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Design length of sheet pile

Theory:

Calculating active earth pressure The active and passive lateral earth pressure of soil can be written as a=qKa+2CKa, p=qKp+2CKp Where C is cohesion of soil and q is surcharge and 2 2 Ka=tan (45-/2), Kp= tan (45+/2) are active and passive lateral earth pressure, and is internal friction angle. In cohesionless soil, C is zero. The active pressure at bottom of excavation can be calculated as pa = h Ka+ q Ka, Where, is unit weight of soil, h is the height of excavation. The lateral forces Ha1 is calculated as 2 Ha1= Ka h /2+q Ka h

Below the bottom of excavation, the sheet pile is subjected to active pressure on the earth side and passive pressure on the excavation side. Since passive pressure is larger than active pressure, the earth pressure on the earth side decreases. At a depth “a” below the bottom of excavation, the earth pressure is zero. The depth a can be calculated as a = pa / (Kp-Ka) Where Kp is passive earth pressure coefficient. When the sheet pile rotates away from the earth side, there are active pressure on the earth side and passive pressure on the excavation side. Therefore, the slope of BC is equal to (Kp-Ka) The lateral forces Ha2 can be calculated as Ha2=pa*a/2 Derive equation for depth Z from Fx = 0 Summarize lateral forces, we have Fx = Ha1+ Ha2-Hp1+Hp2=0 From the diagram, we recognize that lateral force Hp1 is area CDE and Hp2 is area DOG. There is a common area DEFO between two areas, and Hp1-Hp2 = triangle CDE – triangle DOG = triangle CFO – triangle EFG = HCFO-HEFG Where HCFO = p1*Y/2, and HEFG = (p1+p2)*Z/2 Therefore the equation can be written as Ha1+ Ha2 – p1*Y/2+ (p1+p2)*Z/2 = 0 Solving the equation for Z, we have

The pressure at bottom of sheet pile on the excavation side p1 can be determined from the slope of line CEF. Since the slope of line CEF is (Kp-Ka), p = (Kp-Ka)*Y

1

The pressure at the bottom of sheet pile on the earth side p2 can be determined from active and passive earth pressure coefficient and overburden pressure. When the sheet pile rotates, there are active pressure on the excavation side and passive pressure on the earth side at the bottom of sheet pile. The overburden pressure from bottom of excavation is (a+Y), the active pressure is Ka (a+Y). The overburden pressure from the top to the bottom of sheet pile on the earth side is (h+a+Y), the passive pressure is Kp (h+a+Y). Therefore, p = Kp (h+a+Y) - Ka (a+Y) 2

If there a surcharge, p2 = Kp (h+a+Y)+q Kp - Ka (a+Y) Derive equation for Y from Mo = 0 Both p1 and p2 are function of Y, to determine Y, we can take moment about bottom of sheet pile O. We have Mo = Ha1*(h/3+a+Y)+ Ha2*(2a/3+Y) – HCFO*Y/3+HEFG*Z/3 = 0 Or 2 Ha1*(h/3+a+Y)+ Ha2*(2a/3+Y) – p1*Y2/6+(p1+p2)*Z /3 = 0 The depth Y can be determined from a trial and error process. Calculating embed depth D Once Y is determined, the minimum embedded depth D is equal to Y+a. Usually a factor of safety of 1.2 is applied to D, and the length of sheet pile L is equal to h+D*FS. FS is factor of safety from 1.2 to 1.4.

**Selection of sheet pile section
**

The size of sheet pile is selected based on maximum moment and shear. Maximum shear force is usually located at D where lateral earth pressure change from active to passive. Vmax = Ha1+Ha2 Maximum moment locates at where shear stress equals to zero between C and D. Assume that maximum moment located at a distance y below point C, then 2 (Ha1+Ha2) = (Kp-Ka) y /2. Therefore, y = {2*(Ha1+Ha2)/[(Kp-Ka)]} The maximum moment is 3 Mmax = Ha1*(h/3+a+y)+ Ha2*(2a/3+y)- (Kp-Ka)*y /6 The required section modulus is S = Mmax / Fb, Fb is allowable stress of sheet pile. The sheet pile section is selected based on section modulus

1/2

Design Procedure

1. Calculate lateral earth pressure at bottom of excavation, pa and Ha1. pa = Ka h, Ha1=pa*h/2 2. Calculate the length a, and Ha2. a = pa / (Kp-Ka), Ha2=pa*a/2 3. Assume a trial depth Y, calculate p1and p2. p = (Kp-Ka)*Y, 1

p = Kp (h+a+Y) - Ka (a+Y) 2 4. Calculate depth Z.

2 2 5. Let R = Ha1*(h/3+a+Y)+ Ha2*(2a/3+Y) – p1*Y /6+(p1+p2)*Z /3 Substitute Y and Z into R, if R = 0, the embedded depth, D = Y + a. If not, assume a new Y, repeat step 3 to 5. 6. Calculate the length of sheet pile, L = h+1.2*D 1/2 7. Calculate y = {2*(Ha1+Ha2)/[(Kp-Ka)]} .

8. Calculate Mmax = Ha1*(h/3+a+y)+ Ha2*(2a/3+y)- (Kp-Ka)*y /6 9. Calculate required section modulus S= Mmax/Fb. 10. Select sheet pile section.

3

**Example 1: Design cantilever sheet pile in cohesionless soil.
**

Given: Depth of excavation, h = 10 ft 3 Unit weight of soil, = 115 lb/ft Internal friction angle, = 30 degree Allowable design stress of sheet pile, Fb = 32 ksi Requirement: Design length of a cantilever sheet pile and select sheet pile section Solution: Design length of sheet pile: Calculate lateral earth pressure coefficients: Ka = tan2 (45-/2) = 0.333 Kp = tan2 (45+/2) = 3 The lateral earth pressure at bottom of excavation is pa = Ka h = 0.333*115*10 = 383.33 psf The active lateral force above excavation Ha1 = pa*h/2 = 383.33*10/2 = 1917 lb/ft The depth a = pa / (Kp-Ka) = 383.3 / [115*(3-0.333)] =1.25 ft The corresponding lateral force Ha2 = pa*a/2 = 383.33*1.25/2 = 238.6 lb/ft Assume Y = 8.79 ft p = (Kp-Ka)*Y = 115*(3-0.333)*8.79 = 2696 psf 1 p = Kp (h+a+Y)- Ka(a+Y)=115*3*(10+1.25+8.79)-115*0.333*(1.25+8.79)= 6529 psf

2

The depth Z = [p1*Y-2*(Ha1+Ha2)]/(p1+p2) = [2696*8.79-2*(1917+238.6)]/(2696+6529) = 2.1 ft The value 2 2 R = Ha1*(h/3+a+Y)+ Ha2*(2*a/3+Y)-p1*Y /6+(p1+p2)*Z /6 =1917*(10/3+1.25+8.79)+238.6*(2*1.25/3+8.79)–2696*8.79 /6 + (2696+6529)*2.1 /6

2 2

=12.9 lb close to zero The embedded depth D = 1.25 + 8.79 = 10.04 ft The design length of sheet pile, L = 10 + 1.2*10.04 = 22.05 ft Select sheet pile section: 1/2 y = {2*(Ha1+Ha2)/[(Kp-Ka)]}

Use 22 ft

={2*(1917+238.6)/[115*(3-0.333)]} = 3.75 ft 3 Mmax = Ha1*(h/3+a+y)+ Ha2*(2a/3+y)- (Kp-Ka)*y /6

1/2

=1917*(10/3+1.25+3.75)+238.6*(2*1.25/3+3.75)-115*(3-0.333)*3.75 /6 = 14375 ftlb/ft Allowable bending stress Fb=32 ksi Required section modulus 3 S = Mmax/Fb = 11680*12/32000= 5.39 in /ft Select PMA22 section modulus per foot of wall, S = 5.4 in /ft Cantilever sheet pile wall in cohesionless soil at various depth Design Data: Depth of excavation, h (ft) Unit weight of soil, g (lb/ft^3) Internal friction angle, F (degree) Lateral earth pressure coefficient: Active earth pressure coefficient, Ka Passive earth pressure coefficient, Kp Earth pressure above excavation: Earth pressure at bottom of excavation, pa (psf) Active lateral force above excavation, Ha1 (lb/ft) Depth a (ft) Lateral force Ha2 (lb/ft) Determine embedment depth:

3

3

10 115 30

12 115 30

14 115 30

16 115 30

18 115 30

20 115 30

0.333 3.000

0.333 3.000

0.333 3.000

0.333 3.000

0.333 3.000

0.333 3.000

383.34

460.00

536.67

613.34

690.00

766.67

1916.68 2760.02 3756.69 4906.69 6210.04 7666.71 1.25 239.58 1.50 345.00 1.75 469.58 2.00 613.33 2.25 776.25 2.50 958.33

Depth Y (ft) Pressure p1 (psf)

8.79 10.55 12.31 14.07 15.83 17.59 2695.63 3235.37 3775.11 4314.85 4854.59 5394.33

Pressure p2 (psf) 6529.01 7835.42 9141.84 10448.25 11754.67 13061.08 Depth Z (ft) 2.10 2.52 2.94 3.36 3.79 4.21 Value R (lb) 12.69 3.59 -15.11 -45.85 -91.10 -153.30 Is assumed Y O.K. Y Y Y Y Y Y Required embeded depth, D 10.04 12.05 14.06 16.07 18.08 20.09 (ft) Total length of sheet pile, L 20.04 24.05 28.06 32.07 36.08 40.09 (ft) Total length of sheet pile, L 22.05 26.46 30.87 35.28 39.70 44.11 (ft) with 1.2 SF

**Cantilever sheet pile wall in cohesive soil
**

Determine length of sheet piles for stability

Theory:

For cohesive soil, friction angle, = 0, the sheet pile is supported by soil cohesion, C. Because cohesion, the soil can stands by itself at certain height without sheet pile. Since = 0, lateral earth pressure distributes uniformly below excavation. Calculating active earth pressure The active and passive lateral earth pressure of soil can be written as a=qKa-2CKa, p=qKp+2CKp Where C is cohesion of soil and q is surcharge and 2 2 Ka=tan (45-/2), Kp= tan (45+/2) are active and passive lateral earth pressure, and is internal friction angle. When friction angle, = 0, Ka = Kp = 1, and a=q-2C and p=q+2C If the unit weight of soil is , the surcharge q at bottom of excavation on the earth side is *h, then, the lateral earth pressure, pa = h – 2C The lateral pressure at top of excavation will be –2C. At a distance, d, below the top of excavation, the lateral pressure, a= d-2C = 0, and d = 2C/ is the free-standing height of soil. The resultant force Ha=pa*h/2 Determine lateral earth pressure below excavation Below the bottom of excavation, the sheet pile is subjected to both active and passive pressure. The active pressure is a=h-2C. The passive pressure is p= 2C, since q = 0 Therefore, the net pressure is p = - 2C-(h-2C) = 4C-h 1 p a= At the bottom of sheet pile, the sheet pile is subjected to active pressure on the excavation side, and passive pressure on the earth side. The active pressure is a=D2C, and the passive pressure is p=(h+D)-2C. Therefore, the net pressure is p = - = D+2C-[(h+D)-2C] = 4C+h

2 p a

Derive equation for depth z from Fx = 0 Summarize horizontal forces, we have Fx = Ha – Hp1 + Hp2 = 0 Where Ha = pa (h-d)/2, and Hp1 - Hp2 = HBCFO + HEFG Since HBCFO = p *D, and HEFG = (p +p )*Z/2=8C*Z/2 =4C*Z

1 1 2

Ha – p1*D +4C*Z= 0 Then,

Z= (p1*D- Ha)/4C

(indicate revision)

Derive equation for embed depth D from Mo = 0 Taking moment about point O at bottom of sheet pile, we have 2 2 Mo = Ha*[(h-d)/3+D]- p1*D /2+4C*Z /3 = 0

Structural design

The maximum shear occurs at point B, at the bottom of excavation and or at point D. The maximum moment occurs at a distance y below the bottom of excavation where shear equal to zero. Then, H – p *y = 0, therefore, y = H /p

a 1 a 1

The maximum moment, 2 Mmax=Ha*[(h-d)/3+y]- p1*y /2 The sheet pile section can be selected based on maximum moment and shear.

Design procedure:

1. Calculate free standing height, d = 2C/ 2. Calculate pa=(h-d) 3. Calculate Ha=pa*h/2 4. Calculate p =4C-h

1

**5. Assume a trial depth, D, Calculate Z=(p1*D-Ha)/(4C) 2 2 6. Calculate R=H [(h-d)/3+D]- p *D /2+4CZ /3
**

a 1

7. If R is not close to zero, assume a new D, repeat steps 5 and 6 8. The design length of sheet pile is L=h+D*FS, FS=1.2 to 1.4. 9. Calculate y = Ha/ p1. 2 10. Calculate M =H [(h-d)/3+y]- p *y /2

max a 1

11. Calculate required section modulus S= Mmax/Fb. 12. Select sheet pile section.

**Example 2: Design Cantilever sheet pile in cohesive soil.
**

Given: Depth of excavation, h = 10 ft 3 Unit weight of soil, = 115 lb/ft Cohesion of soil, C = 500 psf Internal friction angle, = 0 degree Allowable design stress of sheet pile, Fb = 32 ksi Requirement: Design length of sheet pile and select sheet pile section Solution: Design length of sheet pile:

The free standing height, d = 2C/ = 2*500/115 = 8.7 ft The lateral pressure at bottom of sheet pile, pa = (h-d)=115*(10-8.7)=150 psf Total active force, Ha=pa*h/2 = 150*10/2 = 750 lb/ft Assume D = 2.35 ft, p =4C-h=4*500-115*10 = 850 psf

1

**The depth, Z=(p1*D-Ha)/(4C)= (850*2.77-750)/(4*500) = 0.624 ft 2 2 R=H [(h-d)/3+D]- p *D /2+4CZ /3
**

a 1

=750*[(10-8.7)/3+2.35]-850*2.35 /2+2*500*0.624 /2 = 0.9 Close to zero The length of sheet pile, L = 10+1.3*2.35 = 13.1 ft Use 14 ft The maximum moment occurs at y = Ha/ p1=750/850 = 0.882 ft The maximum moment, 2 2 Mmax=Ha[(h-d)/3+y]- p1*y /2 = 750*[(10-8.7)/3+0.882]-750*0.882 /2=0.657 kip-ft/ft The required section modulus, S= Mmax/Fb=0.657*12/32=0.25 in /ft Select sheet pile section, PS28, S = 1.9 in /ft

3 3

2

2

Topics

Cantilever sheet pile wall in cohesionless soil Cantilever sheet pile wall in cohesive soil

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how to design sheet pile wall in non cohesive soil

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