Introduction to Road Safety Auditing (RSA

)
Paul Hillier – ARRB Group Ltd
Day 2 (Saturday 10 November 2012)

Transport Community of Practice

The program for Day 2

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Day 2 (of 2)
• There will be 3 sessions: – Evaluation, capacity building, guidance docs and toolkits, ADB protocols (0900hrs – 1000hrs) – Intro to design RSA exercise (1000hrs – 1015hrs) – Break – Design RSA exercise (1030hrs – 1200hrs) – LUNCH – RSA of existing road (1300hrs – 1445hrs) – Break – Wrap up of Day 2 / CLOSE (1500 - 1530hrs)
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Session 4 – Evaluation, capacity building, guidance documents & toolkits, ADB protocols

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Closing The Loop – Evaluation

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Monitoring & Evaluation

• Monitoring = evaluation
'The critical assessment, in as objective a manner as possible, of the degree to which a service or its component parts fulfils stated goals'

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Why evaluate?
• Applies to any strategy, policy, plan or action, not just highways • Have we made a positive difference? – Success or failure? – Quantifying - how successful? met targets? – Have we been overambitious? • ‘Job done, tick’ isn’t enough • Continual improvement – learn from successes and mistakes • Helps to prove ‘vfm’ or secure (or retain) additional funding / support • But, it’s not easy!
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Why is this so hard?

• Often a very fine line between success & failure • ‘Success’ can be ‘all things to all men’
What constitutes success can be different based on who is asked & what their objectives / ‘agenda’ are! (who is the client?)

• Have we identified the ‘problem’ correctly? • Robustness and confidence in results needed
– What are we measuring? – Data isn’t always (readily) available or reliable – What should be our baseline?/when do we measure?

• Nature of road crashes
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Challenges & issues

• • • • • • • •

Data (availability, currency, accuracy, under-reporting etc.) Nature of crashes (rare, random, multi-factor) Regression to mean KPIs / what is success? (what to collect?) Sample sizes? Coping with evaluation of multiple measures Crash migration / crash type changes Resources / responsibilities / funding !
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Wider (Strategic) Evaluation
• not a specific type of RSA

• ‘audit of the auditors’
• review quality of RSA findings

• review client responses
• review whether client responses get implemented • assess what safety benefits are actually gained on audited roads and projects

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Business policies & procedures

Source: NSW RTA

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Capacity building, guidance documents & toolkits, ADB protocols

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Capacity building, guidance & ADB protocols

• • • •

Importance & methods of capacity building Where can I find more help? Guidance documents & practical toolkits ADB protocols – supporting documents, templates / proformas etc.

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Capacity and Capability Building
• Sharing knowledge & learning from each other is vital • Because together we have the combined

Knowledge Skills Experience
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How Do We Achieve It?
• • • • • • • • • • Forums/conferences/workshops Networking Knowledge Transfer (training) Staff secondments/exchanges Partnerships / MoU’s Guidance documents / toolkits Centres of Excellence Aid agency funded Consultancy commissions Importance of keeping things practical & ‘including’ local knowledge
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RSA Specifics
Important considerations in building RSA capability:
– – – – – – – – multi-disciplinary approach to road safety concept of auditor independence qualification process for auditors evaluation of audits: cost/benefit comparison audit regulations and legal consequences possibility of a universal checklist development of an audit database audit procedures in emerging countries
Source: PIARC/Herrsted 1999

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We’ve need to save more lives on our roads – RSA will help!

Traffic Management

Asset Management

Network Planning

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RSA Specifics (cont.)
What else would help ‘drive’ this?: • bringing all the pieces together • policies & business procedures to ‘mainstream’ RS (at institutional and local levels) • mandatory RSAs (penalties?) at defined / all stages • ‘ring fenced’ funding for RSAs • manuals, operating procedures • feedback loops (next slide)

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Source: NSW RTA

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Manuals and Guides

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Manuals and Guides
• Numerous from around the world • Tend to be minor variations on a common format – coverage is very similar • Often refer to same research / tech papers

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Australia & New Zealand

UK Highways Agency

UK IHT

RTA, NSW, Aus

22FHWA USA

South Africa

PIARC (Technical Committee C3)

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ADB Resources

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ADB RSA Manual - Overview • Based on guides and manuals from developed world – applied to ADB projects • Basic premise:

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ADB RSA Manual - Overview
• • • • • • RS principles / objectives RSA background (as per Day 1) Conducting an RSA Closing summary The Way Ahead (in 2003) (next slide) Appendices:
– – – – ToR for RSA ToR for development of RSAs and training checklists references
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The Way Ahead (2003)

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The Way Ahead (2003)

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ADB Reporting Templates

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Tools to Assist RSAs

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Road Safety Audit Toolkit
The Road Safety Audit Toolkit is a free on-line tool to assist Australian and New Zealand road safety practitioners to: • • undertake Road Safety Audits (at any stage of a project) document findings


manage and keep track of members in an audit team
provide a well-documented assessment of issues and assign priority to each generate a RSA report browse jurisdiction references reproduce the Austroads checklists for use in the field
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• • •

Checklist questions
Users are stepped through the checklist questions for the selected stage of the Austroads Road Safety Auditing process.

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Reports
Three report types may be generated by the system: • Detailed audit report by category

• Detailed audit report by priority
• Corrective action report

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FHWA (USA) - RSA Software
• Iit is a tool for assisting with the completion of RSAs • facilitates members in the collection of information as they proceed thorugh RSA process

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Identifying Existing Sites To RSA
• needs to be strategically managed at the network level

• initial phase (network may have never been audited before) • use network assessment tools, such as iRAP • or routine RSA Rolling program, ‘all NHs every xx years’?
• existing road RSA protocols, &/or thematic RSA, as needed • audit effort should be proportional to assessed risk and in response to data-driven/risk-based analyses and/or community concerns • link into ADB’s road safety pipeline

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Dubai – existing road audit network
Red – High Risk Amber – Medium Risk Green – Low Risk

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Abu Dhabi City – road priority for RSA

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Large Scale Existing RSA Programs

A few potential issues:
– resource intensive – particular care with handling ‘outputs’ reports and deliverables! – will generate lots of data – Intensive mitigation and follow up programs likely to be required

‘Don’t bite off more than you can chew’
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Be Careful !
Rolling program probably better than a ‘big bang’
While tempting, the ‘works burger’ can be bad for your network’s health !

Engineering Toolkits – Mitigation Options

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Prioritising Works Identified By RSAs

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• The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog. Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of the party.
– This is a sub paragraph – The quick brown fox The quick brown fox The quick brown fox The quick brown fox The quick brown fox The quick brown fox.

• The quick brown fox. The quick brown fox. The quick brown fox. The quick brown fox.
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Any Questions?

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Session 5 – Practical Group Exercise: Conceptual / Preliminary Design RSA

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Session 5 – practical group exercise: preliminary design

• Quick case study – Petchburi By-pass, Thailand
• Group exercise • • • • Exercise takes us up to lunch (1200-1300hrs) Includes brief write-up / present back to group De-brief of exercise Any questions?
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Quick Case Study Petchburi By-pass, Thailand

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Preliminary Design Audit

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Some Background To The Scheme
• • • • 2nd of many schemes on Highway 4 in this district Ch. 157 500 - 166 200 km (8.7 km) Phetchaburi to Lat Tha Sala Project purpose - to by-pass Petchaburi and:
– to increase access to services – to meet road user / traffic demand for road (now and some future proofing) – local and through traffic (inc. local temple) & mix of traffic (buses, cars, two wheelers, pedestrians etc.) – to enhance the efficiency of road transport to the south – to increase safety for road users – to minimize the impact on residents near the highway and the environment as a whole.
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A Few Images – Existing Route

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Findings (1)

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Findings (2)

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Findings (3)

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Findings (4)

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Findings (5)

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A Few Images ….. End result

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Practical Group Exercise

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Design Audit - Steps

• • • • • •

Divide into groups – max 6 persons? Pre-RSA meeting (briefing and issue of drawings) Review available information Analysis & findings (2 or 3 worst issues) Write up report table (ADB template) Wrap-up meeting (sharing findings as written)

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Design Audit – A Recap

We are considering:
- land uses/trip generators - traffic management/conflicts - road users:
buses pedestrians cars motorcyclists bicyclists

- think about issues which may occur at night?
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Project Briefing • Road refurbishment project in Kerala, India • Focus on provision for vulnerable road user groups and specifically, signs and markings • Traffic data:
– AADT = 11,516 and growing rapidly (Kerala PWD) – assume moderate pedestrian and bicycle flows and high motorcycle flow (60% of total flow) – estimated 85th percentile operating speed 70km/h

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Ch 6.085

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Ch. 6.204

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Ch. 6.514

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Ch 6.972

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Engineering Drawing

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Template To Use (ADB)

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Findings and De-brief
(what did we learn?)

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What Did The Auditors Note (1)?
• Road goes through residential & commercial areas (Kalanad Village) with no footpath provision on either side • No bicycle or motorcycle facilities • 3 no. 3-leg (T) intersections included, but no turn lane provision or signalisation • 4 no. marked unsignalised pedestrian crossing, but only one raised (incorporating a speed reducing feature). Likely that motorised vehicles will not give way to pedestrians • Two pedestrian crossings (Ch. 6+900 and 7+000) are close to intersection & on a curve (forward visibility may be limited)

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What Did The Auditors Note (2)?
• Grade separated or signalised crossings (or at very least pedestrian refuge islands) could be considered if speeds cannot be reduced. • No traffic calming measures proposed (apart from the single raised pedestrian crossing) • Median is centre line only, therefore head-on crashes between opposing flows can be expected – mitigate with central hatching as minimum treatment, but physical median (kerb or barrier) preferred and would give good safety return • With AADT growing – increasing capacity may also produce safety benefits & reduce hazardous overtaking manoeuvres

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What Did The Auditors Note (3)?
• No crash barrier at bridge parapet or culvert head walls therefore roadside hazards present • Posts and trees close to road edge, with proposed widening these will remain roadside hazards unless removed/protected • Ensure provision of paved shoulder with width >1m • Consider raised profile edge markings (possibly rumble strips) – effective low cost treatment • Warning signs provided for intersections and curves, but possibly located to close to the hazard to provide adequate driver reaction time

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Any Questions?

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Session 6 – Practical Exercise RSA Of An Existing Road

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Session 6 – practical group exercise: RSA of an existing road • • • • • • • • • Introduction to exercise Background information regarding ‘site’ Walk to ‘site’ Conduct RSA (approx. 1hr) – day audit (consider likely night issues) Walk back to ADB [Write-up findings table?] De-brief of exercise Any questions?
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Existing Road RSA

• Audit of a road in Manila • Work in same groups as before

• SAFETY FIRST!!!
• • • • • Sign JSEA Wear PPE (vest, hat etc.) Watch out for each other Do NOT go into the live carriageway! Do not obstruct other road users
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Existing Road Audit - steps

• Pre-RSA Meeting
– Briefing by “owner” (Paul)

• • • • • •

Review available information (in groups) Field visit (1hr?) Consider daylight & dark conditions Analysis & findings (as time permits) Report – written – submit via e-mail De-brief
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ADB Avenue - Doña Julia Vargas Avenue Existing Road Safety Audit
Information Pack Saturday 10 November 2012
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ADB Avenue - Doña Julia Vargas Avenue Road Safety Audit

Typical background Information • Maps/plans • Traffic volumes? • Crash data? • Previous audits? • Known safety issues?

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NW

MacDonalds

NE

SW
San Miguel
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SE

McDonalds

San Miguel

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ADB Avenue - Doña Julia Vargas Avenue Road Safety Audit

• Appoint team leader within your group • Each group to start in a different quadrant • Move clockwise to next quadrant after ~15 minutes • Audit at least two quadrants

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ADB Avenue - Doña Julia Vargas Avenue Road Safety Audit

• Remember:
– Avoid tunnel vision, think W I D E – Trust first impressions ! – Entry and exit slip roads, as well as main body of intersection – Think about manoeuvres for approaches/departures – All road users incl. pedestrians, cyclists, motor cycles, public transport, others(?) – Day and night issues
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ADB Avenue - Dona Julia Vargas Avenue Road Safety Audit

• Identify safety issues (3 or 4 main issues?) • Use template provided • Assign risk ratings
• What’s the “worst” issue you found?

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Session 6 De-brief
(what did we find and learn?)

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What Sort Of Issues Should You Have Picked Up ?

General issues:
• • • • Deficient sight lines Poor road markings Lack of pedestrian refuges (Poor lighting at night)

Specific issue:
• Approach operating as a one-way dual carriageway for traffic travelling away from the intersection

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McDonalds

?

San Miguel

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Any Questions?

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Wrap Up Of The 2 Days

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Certificates & Evaluation sheets

• • • • • •

Presentation of certificates of attendance Evaluation sheets to be completed Extremely important to ARRB Analysis of returns Continual improvement tool Can be completed anonymously

• Return to presenter by hand, or send to paul.hillier@arrb.com.au
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Close

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Thank you!

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