L1) / L1 v = ex / ey

MPa

1020 Steel UTS = 400MPa 1020 Steel YS = 200MPa 1020 Steel SS = MPa Steel Grade 250 FS = 207MPa 1020 ATS = 120MPa

varies MPa J / m2 % % -

HRC55 (Rockwell) etc 1020 Steel E = 205GPa Charpy Test (Joules) 1020 Steel: 0.01% @ yield 1020 Steel: 25% 1020 Steel v = 0.29

DEFINE

Axial Stress (Tension or Compression) Axial Strain (Tension or Compression) Shear Stress Modulus of Elasticity

Formula

Stress = Force / Area Strain = extension / original Length Stress = Force / Area E = Stress / Strain

Units

MPa MPa GPa

Diagram

Slope of Stress:Strain

(Young's Mod) Modulus of Rigidity (Shear G = S. Stress / S. Strain Mod.) =~ 0.4E Shear Strain Strain = movement / original Depth

GPa -

diagram Slope of S.Stress:S.Strain diagram

Shear in Detail: Shear Strain is usually small enough to ignore the changes in L with angle. Angle is in radians. Area is the zone that would slide apart assuming it broke in shear.

What is a Stress?

STRESS is the intensity of force inside a solid. It has the same units as Pressure (Pa, kPa, MPa, etc), so you could think of stress as pressure in a solid. The difference is, pressure acts equally in every direction, but stress has a certain direction. Stress = Force/Area The base unit for pressure and stress is the Pascal (Pa), but this is way too small for engineering use - except perhaps when measuring the pressure of air conditioning ducts or something. Certainly nothing compared to the stress required to break steel. In most engineering situations, the strength of a material is measured in MPa (MegaPascals) Stress (MPa) = Force (N) / Area (mm2)

COMMON MISTAKE: (FORCE DOUBLING). When drawing a Free Body Diagram of a component under stress, you will always end up with a pair of forces (e.g. 1 up, 1 down). This is the definition of stress - that the cross-sectional area has to sustain the 2 forces trying to tear it apart. If you add the 2 forces together you are probably making a mistake! (Besides, if you did try to add them they would cancel each other out anyway, since they are in opposite directions.) Worked Example 1: Tensile force of 5kN acting on a 6mm diameter rod. What is the stress?

Worked Example 2: A block made of 40MPa concrete with dimensions as shown. What is the maximum load (mass) it can support?

Worked Example 3: Tensile force of 1kN, with steel of UTS=750MPa and Factor of Safety of 2.5. What is maximum force?

DIFFERENT SYMBOLS: Watch out for different symbols for stress. Ivanoff (and some TAFE publications) use f but the rest of the world (internet and other textbooks) use the Greek symbol sigma .

**Tensile, Compressive and Shear stress
**

There are 3 types of stress in the world;

Tensile = pulling apart Compressive = squashing together Shear = sliding apart

Any of these 3 types of stress are calculated the same way, with the same units - it the area that is different. Always think of what area must be broken when the component fails (the broken area).

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