Zionist Israel's Thermonuclear Blackmail Of America

From Lili 2-26-3 Jeff - These are paragraphs of 'special interest' I wish to highlight from the long and detailed USAF report that follows m! comments are in all caps"

IS#A$L %LA&'(AILS US )ne other p*rpose of Israeli n*clear weapons+ not often stated+ ,*t o,-io*s+ is their .*se. on the United States America does not want Israel's n*clear profile raised /0112 The! ha-e ,een *sed in the past to ens*re America does not desert Israel *nder increased Ara,+ or oil em,argo+ press*re and ha-e forced the United States to s*pport Israel diplomaticall! against the So-iet Union Israel *sed their e3istence to g*arantee a contin*ing s*ppl! of American con-entional weapons+ a polic! li4el! to contin*e /0152 IS#A$L 6I&TAT$S T) US A76 8$ &)7&$6$ T) IS#A$L Israel went on f*ll-scale n*clear alert again on the first da! of 6esert Storm+ 09 Jan*ar! 0::0 Se-en S&U6 missiles were fired against the cities of Tel A-i- and ;aifa ,! Ira< =onl! two act*all! hit Tel A-i- and one hit ;aifa> This alert lasted for the d*ration of the war+ 13 da!s )-er the co*rse of the war+ Ira< la*nched aro*nd 1? missiles in 0@ separate attac4s at Israel There was little loss of life" two 4illed directl!+ 00 indirectl!+ with man! str*ct*res damaged and life disr*pted /:92 Se-eral s*pposedl! landed near 6imona+ one of them a close miss /::2 Threats of retaliation ,! the Shamir go-ernment if the Ira<is *sed chemical warheads were interpreted to mean that Israel intended to la*nch a n*clear stri4e if gas attac4s occ*rred )ne Israeli commentator recommended that Israel sho*ld signal Ira< that .an! Ira<i action against Israeli ci-ilian pop*lations+ with or witho*t gas+ ma! lea-e Ira< witho*t %aghdad ./0??2 Shortl! ,efore the end of the war the Israelis tested a .n*clear capa,le. missile which prompted the United States into intensif!ing its S&U6 h*nting in western Ira< to pre-ent an! Israeli response /0?02 The Israeli Air Force set *p d*mm! S&U6 sites in the 7ege- for pilots to practice on.the! fo*nd it no eas! tas4 /0?22 American

go-ernment concessions to Israel for not attac4ing =in addition to Israeli Aatriot missile ,atteries> were" B Allowing Israel to designate 0?? targets inside Ira< for the coalition to destro!+ B Satellite downlin4 to increase warning time on the S&U6 attac4s =present and f*t*re>+ B Technical parit! with Sa*di Cet fighters in perpet*it! /0?32 JF' demanded Israel allow inspectors to see 6imona+ three months later he was assassinated and pro-Israel Johnson is Aresident" The Israelis aggressi-el! p*rs*ed an aircraft deli-er! s!stem from the United States Aresident Johnson was less emphatic a,o*t nonproliferation than Aresident 'enned!-or perhaps had more pressing concerns+ s*ch as Dietnam ;e had a long histor! of ,oth Jewish friends and pressing political contri,*tors co*pled with some first hand e3perience of the ;oloca*st+ ha-ing to*red concentration camps at the end of 8orld 8ar II /502 Israel pressed him hard for aircraft =A-1$ S4!haw4s initiall! and F-1$ Ahantoms later> and o,tained agreement in 0:66 *nder the condition that the aircraft wo*ld not ,e *sed to deli-er n*clear weapons The State 6epartment attempted to lin4 the aircraft p*rchases to contin*ed inspection -isits Aresident Johnson o-err*led the State 6epartment concerning 6imona inspections /522 Altho*gh denied at the time+ America deli-ered the F-1$s+ on Septem,er 5+ 0:6:+ with n*clear capa,le hardware intact /532 J)7AT;A7 A)LLA#6 7ot onl! were the Israelis interested in American n*clear weapons de-elopment data+ the! were interested in targeting data from U S intelligence Israel disco-ered that the! were on the So-iet target list American-,orn Israeli sp! Jonathan Aollard o,tained satellite-imaging data of the So-iet Union+ allowing Israel to target acc*ratel! So-iet cities This showed Israel's intention to *se its n*clear arsenal as a deterrent political le-er+ or retaliator! capa,ilit! against the So-iet Union itself Israel also *sed American satellite imager! to plan the @ J*ne 0:90 attac4 on the Tamm*E-0 reactor at )sira<+ Ira< This daring attac4+ carried o*t ,! eight F-06s accompanied ,! si3 F-05s p*nched a hole in the concrete reactor dome ,efore the reactor ,egan operation =and C*st da!s ,efore an Israeli election> It deli-ered 05 dela!-f*sed 2??? po*nd ,om,s deep into the reactor str*ct*re =the 06th ,om, hit a near,! hall> The ,lasts shredded the reactor and ,lew o*t the dome fo*ndations+ ca*sing it to collapse on the r*,,le This was the world's first attac4 on a n*clear reactor /:02 =AL$AS$ '$$A I7 (I76 T;AT #USSIA 8AS A%L$ T) AU#F$ T;$ J$8IS; %)LS;$DI' &)((U7ISTS F#)( T;$ '#$(LI7 STA#TI7F I7 T;$ LAT$ '3?'s U76$# STALI7+ SU%S$GU$7TLH T;$ J$8IS; A)8$# 8AS FID$7 T)A A)SITI)7S I7 T;$ U S > D$#H S&A#H

Another spec*lati-e area concerns Israeli n*clear sec*rit! and possi,le mis*se 8hat is the chain of decision and control of Israel's weaponsI ;ow s*scepti,le are the! to mis*se or theftI 8ith no open+ fran4+ p*,lic de,ate on n*clear iss*es+ there has accordingl! ,een no de,ate or information on e3isting safeg*ards This has led to acc*sations of .monolithic -iews and sinister intentions ./036?2 8o*ld a right wing militar! go-ernment decide to emplo! n*clear weapons rec4lessl!I Ariel Sharon+ an o*tspo4en proponent of .Freater Israel. was <*oted as sa!ing+ .Ara,s ma! ha-e the oil+ ,*t we ha-e the matches ./03@2 &o*ld the F*sh $m*nim+ a right wing religio*s organiEation+ or others+ hiCac4 a n*clear de-ice to .li,erate. the Temple (o*nt for the ,*ilding of the third templeI &hances are small ,*t co*ld increase as radicals decr! the peace process /0392 A 0::@ article re-iewing the Israeli 6efense Force repeatedl! stressed the possi,ilities of+ and the need to g*ard against+ a religio*s+ right wing militar! co*p+ especiall! as the proportion of religio*s in the militar! increases /03: 2

T;$ T;I#6 T$(AL$'S ;)LH )F ;)LI$S IS#A$L'S 7U&L$A# 8$AA)7S %! 8arner 6 Farr+ LT&+ U S Arm! The &o*nterproliferation Aapers F*t*re 8arfare Series 7o 2 USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter Air 8ar &ollege - Air Uni-ersit! (a3well Air Force %ase+ Ala,ama Septem,er 0::: The &o*nterproliferation Aapers Series was esta,lished ,! the USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter to pro-ide information and anal!sis to U S national sec*rit! polic!-ma4ers and USAF officers to assist them in co*ntering the threat posed ,! ad-ersaries e<*ipped with weapons of mass destr*ction &opies of papers in this series are a-aila,le from the USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter+ 325 &henna*lt &ircle+ (a3well AF% AL 36002-612@ The fa3 n*m,er is =331> :53-@539J phone =331> :53@539 The internet address for the USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter is" http"KKwww a* af milKa*KawcKawcgateKawc-cps htm &ontents" Aage 6isclaimer i The A*thor ii Ac4nowledgments iii

A,stract iI Introd*ction 0 II 0:19-0:62" 8ith French &ooperation 3 III 0:63-0:@3" Seeing the AroCect Thro*gh to &ompletion : ID 0:@1-0:::" %ringing the %om, Up the %asement Stairs 05 Appendi3" $stimates of the Israeli 7*clear Arsenal 23 7otes 25 6isclaimer The -iews e3pressed in this p*,lication are those solel! of the a*thor and are not a statement of official polic! or position of the U S Fo-ernment+ the 6epartment of 6efense+ the U S Arm!+ or the USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter The A*thor &olonel 8arner 6 .#oc4!. Farr+ (edical &orps+ (aster Flight S*rgeon+ U S Arm!+ grad*ated from the Air 8ar &ollege at (a3well Air Force %ase+ Ala,ama ,efore ,ecoming the &ommand S*rgeon+ U S Arm! Special )perations &ommand at Fort %ragg+ 7orth &arolina ;e also ser-es as the S*rgeon for the U S Arm! Special Forces &ommand+ U S Arm! &i-il Affairs and As!chological )perations &ommand+ and the U S Arm! John F 'enned! Special 8arfare &enter and School 8ith thirt!-three !ears of militar! ser-ice+ he holds an Associate of Arts from the State Uni-ersit! of 7ew Hor4+ %achelor of Science from 7ortheast Lo*isiana Uni-ersit!+ 6octor of (edicine from the Uniformed Ser-ices Uni-ersit! of the ;ealth Sciences+ (asters of A*,lic ;ealth from the Uni-ersit! of Te3as+ and has completed medical residencies in aerospace medicine+ and anatomic and clinical patholog! ;e is the onl! arm! officer to ,e ,oard certified in these three specialties Solo <*alified in the T;-55A Arm! helicopter+ he recei-ed flight training in the T-3@ and T-39 aircraft as part of his USAF School of Aerospace (edicine residenc! &olonel Farr was a (aster Sergeant Special Forces medic prior to recei-ing a direct commission to second lie*tenant ;e is now the senior Special Forces medical officer in the U S Arm! with prior assignments in the 5th+ @th+ and 0?th Special Forces Fro*ps =Air,orne>+ 0st Special Forces+ in Dietnam+ the United States+ and Ferman! ;e has ad-ised the 02th and 2?th Special Forces Fro*ps =Air,orne> in the reser-es and national g*ard+ ser-ed as 6i-ision S*rgeon+ 0?th (o*ntain 6i-ision =Light Infantr!>+ and as the 6ep*t! &ommander of the U S Arm! Aeromedical &enter+ Fort #*c4er+ Ala,ama Ac4nowledgments I wo*ld li4e to ac4nowledge the assistance+ g*idance and enco*ragement from m! Air 8ar &ollege =A8&> fac*lt! research ad-isor+ 6r Andrew Terrill+ instr*ctor of the Air 8ar &ollege Ara,-Israeli 8ars co*rse Than4s are also d*e to the great aid of the Air

Uni-ersit! li,rarians The a*thor is also inde,ted to &aptain J # Sa*nders+ US7 and &olonel #o,ert S*tton+ USAF 8ho also offered helpf*l s*ggestions A,stract This paper is a histor! of the Israeli n*clear weapons program drawn from a re-iew of *nclassified so*rces Israel ,egan its search for n*clear weapons at the inception of the state in 0:19 As pa!ment for Israeli participation in the S*eE &risis of 0:56+ France pro-ided n*clear e3pertise and constr*cted a reactor comple3 for Israel at 6imona capa,le of large-scale pl*toni*m prod*ction and reprocessing The United States disco-ered the facilit! ,! 0:59 and it was a s*,Cect of contin*al disc*ssions ,etween American presidents and Israeli prime ministers Israel *sed dela! and deception to at first 4eep the United States at ,a!+ and later *sed the n*clear option as a ,argaining chip for a consistent American con-entional arms s*ppl! After French disengagement in the earl! 0:6?s+ Israel progressed on its own+ incl*ding thro*gh se-eral co-ert operations+ to proCect completion %efore the 0:6@ Si3-6a! 8ar+ the! felt their n*clear facilit! threatened and reportedl! assem,led se-eral n*clear de-ices %! the 0:@3 Hom 'ipp*r 8ar Israel had a n*m,er of sophisticated n*clear ,om,s+ deplo!ed them+ and considered *sing them The Ara,s ma! ha-e limited their war aims ,eca*se of their 4nowledge of the Israeli n*clear weapons Israel has most pro,a,l! cond*cted se-eral n*clear ,om, tests The! ha-e contin*ed to moderniEe and -erticall! proliferate and are now one of the world's larger n*clear powers Using .,om, in the ,asement. n*clear opacit!+ Israel has ,een a,le to *se its arsenal as a deterrent to the Ara, world while not technicall! -iolating American nonproliferation re<*irements The Third Temple's ;ol! of ;olies" Israel's 7*clear 8eapons 8arner 6 Farr I Introd*ction This is the end of the Third Temple - Attri,*ted to (oshe 6a!an d*ring the Hom 'ipp*r 8ar0 As Lionists in Aalestine watched 8orld 8ar II from their distant sideshow+ what lessons were learnedI The soldiers of the $mpire of Japan -owed on their emperor's sacred throne to fight to the death and not face the ine-ita,ilit! of an American -ictor! (an! Jews wondered if the Ara,s wo*ld tr! to p*sh them into the (editerranean Sea After the de-astating American n*clear attac4 on Japan+ the soldier leaders of the empire ree-al*ated their fight to the death position 6id the ,om, gi-e the Japanese permission to s*rrender and li-eI It o,-io*sl! pla!ed a militar! role+ a political role+ and a peacema4ing role ;ow close was the mindset of the Sam*rai c*lt*re to the Islamic c*lt*reI 6id 6a-id %en-F*rion ta4e note and wonder if the same wo*ld wor4 for IsraelI 2 &o*ld Israel find the *ltimate deterrent that wo*ld con-ince her opponents that the!

co*ld ne-er+ e-er s*cceedI 8as Israel's a,ilit! to ca*se a modern holoca*st the ,est wa! to g*arantee ne-er ha-ing another oneI The *se of *ncon-entional weapons in the (iddle $ast is not new The %ritish had *sed chemical artiller! shells against the T*r4s at the second ,attle of FaEa in 0:0@ The! contin*ed chemical shelling against the Shiites in Ira< in 0:2? and *sed aerial chemicals in the 0:2?s and 0:3?s in Ira< 3 Israel's in-ol-ement with n*clear technolog! starts at the fo*nding of the state in 0:19 (an! talented Jewish scientists immigrated to Aalestine d*ring the thirties and forties+ in partic*lar+ $rnst 6a-id %ergmann ;e wo*ld ,ecome the director of the Israeli Atomic $nerg! &ommission and the fo*nder of Israel's efforts to de-elop n*clear weapons %ergmann+ a close friend and ad-isor of Israel's first Arime (inister+ 6a-id %en-F*rion+ co*nseled that n*clear energ! co*ld compensate for Israel's poor nat*ral reso*rces and small pool of militar! manpower ;e pointed o*t that there was C*st one n*clear energ!+ not two+ s*ggesting n*clear weapons were part of the plan 1 As earl! as 0:19+ Israeli scientists acti-el! e3plored the 7ege- 6esert for *rani*m deposits on orders from the Israeli (inistr! of 6efense %! 0:5?+ the! fo*nd low-grade deposits near %eershe,a and Sidon and wor4ed on a low power method of hea-! water prod*ction 5 The newl! created 8eiEmann Instit*te of Science acti-el! s*pported n*clear research ,! 0:1:+ with 6r %ergmann heading the chemistr! di-ision Aromising st*dents went o-erseas to st*d! n*clear engineering and ph!sics at Israeli go-ernment e3pense Israel secretl! fo*nded its own Atomic $nerg! &ommission in 0:52 and placed it *nder the control of the 6efense (inistr! 6 The fo*ndations of a n*clear program were ,eginning to de-elop II 0:19-0:62" 8ith French &ooperation It has alwa!s ,een o*r intention to de-elop a n*clear potential - $phraim 'atEir@ In 0:1:+ Francis Aerrin+ a mem,er of the French Atomic $nerg! &ommission+ n*clear ph!sicist+ and friend of 6r %ergmann -isited the 8eiEmann Instit*te ;e in-ited Israeli scientists to the new French n*clear research facilit! at Sacla! A Coint research effort was s*,se<*entl! set *p ,etween the two nations Aerrin p*,licl! stated in 0:96 that French scientists wor4ing in America on the (anhattan AroCect and in &anada d*ring 8orld 8ar II were told the! co*ld *se their 4nowledge in France pro-ided the! 4ept it a secret 9 Aerrin reportedl! pro-ided n*clear data to Israel on the same ,asis : )ne Israeli scientist wor4ed at the U S Los Alamos 7ational La,orator! and ma! ha-e directl! ,ro*ght e3pertise home 0? After the Second 8orld 8ar+ France's n*clear research capa,ilit! was <*ite limited France had ,een a leading research center in n*clear ph!sics ,efore 8orld 8ar II+ ,*t had fallen far ,ehind the U S + the U S S # + the United 'ingdom+ and e-en &anada Israel and France were at a similar le-el of e3pertise after the war+ and Israeli scientists

co*ld ma4e significant contri,*tions to the French effort Arogress in n*clear science and technolog! in France and Israel remained closel! lin4ed thro*gho*t the earl! fifties Israeli scientists pro,a,l! helped constr*ct the F-0 pl*toni*m prod*ction reactor and UA0 reprocessing plant at (arco*le 00 France profited from two Israeli patents on hea-! water prod*ction and low-grade *rani*m enrichment 02 In the 0:5?s and into the earl! 0:6?s+ France and Israel had close relations in man! areas France was Israel's principal arms s*pplier+ and as insta,ilit! spread thro*gh French colonies in 7orth Africa+ Israel pro-ided -al*a,le intelligence o,tained from contacts with sephardic Jews in those co*ntries The two nations colla,orated+ with the United 'ingdom+ in planning and staging the S*eE &anal-Sinai operation against $g!pt in )cto,er 0:56 The S*eE &risis ,ecame the real genesis of Israel's n*clear weapons prod*ction program 8ith the &Eech-$g!ptian arms agreement in 0:55+ Israel ,ecame worried 8hen a,sor,ed+ the So-iet-,loc e<*ipment wo*ld triple $g!ptian militar! strength After $g!pt's Aresident 7asser closed the Straits of Tiran in 0:53+ Israeli Arime (inister %en-F*rion ordered the de-elopment of chemical m*nitions and other *ncon-entional m*nitions+ incl*ding n*clear 03 Si3 wee4s ,efore the S*eE &anal operation+ Israel felt the time was right to approach France for assistance in ,*ilding a n*clear reactor &anada had set a precedent a !ear earlier when it had agreed to ,*ild a 1?-megawatt &I#US reactor in India Shimon Aeres+ the 6irector-Feneral of the 6efense (inistr! and aide to Arime (inister =and 6efense (inister> 6a-id %en-F*rion+ and %ergmann met with mem,ers of the &$A =France's Atomic $nerg! &ommission> 6*ring Septem,er 0:56+ the! reached an initial *nderstanding to pro-ide a research reactor The two co*ntries concl*ded final agreements at a secret meeting o*tside Aaris where the! also finaliEed details of the S*eE &anal operation 01 For the United 'ingdom and France+ the S*eE operation+ la*nched on )cto,er 2:+ 0:56+ was a total disaster Israel's part was a militar! s*ccess+ allowing it to occ*p! the entire Sinai Aenins*la ,! 1 7o-em,er+ ,*t the French and %ritish canal in-asion on 6 7o-em,er was a political fail*re Their attempt to ad-ance so*th along the S*eE &anal stopped d*e to a cease-fire *nder fierce So-iet and U S press*re %oth nations p*lled o*t+ lea-ing Israel to face the press*re from the two s*perpowers alone So-iet Aremier %*lganin and Aresident 'hr*shche- iss*ed an implicit threat of n*clear attac4 if Israel did not withdraw from the Sinai )n @ 7o-em,er 0:56+ a secret meeting was held ,etween Israeli foreign minister Folda (eir+ Shimon Aeres+ and French foreign and defense ministers &hristian Ainea* and (a*rice %o*rges-(ano*r! The French+ em,arrassed ,! their fail*re to s*pport their all! in the operation+ fo*nd the Israelis deepl! concerned a,o*t a So-iet threat In this meeting+ the! s*,stantiall! modified the initial *nderstanding ,e!ond a research reactor Aeres sec*red an agreement from France to assist Israel in de-eloping a n*clear deterrent After f*rther months of negotiation+ agreement was reached for an 09-megawatt =thermal> research reactor of the $L-3 t!pe+ along with pl*toni*m separation technolog! France and Israel signed the agreement in )cto,er 0:5@ 05 Later the reactor was officiall! *pgraded to 21 megawatts+ ,*t the act*al specifications iss*ed to engineers pro-ided for core cooling d*cts s*fficient for *p to three times this power le-el+ along with a

pl*toni*m plant of similar capacit! 6ata from insider reports re-ealed in 0:96 wo*ld estimate the power le-el at 025-05? megawatts 06 The reactor+ not connected to t*r,ines for power prod*ction+ needed this increase in siEe onl! to increase its pl*toni*m prod*ction ;ow this *pgrade came a,o*t remains *n4nown+ ,*t %o*rges-(a*no*r!+ replacing (ollet as French prime minister+ ma! ha-e contri,*ted to it 0@ Shimon Aeres+ the g*iding hand in the Israeli n*clear program+ had a close relationship with %o*rges(a*no*r! and pro,a,l! helped him politicall! 09 8h! was France so eager to help IsraelI 6e(ollet and then de Fa*lle had a place for Israel within their strategic -ision A n*clear Israel co*ld ,e a co*nterforce against $g!pt in France's fight in Algeria $g!pt was openl! aiding the re,el forces there France also wanted to o,tain the ,om, itself The United States had em,argoed certain n*clear ena,ling comp*ter technolog! from France Israel co*ld get the technolog! from America and pass it thro*gh to France The U S f*rnished Israel hea-! water+ *nder the Atoms for Aeace program+ for the small research reactor at Sore< France co*ld *se this hea-! water Since France was some !ears awa! from n*clear testing and s*ccess+ Israeli science was an ins*rance polic! in case of technical pro,lems in France's own program 0: The Israeli intelligence comm*nit!'s 4nowledge of past French =especiall! Dich!> anti-Semitic transgressions and the contin*ed presence of former 7aEi colla,orators in French intelligence pro-ided the Israelis with some ,lac4mail opport*nities 2? The cooperation was so close that Israel wor4ed with France on the preprod*ction design of earl! (irage Cet aircraft+ designed to ,e capa,le of deli-ering n*clear ,om,s 20 French e3perts secretl! ,*ilt the Israeli reactor *ndergro*nd at 6imona+ in the 7egedesert of so*thern Israel near %eershe,a ;*ndreds of French engineers and technicians filled %eershe,a+ the ,iggest town in the 7ege- (an! of the same contractors who ,*ilt (arco*le were in-ol-ed S)7 =a French firm> ,*ilt the pl*toni*m separation plants in ,oth France and Israel The gro*nd was ,ro4en for the $L-0?2 reactor =as it was 4nown to France> in earl! 0:59 Israel *sed man! s*,terf*ges to conceal acti-it! at 6imona It called the plant a manganese plant+ and rarel!+ a te3tile plant The United States ,! the end of 0:59 had ta4en pict*res of the proCect from U-2 sp! planes+ and identified the site as a pro,a,le reactor comple3 The concentration of Frenchmen was also impossi,le to hide from gro*nd o,ser-ers In 0:6?+ ,efore the reactor was operating+ France+ now *nder the leadership of de Fa*lle+ reconsidered and decided to s*spend the proCect After se-eral months of negotiation+ the! reached an agreement in 7o-em,er that allowed the reactor to proceed if Israel promised not to ma4e n*clear weapons and to anno*nce the proCect to the world 8or4 on the pl*toni*m reprocessing plant halted )n 2 6ecem,er 0:6?+ ,efore Israel co*ld ma4e anno*ncements+ the U S State 6epartment iss*ed a statement that Israel had a secret n*clear installation %! 06 6ecem,er+ this ,ecame p*,lic 4nowledge with its appearance in the 7ew Hor4 Times )n 20 6ecem,er+ %en-F*rion anno*nced that Israel was ,*ilding a 21-megawatt reactor .for peacef*l p*rposes .22

)-er the ne3t !ear+ relations ,etween the U S and Israel ,ecame strained o-er the 6imona reactor The U S accepted Israel's assertions at face -al*e p*,licl!+ ,*t e3erted press*re pri-atel! Altho*gh Israel allowed a c*rsor! inspection ,! well 4nown American ph!sicists $*gene 8igner and I I #a,i+ Arime (inister %en-F*rion consistentl! ref*sed to allow reg*lar international inspections The final resol*tion ,etween the U S and Israel was a commitment from Israel to *se the facilit! for peacef*l p*rposes+ and to admit an U S inspection team twice a !ear These inspections ,egan in 0:62 and contin*ed *ntil 0:6: Inspectors saw onl! the a,o-e gro*nd part of the ,*ildings+ not the man! le-els *ndergro*nd and the -isit fre<*enc! was ne-er more than once a !ear The a,o-e gro*nd areas had sim*lated control rooms+ and access to the *ndergro*nd areas was 4ept hidden while the inspectors were present $le-ators leading to the secret *ndergro*nd pl*toni*m reprocessing plant were act*all! ,ric4ed o-er 23 (*ch of the information on these inspections and the political mane*-ering aro*nd it has C*st ,een declassified 21 )ne interpretation of %en-F*rion's .peacef*l p*rposes. pledge gi-en to America is that he interpreted it to mean that n*clear weapon de-elopment was not e3cl*ded if *sed strictl! for defensi-e+ and not offensi-e p*rposes Israel's sec*rit! position in the late fifties and earl! si3ties was far more precario*s than now After three wars+ with a ro,*st domestic arms ind*str! and a relia,le defense s*ppl! line from the U S + Israel felt m*ch more sec*re 6*ring the fifties and earl! si3ties a n*m,er of attempts ,! Israel to o,tain sec*rit! g*arantees from the U S to place Israel *nder the U S n*clear *m,rella li4e 7AT) or Japan+ were *ns*ccessf*l If the U S had cond*cted a forward-loo4ing polic! to restrain Israel's proliferation+ along with a s*re defense agreement+ we co*ld ha-e pre-ented the de-elopment of Israel's n*clear arsenal )ne common disc*ssion in the literat*re concerns testing of Israeli n*clear de-ices In the earl! phases+ the amo*nt of colla,oration ,etween the French and Israeli n*clear weapons design programs made testing *nnecessar! In addition+ altho*gh their main efforts were with pl*toni*m+ the Israelis ma! ha-e amassed eno*gh *rani*m for g*n-assem,led t!pe ,om,s which+ li4e the ;iroshima ,om,+ re<*ire no testing )ne e3pert post*lated+ ,ased on *nnamed so*rces+ that the French n*clear test in 0:6? made two n*clear powers not one.s*ch was the depth of colla,oration 25 There were se-eral Israeli o,ser-ers at the French n*clear tests and the Israelis had .*nrestricted access to French n*clear test e3plosion data .26 Israel also s*pplied essential technolog! and hardware 2@ The French reportedl! shipped reprocessed pl*toni*m ,ac4 to Israel as part of their repa!ment for Israeli scientific help ;owe-er+ this constant+ decade long+ French cooperation and s*pport was soon to end and Israel wo*ld ha-e to go it alone III 0:63-0:@3" Seeing the AroCect to &ompletion Israel wo*ld soon need its own+ independent+ capa,ilities to complete its n*clear program )nl! fi-e co*ntries had facilities for *rani*m enrichment" the United States+ the

So-iet Union+ the United 'ingdom+ France+ and &hina The 7*clear (aterials and $<*ipment &orporation+ or 7U($&+ in Apollo+ Aenns!l-ania was a small f*el rod fa,rication plant In 0:65+ the U S go-ernment acc*sed 6r Lalman Shapiro+ the corporation president+ of .losing. 2?? po*nds of highl! enriched *rani*m Altho*gh in-estigated ,! the Atomic $nerg! &ommission+ the &entral Intelligence Agenc!+ the Federal %*rea* of In-estigation+ and other go-ernment agencies and in<*iring reporters+ no answers were a-aila,le in what was termed the Apollo Affair 2: (an! remain con-inced that the Israelis recei-ed 2?? po*nds of enriched *rani*m sometime ,efore 0:65 3? )ne so*rce lin4s #afi $itan+ an Israeli (ossad agent and later the handler of sp! Jonathan Aollard+ with 7U($& 30 In the 0::?s when the 7U($& plant was disassem,led+ the 7*clear #eg*lator! &ommission fo*nd o-er 0?? 4ilograms of pl*toni*m in the str*ct*ral components of the contaminated plant+ casting do*,t on 2?? po*nds going to Israel 32 The Coint -ent*re with France ga-e Israel se-eral ingredients for n*clear weapons constr*ction" a prod*ction reactor+ a factor! to e3tract pl*toni*m from the spent f*el+ and the design In 0:62+ the 6imona reactor went criticalJ the French res*med wor4 on the *ndergro*nd pl*toni*m reprocessing plant+ and completed it in 0:61 or 0:65 The ac<*isition of this reactor and related technologies was clearl! intended for militar! p*rposes from the o*tset =not .d*al-*se.>+ as the reactor has no other f*nction The sec*rit! at 6imona =officiall! the 7ege- 7*clear #esearch &enter> was partic*larl! stringent For stra!ing into 6imona's airspace+ the Israelis shot down one of their own (irage fighters d*ring the Si3-6a! 8ar The Israelis also shot down a Li,!an airliner with 0?1 passengers+ in 0:@3+ which had stra!ed o-er the Sinai 33 There is little do*,t that some time in the late si3ties Israel ,ecame the si3th nation to man*fact*re n*clear weapons )ther things the! needed were e3tra *rani*m and e3tra hea-! water to r*n the reactor at a higher rate 7orwa!+ France+ and the United States pro-ided the hea-! water and .)peration Al*m,at. pro-ided the *rani*m After the 0:6@ war+ France stopped s*pplies of *rani*m to Israel These s*pplies were from former French colonies of Fa,on+ 7iger+ and the &entral Africa #ep*,lic 31 Israel had small amo*nts of *rani*m from 7ege- phosphate mines and had ,o*ght some from Argentina and So*th Africa+ ,*t not in the large <*antities s*pplied ,! the French Thro*gh a complicated *nderco-er operation+ the Israelis o,tained *rani*m o3ide+ 4nown as !ellow ca4e+ held in a stoc4pile in Antwerp Using a 8est Ferman front compan! and a high seas transfer from one ship to another in the (editerranean+ the! o,tained 2?? tons of !ellow ca4e The sm*gglers la,eled the 56? sealed oil dr*ms .Al*m,at+. which means lead+ hence .)peration Al*m,at .35 The 8est Ferman go-ernment ma! ha-e ,een in-ol-ed directl! ,*t remained *nderco-er to a-oid antagoniEing the So-iets or Ara,s 36 Israeli intelligence information on the 7aEi past of some 8est Ferman officials ma! ha-e pro-ided the moti-ation 3@ 7orwa! sold 2? tons of hea-! water to Israel in 0:5: for *se in an e3perimental power reactor 7orwa! insisted on the right to inspect the hea-! water for 32 !ears+ ,*t did so onl! once+ in April 0:60+ while it was still in storage ,arrels at 6imona Israel simpl! promised that the hea-! water was for peacef*l p*rposes In addition+ <*antities m*ch

more than what wo*ld ,e re<*ired for the peacef*l p*rpose reactors were imported 7orwa! either coll*ded or at the least was -er! slow to as4 to inspect as the International Atomic $nerg! Agenc! =IA$A> r*les re<*ired 39 7orwa! and Israel concl*ded an agreement in 0::? for Israel to sell ,ac4 0? 5 tons of the hea-! water to 7orwa! #ecent calc*lations re-eal that Israel has *sed two tons and will retain eight tons more 3: A*thor Se!mo*r ;ersh+ writing in the Samson )ption sa!s Arime (inister Le-i $sh4ol dela!ed starting weapons prod*ction e-en after 6imona was finished 1? The reactor operated and the pl*toni*m collected+ ,*t remained *nseparated The first e3traction of pl*toni*m pro,a,l! occ*rred in late 0:65 %! 0:66+ eno*gh pl*toni*m was on hand to de-elop a weapon in time for the Si3-6a! 8ar in 0:6@ Some t!pe of non-n*clear test+ perhaps a Eero !ield or implosion test+ occ*rred on 7o-em,er 2+ 0:66 After this time+ considera,le colla,oration ,etween Israel and So*th Africa de-eloped and contin*ed thro*gh the 0:@?s and 0:9?s So*th Africa ,ecame Israel's primar! s*pplier of *rani*m for 6imona A &enter for 7onproliferation St*dies report lists fo*r separate Israel-So*th Africa .clandestine n*clear deals . Three concerned !ellowca4e and one was triti*m 10 )ther so*rces of !ellowca4e ma! ha-e incl*ded Aort*gal 12 $g!pt attempted *ns*ccessf*ll! to o,tain n*clear weapons from the So-iet Union ,oth ,efore and after the Si3-6a! 8ar Aresident 7asser recei-ed from the So-iet Union a <*estiona,le n*clear g*arantee instead and declared that $g!pt wo*ld de-elop its own n*clear program 13 ;is rhetoric of 0:65 and 0:66 a,o*t pre-enti-e war and Israeli n*clear weapons co*pled with o-erflights of the 6imona rector contri,*ted to the tensions that led to war The $g!ptian Air Force claims to ha-e first o-erflown 6imona and recogniEed the e3istence of a n*clear reactor in 0:65 11 )f the 5? American ;A8' antiaircraft missiles in Israeli hands+ half ringed 6imona ,! 0:65 15 Israel considered the $g!ptian o-erflights of (a! 06+ 0:6@ as possi,le pre-stri4e reconnaissance )ne so*rce lists s*ch $g!ptian o-erflights+ along with United 7ations peace4eeper withdrawal and $g!ptian troop mo-ements into the Sinai+ as one of the three .tripwires. which wo*ld dri-e Israel to war 16 There was an $g!ptian militar! plan to attac4 6imona at the start of an! war ,*t 7asser -etoed it 1@ ;e ,elie-ed Israel wo*ld ha-e the ,om, in 0:69 19 Israel assem,led two n*clear ,om,s and ten da!s later went to war 1: 7asser's plan+ if he had one+ ma! ha-e ,een to gain and consolidate territorial gains ,efore Israel had a n*clear option 5? ;e was two wee4s too late The Israelis aggressi-el! p*rs*ed an aircraft deli-er! s!stem from the United States Aresident Johnson was less emphatic a,o*t nonproliferation than Aresident 'enned!-or perhaps had more pressing concerns+ s*ch as Dietnam ;e had a long histor! of ,oth Jewish friends and pressing political contri,*tors co*pled with some first hand e3perience of the ;oloca*st+ ha-ing to*red concentration camps at the end of 8orld 8ar II 50 Israel pressed him hard for aircraft =A-1$ S4!haw4s initiall! and F-1$ Ahantoms later> and o,tained agreement in 0:66 *nder the condition that the aircraft wo*ld not ,e *sed to deli-er n*clear weapons The State 6epartment attempted to lin4 the aircraft p*rchases to contin*ed inspection -isits Aresident Johnson o-err*led the State 6epartment concerning 6imona inspections 52 Altho*gh denied at the time+ America deli-ered the F-1$s+ on Septem,er 5+ 0:6:+ with n*clear capa,le hardware intact 53

The Samson )ption states that (oshe 6a!an ga-e the go-ahead for starting weapon prod*ction in earl! 0:69+ p*tting the pl*toni*m separation plant into f*ll operation Israel ,egan prod*cing three to fi-e ,om,s a !ear The ,oo4 &ritical (ass asserts that Israel had two ,om,s in 0:6@+ and that Arime (inister $sh4ol ordered them armed in Israel's first n*clear alert d*ring the Si3-6a! 8ar 51 A-ner &ohen in his recent ,oo4+ Israel and the %om,+ agrees that Israel had a deli-era,le n*clear capa,ilit! in the 0:6@ war ;e <*otes (*n!a (ardor+ leader of #afael+ the Armament 6e-elopment A*thorit!+ and other *nnamed so*rces+ that Israel .co,,led together. two deli-era,le de-ices 55 ;a-ing the ,om, meant artic*lating+ e-en if secretl!+ a *se doctrine In addition to the .Samson )ption. of last resort+ other triggers for n*clear *se ma! ha-e incl*ded s*ccessf*l Ara, penetration of pop*lated areas+ destr*ction of the Israeli Air Force+ massi-e air stri4es or chemicalK,iological stri4es on Israeli cities+ and Ara, *se of n*clear weapons 56 In 0:@0+ Israel ,egan p*rchasing 4r!trons+ *ltra high-speed electronic switching t*,es that are .d*al-*se+. ha-ing ,oth ind*strial and n*clear weapons applications as detonators In the 0:9?s+ the United States charged an American+ #ichard Smith =or Sm!th>+ with sm*ggling 90? 4r!trons to Israel 5@ ;e -anished ,efore trial and reportedl! li-es o*tside Tel A-i- The Israelis apologiEed for the action sa!ing that the 4r!trons were for medical research 59 Israel ret*rned 16: of the 4r!trons ,*t the rest+ the! declared+ had ,een destro!ed in testing con-entional weapons Some ,elie-e the! went to So*th Africa 5: Sm!th has also ,een reported to ha-e ,een in-ol-ed in a 0:@2 sm*ggling operation to o,tain solid roc4et f*el ,inder compo*nds for the Jericho II missile and g*idance component hardware 6? ),ser-ers point to the Jericho missile itself as proof of a n*clear capa,ilit! as it is not s*ited to the deli-er! of con-entional m*nitions 60 )n the afternoon of 6 )cto,er 0:@3+ $g!pt and S!ria attac4ed Israel in a coordinated s*rprise attac4+ ,eginning the Hom 'ipp*r 8ar &a*ght with onl! reg*lar forces on d*t!+ a*gmented ,! reser-ists with a low readiness le-el+ Israeli front lines cr*m,led %! earl! afternoon on @ )cto,er+ no effecti-e forces were in the so*thern Folan ;eights and S!rian forces had reached the edge of the platea*+ o-erloo4ing the Jordan #i-er This crisis ,ro*ght Israel to its second n*clear alert 6efense (inister (oshe 6a!an+ o,-io*sl! not at his ,est at a press ,riefing+ was+ according to Time magaEine+ rattled eno*gh to later tell the prime minister that .this is the end of the third temple+. referring to an impending collapse of the state of Israel .Temple. was also the code word for n*clear weapons Arime (inister Folda (eir and her .4itchen ca,inet. made the decision on the night of 9 )cto,er The Israelis assem,led 03 twent!-4iloton atomic ,om,s The n*m,er and in fact the entire stor! was later lea4ed ,! the Israelis as a great ps!chological warfare tool Altho*gh most pro,a,l! pl*toni*m de-ices+ one so*rce reports the! were enriched *rani*m ,om,s The Jericho missiles at ;ir,at Lachariah and the n*clear stri4e F-1s at Tel 7of were armed and prepared for action against S!rian and $g!ptian targets The! also targeted 6amasc*s with n*clear capa,le long-range artiller! altho*gh it is not certain the! had n*clear artiller! shells 62

U S Secretar! of State ;enr! 'issinger was notified of the alert se-eral ho*rs later on the morning of : )cto,er The U S decided to open an aerial res*ppl! pipeline to Israel+ and Israeli aircraft ,egan pic4ing *p s*pplies that da! Altho*gh stoc4pile depletion remained a concern+ the militar! sit*ation sta,iliEed on )cto,er 9th and :th as Israeli reser-es po*red into the ,attle and a-erted disaster 8ell ,efore significant American res*ppl! had reached Israeli forces+ the Israelis co*nterattac4ed and t*rned the tide on ,oth fronts )n 00 )cto,er+ a co*nterattac4 on the Folan ,ro4e the ,ac4 of S!ria's offensi-e+ and on 05 and 06 )cto,er+ Israel la*nched a s*rprise crossing of the S*eE &anal into Africa Soon the Israelis encircled the $g!ptian Third Arm! and it was faced with annihilation on the east ,an4 of the S*eE &anal+ with no protecti-e forces remaining ,etween the Israeli Arm! and &airo The first U S flights arri-ed on 01 )cto,er 63 Israeli commandos flew to Fort %enning+ Feorgia to train with the new American T)8 anti-tan4 missiles and ret*rn with a &-03? ;erc*les aircraft f*ll of them in time for the decisi-e Folan ,attle American commanders in Ferman! depleted their stoc4s of missiles+ at that time onl! shared with the %ritish and 8est Fermans+ and sent them forward to Israel 61 Th*s started the s*,tle+ opa<*e *se of the Israeli ,om, to ens*re that the United States 4ept its pledge to maintain Israel's con-entional weapons edge o-er its foes 65 There is significant anecdotal e-idence that ;enr! 'issinger told Aresident of $g!pt+ Anwar Sadat+ that the reason for the U S airlift was that the Israelis were close to .going n*clear .66 A similar So-iet pipeline to the Ara,s+ e<*all! ro,*st+ ma! or ma! not ha-e incl*ded a ship with n*clear weapons on it+ detected from n*clear trace emissions and shadowed ,! the Americans from the 6ardanelles The Israelis ,elie-e that the So-iets disco-ered Israeli n*clear preparations from &)S()S satellite photographs and decided to e<*aliEe the odds 6@ The So-iet ship arri-ed in Ale3andria on either 09 or 23 )cto,er =so*rces disagree>+ and remained+ witho*t *nloading+ *ntil 7o-em,er 0:@3 The ship ma! ha-e represented a So-iet g*arantee to the Ara, com,atants to ne*traliEe the Israeli n*clear option 69 8hile some others dismiss the stor! completel!+ the ,est-written re-iew article concl*des that the answer is .o,sc*re . So-iet premier Leonid %reEhne- threatened+ on 21 )cto,er+ to airlift So-iet air,orne troops to reinforce the $g!ptians c*t off on the eastern side of the S*eE &anal and p*t se-en So-iet air,orne di-isions on alert 6: #ecent e-idence indicates that the So-iets sent n*clear missile s*,marines also @? A-iation 8ee4 and Space Technolog! magaEine claimed that the two So-iet S&U6 ,rigades deplo!ed in $g!pt each had a n*clear warhead American satellite photos seemed to confirm this The U S passed to Israel images of tr*c4s+ of the t!pe *sed to transport n*clear warheads+ par4ed near the la*nchers @0 Aresident 7i3on's response was to ,ring the U S to worldwide n*clear alert the ne3t da!+ where*pon Israel went to n*clear alert a third time @2 This s*dden crisis <*ic4l! faded as Arime (inister (eir agreed to a ceasefire+ relie-ing the press*re on the $g!ptian Third Arm!

Shimon Aeres had arg*ed for a pre-war n*clear demonstration to deter the Ara,s Ara, strategies and war aims in 0:6@ ma! ha-e ,een restricted ,eca*se of a fear of the Israeli .,om, in the ,asement+. the *ndeclared n*clear option The $g!ptians planned to capt*re an eastern strip ne3t to the S*eE &anal and then hold The S!rians did not aggressi-el! commit more forces to ,attle or attempt to dri-e thro*gh the 0:19 Jordan #i-er ,order to the Israeli center %oth co*ntries seemed not to -iolate Israel proper and a-oided triggering one of the *nstated Israeli reasons to emplo! n*clear weapons @3 )thers disco*nt an! Ara, planning ,ased on n*clear capa,ilities @1 Aeres also credits 6imona with ,ringing Anwar Sadat to Jer*salem to ma4e peace @5 This position was seemingl! confirmed ,! Sadat in a pri-ate con-ersation with Israeli 6efense (inister $Eer 8eiEman @6 At the end of the Hom 'ipp*r 8ar =a nation sha4ing e3perience>+ Israel has her n*clear arsenal f*ll! f*nctional and tested ,! a deplo!ment The arsenal+ still opa<*e and *nspo4en+ was no longer a secret+ especiall! to the two s*perpowers+ the United States and the So-iet Union ID 0:@1-0:::" %ringing the %om, *p the %asement Stairs 7e-er AgainM - #eportedl! welded on the first Israeli n*clear ,om,@@ Shortl! after the 0:@3 war+ Israel allegedl! fielded considera,le n*clear artiller! consisting of American 0@5 mm and 2?3 mm self-propelled artiller! pieces+ capa,le of firing n*clear shells If tr*e+ this shows that 6imona had rapidl! sol-ed the pro,lems of designing smaller weapons since the cr*de 0:6@ de-ices If tr*e+ these low !ield+ tactical n*clear artiller! ro*nds co*ld reach at least 25 miles The Israeli 6efense Force did ha-e three ,attalions of the 0@5mm artiller! =36 t*,es>+ reportedl! with 0?9 n*clear shells and more for the 2?3mm t*,es Some so*rces descri,e a program to e3tend the range to 15 miles The! ma! ha-e offered the So*th Africans these low !ield+ miniat*riEed+ shells descri,ed as+ .the ,est st*ff we got .@9 %! 0:@6+ according to one *nclassified so*rce+ the &entral Intelligence Agenc! ,elie-ed that the Israelis were *sing pl*toni*m from 6imona and had 0? to 2? n*clear weapons a-aila,le @: In 0:@2+ two Israeli scientists+ Isaiah 7e,enEahl and (enacehm Le-in+ de-eloped a cheaper+ faster *rani*m enrichment process It *sed a laser ,eam for isotope separation It co*ld reportedl! enrich se-en grams of Urani*m 235 si3t! percent in one da! 9? So*rces later reported that Israel was *sing ,oth centrif*ges and lasers to enrich *rani*m 90 G*estions remained regarding f*ll-scale n*clear weapons tests Arimiti-e g*n assem,led t!pe de-ices need no testing #esearchers can test non-n*clear components of other t!pes separatel! and *se e3tensi-e comp*ter sim*lations Israel recei-ed data from the 0:6? French tests+ and one so*rce concl*des that Israel accessed information from U S tests cond*cted in the 0:5?s and earl! 0:6?s This ma! ha-e incl*ded ,oth ,oosted and thermon*clear weapons data 92 Undergro*nd testing in a hollowed o*t ca-ern is diffic*lt

to detect A 8est Ferman! Arm! (agaEine+ 8ehrtechni4+ in J*ne 0:@6+ claimed that 8estern reports doc*mented a 0:63 *ndergro*nd test in the 7ege- )ther reports show a test at Al-7a<a,+ 7ege- in )cto,er 0:66 93 A ,right flash in the so*th Indian )cean+ o,ser-ed ,! an American satellite on 22 Septem,er 0:@:+ is widel! ,elie-ed to ,e a So*th Africa-Israel Coint n*clear test It was+ according to some+ the third test of a ne*tron ,om, The first two were hidden in clo*ds to fool the satellite and the third was an accident.the weather cleared 91 $3perts differ on these possi,le tests Se-eral writers report that the scientists at Los Alamos 7ational La,orator! ,elie-ed it to ha-e ,een a n*clear e3plosion while a presidential panel decided otherwise 95 Aresident &arter was C*st entering the Iran hostage nightmare and ma! ha-e easil! decided not to alter 3? !ears of loo4ing the other wa! 96 The e3plosion was almost certainl! an Israeli ,om,+ tested at the in-itation of the So*th Africans It was more ad-anced than the .g*n t!pe. ,om,s de-eloped ,! the So*th Africans 9@ )ne report claims it was a test of a n*clear artiller! shell 99 A 0::@ Israeli newspaper <*oted So*th African dep*t! foreign minister+ AEiE Aahad+ as confirming it was an Israeli test with So*th African logistical s*pport 9: &ontro-ers! o-er possi,le n*clear testing contin*es to this da! In J*ne 0::9+ a (em,er of the 'nesset acc*sed the go-ernment of an *ndergro*nd test near $ilat on (a! 29+ 0::9 $g!ptian .n*clear e3perts. had made similar charges The Israeli go-ernment hotl! denied the claims :? 7ot onl! were the Israelis interested in American n*clear weapons de-elopment data+ the! were interested in targeting data from U S intelligence Israel disco-ered that the! were on the So-iet target list American-,orn Israeli sp! Jonathan Aollard o,tained satellite-imaging data of the So-iet Union+ allowing Israel to target acc*ratel! So-iet cities This showed Israel's intention to *se its n*clear arsenal as a deterrent political le-er+ or retaliator! capa,ilit! against the So-iet Union itself Israel also *sed American satellite imager! to plan the @ J*ne 0:90 attac4 on the Tamm*E-0 reactor at )sira<+ Ira< This daring attac4+ carried o*t ,! eight F-06s accompanied ,! si3 F-05s p*nched a hole in the concrete reactor dome ,efore the reactor ,egan operation =and C*st da!s ,efore an Israeli election> It deli-ered 05 dela!-f*sed 2??? po*nd ,om,s deep into the reactor str*ct*re =the 06th ,om, hit a near,! hall> The ,lasts shredded the reactor and ,lew o*t the dome fo*ndations+ ca*sing it to collapse on the r*,,le This was the world's first attac4 on a n*clear reactor :0 Since 0: Septem,er 0:99+ Israel has wor4ed on its own satellite recon- naissance s!stem to decrease reliance on U S so*rces )n that da!+ the! la*nched the )ffe<-0 satellite on the Sha-it ,ooster+ a s!stem closel! related to the Jericho-II missile The! la*nched the satellite to the west awa! from the Ara,s and against the earth's rotation+ re<*iring e-en more thr*st The Jericho-II missile is capa,le of sending a one ton n*clear pa!load 5+??? 4ilometers )ffe<-2 went *p on 3 April 0::? The la*nch of the )ffe<-3 failed on its first attempt on 05 Septem,er 0::1+ ,*t was s*ccessf*l 5 April 0::5 :2

(ordechai Dan*n* pro-ided the ,est loo4 at the Israeli n*clear arsenal in 0:95 complete with photographs :3 A technician from 6imona who lost his Co,+ Dan*n* secretl! too4 photographs+ immigrated to A*stralia and p*,lished some of his material in the London S*nda! Times ;e was s*,se<*entl! 4idnapped ,! Israeli agents+ tried and imprisoned ;is data shows a sophisticated n*clear program+ o-er 2?? ,om,s+ with ,oosted de-ices+ ne*tron ,om,s+ F-06 deli-era,le warheads+ and Jericho warheads :1 The ,oosted weapons shown in the Dan*n* photographs show a sophistication that inferred the re<*irement for testing :5 ;e re-ealed for the first time the *ndergro*nd pl*toni*m separation facilit! where Israel was prod*cing 1? 4ilograms ann*all!+ se-eral times more than pre-io*s estimates Ahotographs showed sophisticated designs which scientific e3perts sa! ena,led the Israelis to ,*ild ,om,s with as little as 1 4ilograms of pl*toni*m These facts ha-e increased the estimates of total Israeli n*clear stoc4piles =see Appendi3 A> :6 In the words of one American+ ./the Israelis2 can do an!thing we or the So-iets can do .:@ Dan*n* not onl! made the technical details of the Israeli program and stoc4pile p*,lic ,*t in his wa4e+ Israeli ,egan -eiled official ac4nowledgement of the potent Israeli n*clear deterrent The! ,egan ,ringing the ,om, *p the ,asement stairs if not o*t of the ,asement Israel went on f*ll-scale n*clear alert again on the first da! of 6esert Storm+ 09 Jan*ar! 0::0 Se-en S&U6 missiles were fired against the cities of Tel A-i- and ;aifa ,! Ira< =onl! two act*all! hit Tel A-i- and one hit ;aifa> This alert lasted for the d*ration of the war+ 13 da!s )-er the co*rse of the war+ Ira< la*nched aro*nd 1? missiles in 0@ separate attac4s at Israel There was little loss of life" two 4illed directl!+ 00 indirectl!+ with man! str*ct*res damaged and life disr*pted :9 Se-eral s*pposedl! landed near 6imona+ one of them a close miss :: Threats of retaliation ,! the Shamir go-ernment if the Ira<is *sed chemical warheads were interpreted to mean that Israel intended to la*nch a n*clear stri4e if gas attac4s occ*rred )ne Israeli commentator recommended that Israel sho*ld signal Ira< that .an! Ira<i action against Israeli ci-ilian pop*lations+ with or witho*t gas+ ma! lea-e Ira< witho*t %aghdad .0?? Shortl! ,efore the end of the war the Israelis tested a .n*clear capa,le. missile which prompted the United States into intensif!ing its S&U6 h*nting in western Ira< to pre-ent an! Israeli response 0?0 The Israeli Air Force set *p d*mm! S&U6 sites in the 7ege- for pilots to practice on.the! fo*nd it no eas! tas4 0?2 American go-ernment concessions to Israel for not attac4ing =in addition to Israeli Aatriot missile ,atteries> were" Allowing Israel to designate 0?? targets inside Ira< for the coalition to destro!+ Satellite downlin4 to increase warning time on the S&U6 attac4s =present and f*t*re>+ .Technical parit! with Sa*di Cet fighters in perpet*it! .0?3 All of this -alidated the n*clear arsenal in the minds of the Israelis In partic*lar the confirmed capa,ilit! of Ara, states witho*t a ,order with Israel+ the so-called .second tier. states+ to reach o*t and to*ch Israel with ,allistic missiles confirmed Israel's need for a ro,*st first stri4e capa,ilit! 0?1 &*rrent militar! contacts ,etween Israel and India+ another n*clear power+ ,ring *p <*estions of n*clear cooperation 0?5 Aa4istani so*rces ha-e alread! -oiced concerns o-er a possi,le Coint Israeli-Indian attac4 on Aa4istan's n*clear facilities 0?6 A recent Aarameters article spec*lated on Israel's willingness to f*rnish n*clear capa,ilities or assistance to certain states+ s*ch as T*r4e! 0?@ A retired

Israeli 6efense Force &hief of Staff+ Lie*tenant Feneral Amnon Shaha4+ has declared+ .all methods are accepta,le in withholding n*clear capa,ilities from an Ara, state .0?9 As the Israeli ,om, comes o*t of the ,asement+ open disc*ssion+ e-en in Israel+ is occ*rring on wh! the Israelis feel the! need an arsenal not *sed in at least two if not three wars A-ner &ohen states" .It /Israel2 m*st ,e in a position to threaten another ;iroshima to pre-ent another holoca*st .0?: In J*l! 0::9 Shimon Aeres was <*oted in the Jordan Times as sa!ing+ .8e ha-e ,*ilt a n*clear option+ not in order to ha-e a ;iroshima+ ,*t to ha-e an )slo+.00? referring to the peace process )ne list of c*rrent reasons for an Israeli n*clear capa,ilit! is" To deter a large con-entional attac4+ To deter all le-els of *ncon-entional =chemical+ ,iological+ n*clear> attac4s+ To preempt enem! n*clear attac4s+ To s*pport con-entional preemption against enem! n*clear assets+ To s*pport con-entional preemption against enem! non-n*clear =con-entional+ chemical+ ,iological> assets+ For n*clear warfighting+ The .Samson )ption. =last resort destr*ction> 000 The most alarming of these is the n*clear warfighting The Israelis ha-e de-eloped+ ,! se-eral acco*nts+ low !ield ne*tron ,om,s a,le to destro! troops with minimal damage to propert! 002 In 0::?+ d*ring the Second F*lf 8ar+ an Israeli reser-e maCor general recommended to America that it .*se non-contaminating tactical n*clear weapons. against Ira< 003 Some ha-e spec*lated that the Israelis will *pdate their n*clear arsenal to .micron*4es. and .tin!n*4es. which wo*ld ,e -er! *sef*l to attac4 point targets and other tactical or ,arrier =mining> *ses 001 These wo*ld ,e -er! *sef*l for hardened deepl! ,*ried command and control facilities and for airfield destr*ction witho*t e3posing Israeli pilots to com,at 005 A*thors ha-e made the point that Israeli professional militar! schools do not teach n*clear tactics and wo*ld not *se them in the close <*arters of Israel (an! Israeli officers ha-e attended American militar! schools where the! learned tactical *se in crowded $*rope 006 ;owe-er+ Jane's Intelligence #e-iew has recentl! reported an Israeli re-iew of n*clear strateg! with a shift from tactical n*clear warheads to long range missiles 00@ Israel alwa!s has fa-ored the long reach+ whether to Argentina for Adolph $ichmann+ to Ira< to stri4e a reactor+ $nte,,e for hostages+ T*nisia to hit the AL)+ or ,! targeting the So-iet Union's cities An esteemed Israeli militar! a*thor has spec*lated that Israel is p*rs*ing an #N6 program to pro-ide (I#Ds =m*ltiple independent reentr! -ehicles> on their missiles 009 The go-ernment of Israel recentl! ordered three Ferman 6olphin &lass 9?? s*,marine+ to ,e deli-ered in late 0::: Israel will then ha-e a second stri4e capa,ilit! with n*clear cr*ise missiles+ and this capa,ilit! co*ld well change the n*clear arms race in the (iddle $ast 00: Israeli rhetoric on the new s*,marines la,els them .national deterrent. assets

AroCected capa,ilities incl*de a s*,marine-la*nched n*clear missile with a 35?-4ilometer range 02? Israel has ,een wor4ing on sea la*nch capa,ilit! for missiles since the 0:6?s 020 The first ,asing options for the new second-stri4e force of n*clear missile capa,le s*,marines incl*de )man+ an Ara, nation with *nofficial Israeli relations+ located strategicall! near Iran 022 A report indicates that the Israel 6efense (inistr! has formall! gone to the go-ernment with a re<*est to a*thoriEe a retaliator! n*clear stri4e if Israel was hit with first stri4e n*clear weapons This report comes in the wa4e of a recent Iran Shiha,-3 missile test and indications to Israel that Iran is two to three !ears from a n*clear warhead 023 Israeli statements stress that Iran's n*clear potential wo*ld ,e pro,lem to all and wo*ld re<*ire .American leadership+ with serio*s participation of the F-@ .021 A recent st*d! highlighted Israel's e3treme -*lnera,ilit! to a first stri4e and an accompan!ing -*lnera,ilit! e-en to a false alarm 025 S!ria's entire defense against Israel seems to rest on chemical weapons and warheads 026 )ne scenario in-ol-es S!ria ma4ing a <*ic4 inc*rsion into the Folan and then threatening chemical stri4es+ perhaps with a new+ more lethal =protecti-e-mas4-penetra,le> #*ssian ner-e gas if Israel resists 02@ Their *se wo*ld dri-e Israel to n*clear *se Israeli de-elopment of an antimissile defense+ the Arrow+ a f*ll! fielded =3?-5?029> Jericho II ,allistic missile+ and the soon-to-arri-e strategic s*,marine force+ seems to ha-e prod*ced a coming change in defense force str*ct*re The Israeli newspaper ;a'aretE+ <*otes the Israeli &hief of Staff disc*ssing the esta,lishment of a .strategic command to prepare an ade<*ate response to the long term threats .02: The 0::1 accord with Jordan+ allowing limited Israeli militar! presence in Jordanian s4ies+ co*ld ma4e the fl!ing distance to se-eral potential ad-ersaries considera,l! shorter 03? Israel is concerned a,o*t Iran's desire to o,tain n*clear weapons and ,ecome a regional leader+ co*pled with large n*m,ers of Shiite (oslems in so*thern Le,anon The Israeli Air Force commanding general iss*ed a statement sa!ing Israel wo*ld .consider an attac4. if an! co*ntr! gets .close to achie-ing a n*clear capa,ilit! .030 The Israelis are o,-io*sl! considering actions capa,le of stopping s*ch programs and are ,*!ing aircraft s*ch as the F-05I with s*fficient operational range At the first deli-er! of these 1+??? 4ilometer range fighters+ the Israeli comment was+ .the aircraft wo*ld help co*nter a growing n*clear threat .032 The! consider s*ch regional nation n*clear programs to ,e a s*fficient ca*se for war Their record of accomplishment is clear" ha-ing hit the earl! Ira<i n*clear effort+ the! feel -indicated ,! 6esert Storm The! also feel that onl! the American and Israeli n*clear weapons 4ept Ira<'s Saddam ;*ssein from *sing chemical or ,iological weapons against Israel 033 Israel+ li4e Iran+ has desires of regional power The 0:56 alliance with France and %ritain might ha-e ,een a first attempt at regional hegemon! &*rrent de,ate in the Israeli press considers offering '*wait+ Gatar+ )man+ and perhaps S!ria =after a peace agreement> an Israeli n*clear *m,rella of protection 031 A n*clear Iran or Ira< might *se its n*clear weapons to protect some states in the region+ threaten others+ and attempt to control oil prices 035

Another spec*lati-e area concerns Israeli n*clear sec*rit! and possi,le mis*se 8hat is the chain of decision and control of Israel's weaponsI ;ow s*scepti,le are the! to mis*se or theftI 8ith no open+ fran4+ p*,lic de,ate on n*clear iss*es+ there has accordingl! ,een no de,ate or information on e3isting safeg*ards This has led to acc*sations of .monolithic -iews and sinister intentions .036? 8o*ld a right wing militar! go-ernment decide to emplo! n*clear weapons rec4lessl!I Ariel Sharon+ an o*tspo4en proponent of .Freater Israel. was <*oted as sa!ing+ .Ara,s ma! ha-e the oil+ ,*t we ha-e the matches .03@ &o*ld the F*sh $m*nim+ a right wing religio*s organiEation+ or others+ hiCac4 a n*clear de-ice to .li,erate. the Temple (o*nt for the ,*ilding of the third templeI &hances are small ,*t co*ld increase as radicals decr! the peace process 039 A 0::@ article re-iewing the Israeli 6efense Force repeatedl! stressed the possi,ilities of+ and the need to g*ard against+ a religio*s+ right wing militar! co*p+ especiall! as the proportion of religio*s in the militar! increases 03: Israel is a nation with a state religion+ ,*t its top leaders are not religio*s Jews The intricacies of Jewish religio*s politics and ra,,inical law do affect their politics and decision processes In Jewish law+ there are two t!pes of war+ one o,ligator! and mandator! =mil4hemet mitE-ah> and the one a*thoriEed ,*t optional =mil4hemet resh*t> 01? The la,eling of Arime (inister %egin's .Aeace for Falilee. operation as a milchemet ,rera =.war of choice.> was one of the factors ca*sing it to lose s*pport 010 Interpretation of Jewish law concerning n*clear weapons does not permit their *se for m*t*al ass*red destr*ction ;owe-er+ it does allow possession and threatening their *se+ e-en if act*al *se is not C*stifia,le *nder the law Interpretations of the law allow tactical *se on the ,attlefield+ ,*t onl! after warning the enem! and attempting to ma4e peace ;ow m*ch these intricacies affect Israeli n*clear strateg! decisions is *n4nown 012 The secret nat*re of the Israeli n*clear program has hidden the increasing pro,lems of the aging 6imona reactor and ad-erse wor4er health effects Information is onl! now p*,lic as former wor4ers s*e the go-ernment This iss*e is now lin4ed to contin*ed triti*m prod*ction for the ,oosted anti-tan4 and anti-missile n*clear warheads that Israeli contin*es to need Israel is attempting to o,tain a new+ more efficient+ triti*m prod*ction technolog! de-eloped in India 013 )ne other p*rpose of Israeli n*clear weapons+ not often stated+ ,*t o,-io*s+ is their .*se. on the United States America does not want Israel's n*clear profile raised 011 The! ha-e ,een *sed in the past to ens*re America does not desert Israel *nder increased Ara,+ or oil em,argo+ press*re and ha-e forced the United States to s*pport Israeli diplomaticall! against the So-iet Union Israel *sed their e3istence to g*arantee a contin*ing s*ppl! of American con-entional weapons+ a polic! li4el! to contin*e 015 #egardless of the tr*e t!pes and n*m,ers =see Appendi3 A> of Israeli n*clear weapons+ the! ha-e de-eloped a sophisticated s!stem+ ,! m!riad methods+ and are a n*clear power to ,e rec4oned with Their n*clear am,ig*it! has ser-ed their p*rposes well ,*t Israel is entering a different phase of -isi,ilit! e-en as their n*clear capa,ilit! is entering a new phase This new -isi,ilit! ma! not ,e in America's interest 016 (an! are predicting the Israeli n*clear arsenal will ,ecome less *sef*l .o*t of the ,asement. and possi,l! sp*r a

regional arms race If so+ Israel has a 5-0? !ear lead time at present ,efore m*t*al ass*red destr*ction+ (iddle $ast st!le+ will set in 8o*ld regional m*t*al second stri4e capa,ilit!+ easier to ac<*ire than s*perpower m*t*al second stri4e capa,ilit!+ res*lt in regional sta,ilit!I Some thin4 so 01@ &*rrent Israeli Aresident $Eer 8eiEman has stated .the n*clear iss*e is gaining moment*m /and the2 ne3t war will not ,e con-entional 019 Appendi3 A $stimates of the Israeli 7*clear Arsenal 7otes 0 ;ersh+ Se!mo*r ( + The Samson )ption Israel's 7*clear Arsenal and American Foreign Aolic! =7ew Hor4" #andom ;o*se+ 0::0>+ 223 2 Aronson+ Slomo and %rosh+ )ded+ The Aolitics and Strateg! of 7*clear 8eapons in the (iddle $ast+ the )pacit! Theor!+ and #ealit!+ 0:6?-0::0-An Israeli Aerspecti-e =Al,an!+ 7ew Hor4" State Uni-ersit! of 7ew Hor4 Aress+ 0::2>+ 2? 3 'arsh+ $fraim+ %etween 8ar and Aeace" 6ilemmas of Israeli Sec*rit! =London+ $ngland" Fran4 &ass+ 0::6>+ 92 1 &ohen+ A-ner+ Israel and the %om, =7ew Hor4" &ol*m,ia Uni-ersit! Aress+ 0::9>+ 06 5 &ordesman+ Anthon!+ Aerilo*s Arospects" The Aeace Arocess and the Ara,-Israeli (ilitar! %alance =%o*lder+ &olorado" 8est-iew Aress+ 0::6>+ 009 6 Ar!+ Aeter+ Israel's 7*clear Arsenal =%o*lder+ &olorado" 8est-iew+ 0:91>+ 5-6 @ G*oted in 8eissman+ Ste-e and 'rosne!+ ;er,ert The Islamic %om," The 7*clear Threat to Israel and the (iddle $ast =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" Times %oo4s+ 0:90>+ 0?5 9 .Former )fficial Sa!s France ;elped %*ild Israel's 6imona &omple3 . 7*cleonics 8ee4 )cto,er 06+ 0:96+ 6 : (ilhollin+ Far!+ .;ea-! 8ater &heaters . Foreign Aolic! =0:9@-99>" 0?0-0?2 0? &ordesman+ 0::0+ 02@ 00 Federation of American Scientists+ .Israel's 7*clear 8eapons Arogram . 0? 6ecem,er 0::@+ n p )n-line Internet+ 2@ )cto,er 0::9 A-aila,le from http"KKwww fas orgKn*4eKhewKIsraelKIsrhist html 02 7ashif+ Ta!sir 7 + 7*clear 8eapons in Israel =7ew 6elhi" S % 7angia %oo4s+ 0::6>+ 3

03 &ohen+ Israel and the %om,+ 19-1: 01 %ennett+ Jerem!+ The S*eE &risis %%& Dideo n d Dideocassette and #a-i-+ 6an and (elman+ Hossi $-er! Sp! a Arince The &omplete ;istor! of Israel's Intelligence &omm*nit! =%oston+ (assach*setts" ;o*ghton (ifflin &ompan!+ 0::?>+ 63-6: 05 8eissman and 'rosne!+ 002 06 .#e-ealed" The Secrets of Israel's 7*clear Arsenal. =London> S*nda! Times 7o 9+160+ 5 )cto,er 0:96+ 0+ 1-5 0@ &ohen+ Israel and the %om,+ 5@-5: 09 Aeres+ Shimon+ %attling for Aeace A (emoir =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" #andom ;o*se+ 0::5>+ 022 0: Ar!+ 0? 2? Loft*s+ John and Aarons+ (ar4+ The Secret 8ar Against the Jews ;ow 8estern $spionage %etra!ed the Jewish Aeople =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" St (artin's Friffin+ 0::1>+ 29@-3?3 20 Freen+ Stephen+ Ta4ing Sides America's Secret #elations with a (ilitant Israel =7ew Hor4" 8illiam (orrow and &ompan!+ 0:91>+ 052 22 &ohen+ A-ner+ .(ost Fa-ored 7ation . The %*lletin of the Atomic Scientists 50+ no 0 =Jan*ar!-Fe,r*ar! 0::5>" 11-53 23 ;ersh+ The Samson )ption+ 0:6 21 See &ohen+ A-ner+ .Israel's 7*clear ;istor!" The Untold 'enned!-$sh4ol 6imona &orrespondence . Jo*rnal of Israeli ;istor!+ 0::5 06+ no 2+ 05:-0:1 and &ohen+ A-ner+ &omp .#ecentl! 6eclassified 0:63 &orrespondence ,etween Aresident 'enned! and Arime (inisters %en-F*rion and $sh4ol . Jo*rnal of Israeli ;istor!+ 0::5 06+ no 2+ 0:52?@ (*ch of the doc*mentation has ,een posted to http"OOwww seas gw* ed*Knsarchi-eKisrael 25 8eissman and 'rosne!+ op cit +001-00@ 26 &ohen+ op cit + Israel and the %om,+ 92-93 2@ Spector+ Leonard S + The Undeclared %om, =&am,ridge+ (assach*setts" %allinger A*,lishers+ 0:99>+ 39@ =n 22>

29 G*oted in Ste-ens+ $liEa,eth .Israel's 7*clear 8eapons.A &ase St*d! . 01 pages )n line Internet+ 23 )cto,er 0::9 A-aila,le from http"KKinfomanage comKnonproliferationKnaCo*rnalKisraelin*cs html 2: Freen+ Ta4ing Sides+ 019-0@: and #a-i-+ 6an and (elman+ Hossi+ 0::?+ 0:@-0:9 3? 8eissman and 'rosne!+ 00:-021 30 %lac4+ Ian and (orris+ %enn!+ Israel's Secret 8ars A histor! of Israel's Intelligence Ser-ices =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" Fro-e 8eidenfeld+ 0::0>+ 109-10: 32 ;ersh+ 25@ 33 Freen+ Stephen+ Li-ing ,! the Sword" America and Israel in the (iddle $ast+ 0:690:9@ =London" Fa,er+ 0:99>+ 63-9? 31 &ordesman+ 0::0+ 02? 35 8eissman and 'rosne!+ 021-029 and #a-i-+ 6an and (elman+ Hossi+ 0::?+ 0:9-0:: 36 Spector+ The Undeclared %om,+ 3:5=n 5@> :9-0:: 3@ #a-i-+ 6an and (elman+ Hossi+ 0::?+ 59 39 (ilhollin+ 0??-00: 3: Stanghelle+ ;arold+ .Israel to sell ,ac4 0? 5 tons . Ar,eider,ladet+ )slo+ 7orwa!+ 29 J*ne 0::? in" &enter for 7onproliferation St*dies+ .7*clear 6e-elopments+. 29 J*ne 0::?+ 31-35J on-line+ Internet 22 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKcns miis ed* 1? ;ersh+ op cit + 03: 10 &enter for 7onproliferation St*dies .Israeli Friends+. ISIS #eport+ (a! 0::1+ 1J online+ Internet 22 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKcns miis ed* 12 A,ecasis+ #achel+ .Urani*m reportedl! offered to &hina+ Israel . #adio #enascenca+ Lis,on+ : 6ecem,er 0::2 <*oted in &enter for 7onproliferation+ .Aroliferation Iss*es+. 23 6ecem,er+ 0::2+ 25J on-line+ Internet 22 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKcns miis ed* 13 &ohen+ Israel and the %om,+ op cit + 230-232 and 256-25@ 11 7ordeen+ Lon ) + 7icolle+ 6a-id+ Ahoeni3 o-er the 7ile =8ashington+ 6 & " Smithsonian Instit*te Aress+ 0::6>+ 0:2-0:3 15 )'%alance+ $dgar+ The Third Ara,-Israeli 8ar =London" Fa,er and Fa,er+ 0:@2>+ 51

16 %recher+ (ichael+ 6ecision in &risis Israel+ 0:6@ and 0:@3 =%er4le!+ &alifornia" Uni-ersit! of &alifornia Aress+ 0:9?>+ 0?1+ 23?-230 1@ &ohen+ A-ner .&airo+ 6imona+ and the J*ne 0:6@ 8ar . (iddle $ast Jo*rnal 5?+ no 2 =Spring 0::6>+ 0:?-20? 19 &re-eld+ (artin -an The Sword and the )li-e A &ritical ;istor! of the Israeli 6efense Force =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" A*,lic Affairs+ 0::9>+ 0@1 1: %*rrows+ 8illiam $ and 8indrem+ #o,ert+ &ritical (ass The 6angero*s #ace for S*perweapons in a Fragmenting 8orld =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" Simon and Sch*ster+ 0::1>+ 292-293 5? Aronson+ Shlomo+ Israel's 7*clear )ptions+ A&IS 8or4ing Aaper 7o @ Los Angeles+ &alifornia" Uni-ersit! of &alifornia &enter for Arms &ontrol and International Sec*rit!+ 0:@@+ 3+ and Sorenson+ 6a-id S + .(iddle $ast #egional St*dies-AH::+. Air 8ar &ollege" (a3well Air Force %ase+ AL+ 512 50 ;ersh+ op cit + 026-029 52 &ohen+ Israel and the %om,+ op cit + 20?-203 53 Spector+ Leonard S + .Foreign-S*pplied &om,at Aircraft" 8ill The! 6rop the Third 8orld %om,I. Jo*rnal of International Affairs 1?+ no 0=0:96>" 015 =n 5> and Freen+ Li-ing ,! the Sword+ op cit + 09-0: 51 %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 29? 55 &ohen+ op cit + Israel and the %om,+ 23@ 56 I,id + 2@3-2@1 5@ (ilhollin+ op cit + 0?3-0?1 59 #a-i-+ 6an and (elman+ Hossi+ Friend in 6eed" Inside the U S -Israel Alliance =7ew Hor4 7ew Hor4" ;!perion+ 0::1>+ 2:: 5: %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 161-165 and #a-i-+ 6an and (elman+ Hossi+ op cit + 0::?+ 3?1-3?5 6? Spector+ The Undeclared %om,+ op cit + 0@: 60 6owt!+ Alan .Israel and 7*clear 8eapons . (idstream 22+ no @ =7o-em,er 0:@6>+ 9-:

62 ;ersh+ op cit + 20@+ 222-226+ and 8eissman and 'rosne!+ op cit + 0?@ 63 Freen+ op cit + Li-ing ,! the Sword+ :?-:: 61 Loft*s and Aarons+ op cit + 306-30@ 65 Smith+ Ferard & and &o,,an+ ;elena .A %lind $!e To 7*clear Aroliferation . Foreign Affairs 69+ no 3=0:9:>+ 53-@? 66 ;ersh+ op cit + 23?-230 6@ )'%alance+ $dgar+ 7o Dictor+ 7o Dan<*ished The Hom 'ipp*r 8ar =San #afael+ &alifornia" Aresido Aress+ 0:@9>+ 0@5 69 I,id + 231-235 and Aronson+ S+ op cit + 05-09 6: Spector+ The Undeclared %om,+ op cit + 3:6 =n 62>J Farthoff+ #a!mond L + 6Ptente and &onfrontation" American-So-iet #elations from 7i3on to #eagan =8ashington+ 6&" The %roo4ings Instit*te+ 0::1>+ 126+ n@6 and %andmann+ Hona and &ordo-a+ Hishai .The So-iet 7*clear Threat Towards the &lose of the Hom 'ipp*r 8ar . Jer*salem Jo*rnal of International #elations 0:9? 5+ no 0+ 0?@-: @? &her4ashin+ 7i4olai+ .)n (oscow's )rders . #*ssian Life+ 3:+ no 0? =)cto,er 0::6>+ 03-05 @0 %rownlow+ &ecil .So-iets poise three-front glo,al dri-e 7*clear weapons in $g!pt+ artiller! ,*ild*p at F*antanamo+ &omm*nist concentrations in Dietnam aimed at political gains . A-iation 8ee4 and Space Technolog! ::+ no 0: =5 7o-em,er 0:@3>+ 02-01J ;olt+ #o,ert .So-iet Aower Ala! . A-iation 8ee4 and Space Technolog! ::+ no 0: =5 7o-em,er 0:@3>+ @ and F*r-Arieh+ 6ann!+ .A non-&on-entional Loo4 at Israel 6*ring '@3 8ar . Israel8ire T*esda!+ )cto,er 6+ 0::9 0@+ 23J on-line+ Internet 2? 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww israelwire comKnewK:90??6K:90??69 html @2 ;ersh+ op cit + 320-235 @3 &re-eld+ 0::9+ op cit + 22?-220 @1 $-ron+ Hair+ Israel's 7*clear 6ilemma =Ithaca+ 7ew Hor4" &ornell A*,lishing+ 0::1>+ 62-@1 @5 &ohen+ A-ner+ .Aeres" Aeacema4er+ 7*clear Aioneer . The %*lletin of the Atomic Scientists 52+ no 3 =(a!KJ*ne 0::6>+ 06-0@ and Aronson+ S+ op cit + 00-02 @6 'arsh+ op cit + 96 @@ G*oted in ;ersh+ op cit + 09? and Ste-ens+ op cit + 0-01

@9 ;ersh+ op cit + 206+ 2@6 and 'a4*+ (ichio .&ontingenc! Alans" 7*clear 8eapons after the &old 8ar . In Altered States" A #eader in the 7ew 8orld )rder+ %ennis+ Ah!llis and (o*sha,ec4+ (ichel+ $ds =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" 0::3>+ 66 @: 8eissman and 'rosne!+ op cit + 0?: 9? Fillette+ #o,ert+ .Urani*m $nrichment" #*mors of Israeli Arogress with Lasers . Science 093+ no 103? =22 (arch 0:@1>+ 00@2-00@1 90 %arna,!+ Fran4+ The In-isi,le %om," The 7*clear Arms #ace in the (iddle $ast =London" I % Ta*ris+ 0:99>+ 25 92 .Israel" The &o-ert &onnection . Frontline+ A%S 7etwor4+ (a! 06+ 0:9:+ <*oted in Spector+ Leonard S + and (c6ono*gh+ (ar4 F + with (edeiros+ $-an S + Trac4ing 7*clear Aroliferation A F*ide in (aps and &harts+ 0::5 =8ashington+ 6&" &arnegie $ndowment for International Aeace+ 0::5> 93 7ashif+ Ta!sir 7 + 7*clear 8eapons in the (iddle $ast" 6imensions and #esponsi,ilities =Arinceton+ 7ew Jerse!" 'ingston Aress+ 0:91>+ 22-23 91 ;ersh+ op cit + 206 95 %arna,!+ Fran4+ .&apping Israel's 7*clear Dolcano+. %etween 8ar and Aeace 6ilemmas of Israeli Sec*rit!+ edited ,! $fraim 'arsh =London+ $ngland" Fran4 &ass+ 0::6>+ :9 96 ;ersh+ op cit + 2@0-2@5 9@ 7ashif+ op cit + 32 99 Faffne!+ (ar4+ 6imona" The Third TempleI The Stor! %ehind the Dan*n* #e-elation =%rattle,oro+ Dermont" Amana %oo4s+ 0:9:>+ 0??-0?0 9: AedatE*r+ #e'*-en+ .So*th African Statement )n 7*clear Test Said to Ser-e Israel+. ;a'aretE+ 2: J*l! 0::@ )n line" Internet+ 22 7o-em,er 0::9 and 'elle!+ #o,ert .The Ira<i and So*th African 7*clear 8.Q7*clear A,stracts+. 0 (arch 0::6+ or on-line+ Internet+ 22 7o-em,er 0::9+ ,oth a-aila,le from http"KKcns miis ed* :? .8as there a 7*clear Test near $ilatI. Israel8ire+ 06 J*ne 0::9+ or on line Internet+ 22 7o-em,er+ 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww israelwire com and .6ep*t! 6efense (inister 6enies Israeli 7*clear Testing . Israeli 8ire+ J*ne 09+ 0::9+ or on-line Internet+ 03 )cto,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww israelwire comK7ewK:9?609K:9?6091 html

:0 (c'innon+ 6an %*llse!e )ne #eactor The Stor! of Israel's %old S*rprise Air Attac4 That 6estro!ed Ira<i's 7*clear %om, Facilit! =Shrews,*r!+ $ngland" Airlife A*,lishing Ltd + 0:9@> :2 .#*ssian Foreign Intelligence Ser-ice+ #eport on the Aroliferation of 8eapons of (ass 6estr*ction+ (oscow+ 0::3 . Jo*rnal of Aalestine St*dies RRII+ no 1 =S*mmer 0::3>" 035-01?J &re-eld+ (artin -an+ 7*clear Aroliferation and the F*t*re )f &onflict =7ew Hor4" The Free Aress+ 0::3>+ 0?5J and &lar4+ Ahilip .QThird s*ccessf*l Israeli satellite la*nch . Jane's Intelligence #e-iew @+ no 6 =J*ne 0::5>+ 25-26 :3 S*nda! Times+ London+ op cit + 0+1-5 :1 Toscano+ Lo*is+ Triple &ross" Israel+ the Atomic %om, and the (an 8ho Spilled the Secrets =7ew Hor4" &arol A*,lishing Fro*p+ 0::?> :5 Freen+ Li-ing ,! the Sword+ op cit + 031 :6 Spector+ The Undeclared %om,+ op cit + 065-066 :@ ;ersh+ op cit + 2:0 :9 Le-ran+ Aharon+ Israeli Strateg! after 6esert Storm" Lessons from the Second F*lf 8ar =London" Fran4 &ass+ 0::@>+ 0-0? :: %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 2@9 0?? &ohen+ A-ner and (iller+ (ar-in+ 7*clear Shadows in the (iddle $ast" Arospects for Arms &ontrol in the 8a4e of the F*lf &risis =&am,ridge+ (assach*setts" (assach*setts Instit*te of Technolog!+ 0::?>+ 0? 0?0 Aronson and %rosh+ op cit + 2@6 0?2 #a-i- and (elman+ op cit + 3:: 0?3 %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 2:@n and &re-eld+ 0::9+ op cit + 320-322 0?1 Le-ran+ op cit + 9-0? 0?5 Ahmar+ (oonis+ .Aa4istan and Israel" 6istant Ad-ersaries or 7eigh,orsI. Jo*rnal of So*th Asian and (iddle $astern St*dies+ 0::6+ 2?+ no 0+ 13-11 0?6 .7*clear proliferation didn't start in 0::9 and not in Aa4istan nor with Islam+. (iddle $ast #ealities+ or on-line+ Internet+ 20 Septem,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww middleeast orgK0::9S?6S29 htm

0?@ Farrit!+ Aatric4 J .The 7e3t 7*clear G*estions . Aarameters+ RRD+ no 1 =8inter 0::5-:6>+ :2-000 0?9 &ohen+ $lieEer Israel's ,est defense" the First F*ll Stor! of the Israeli Air Force+ =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" #andom ;o*se+ 0::3>+ 1:5 0?: &ohen and (iller+ op cit + 09 00? .%efore (eeting with 'ing+ Aeres &laims Israel's 7*clear Arsenal was ,*ilt for Aeace+. Jordan Times+ J*l! 01+ 0::9 G*oted in Sorenson+ op cit + 512 000 %eres+ Lo*is #ene+ .Israel's %om, in the %asement" A re-isiting of T6eli,erate Am,ig*it!' -s T6isclos*re'+ %etween 8ar and Aeace" 6ilemmas of Israeli Sec*rit!+ edited ,! $fraim ;arsh =London+ $ngland" Fran4 &ass+ 0::6>+ 003-033 002 ;ersh+ op cit + 30: 003 Amos+ 6e,orah+ Lines in the Sand" 6esert Storm and the #ema4ing of the Ara, 8orld =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" Simon and Sch*ster+ 0::2>+ 0?5 001 6owler+ Thomas 8 and ;oward II+ Joseph ; + .&o*ntering the threat of the wellarmed t!rant" A modest proposal for small n*clear weapons+. Strategic #e-iew+ RIR+ no 1 =Fall 0::0>+ 31-1? 005 %eres+ Lo*is #ene+ .Israel's ,om, in the ,asement" A re-isiting of T6eli,erate Am,ig*it!' -s T6isclos*re ' . In 'arsh+ $fraim+ op cit + $ditor+ %etween 8ar and Aeace" 6ilemmas of Israeli Sec*rit! =London+ $ngland" Fran4 &ass+ 0::6>+ 006 006 &ordesman+ op cit + 0::6+ 265 00@ ;o*gh+ ;arold+ .Israel re-iews its n*clear deterrent+. Jane's Intelligence #e-iew 0?+ no 00 =7o-em,er 0::9>+ 00-03 009 &re-eld+ op cit + 0::3+ 0?5 00: %*rrows+ and 8indrem+ op cit + 300-302 and .Israel ,egins test of n*clear missile s*,marines+. The Irish Times+ J*l! 2+ 0::9+ or on-line+ Internet+ 21 6ecem,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww irish-times comKirish-timesKpaperK0::9K?@?2Kwor03 html 02? (elman+ Hossi+ .Swimming with the 6olphins+. ;a'aretE+ T*esda!+ J*ne :+ 0::9+ and .#eport" Israel to get S*,s with 7*clear Stri4e &apa,ilit!+. Jer*salem Aost+ I J*l! 3+ 0::9+ 3 and Sorenson+ op cit + 513 020 #a-i-+ 6an and (elman+ Hossi+ op cit + 0::?+ 311-315+ 122-123

022 Shaha4+ Israel+ )pen Secrets" Israeli 7*clear and Foreign Aolicies =London" Al*to Aress+ 0::@>+ @2-@3 023 6a-is+ 6o*glas+ .6efense )fficials Said Urging 7*clear Second-Stri4e &apa,ilit!+. Jer*salem Aost+ 6 A*g*st 0::9+ 3J or on-line+ Internet+ 22 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKcns miis ed* 021 In,ar+ $fraim+ .Israel's sec*rit! in a new international en-ironment+. in 'arsh+ $fraim+ $ditor+ %etween 8ar and Aeace" 6ilemmas of Israeli Sec*rit! =London+ $ngland" Fran4 &ass+ 0::6>+ 10 025 ;o*gh+ ;arold+ .&o*ld Israel's 7*clear Assets S*r-i-e a First Stri4eI. Jane's Intelligence #e-iew+ Septem,er 0::@+ 1?@-10? 026 Terrill+ 8 Andrew+ .The &hemical 8arfare Legac! of the Hemen 8ar . &omparati-e Strateg!+ 0? =0::0>+ 0?:-00: 02@ %o!ne+ Sean+ .Across the Freat 6i-ide 8ill Assad go for the FolanI. Jane's Intelligence #e-iew+ 0?+ no 1 =April 0::9>+ 20-21 and &ordesman+ 0::6+ op cit + 251 029 &ordesman+ op cit + 0::6+ 213 02:+ ;arel+ Amos and %arEilai+ Amnon+ .(ordechai sa!s Arrow alone cannot protect against missiles+. ;a'aretE+ 03 Jan*ar! 0:::+ or on-line+ Internet+ 03 Jan*ar! 0:::+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww3 haaretE co ilKengKhtmlsK3S: htm 03? Shaha4+ op cit + @9-@: 030 &h*,in+ Shahram+ .6oes Iran 8ant 7*clear 8eaponsI. S*r-i-al 3@+ no 0 =Spring 0::5>+ :0-:3 032 )'S*lli-an+ Arich+ .7ew F-05I 8arplanes $3pand Israel's #each+. The Jer*salem Aost+ 0: Jan*ar! 0::@+ or on-line+ Internet 22 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww Cpost co il 033 'arsh+ op cit + : 031 Shaha4+ op cit + 1-5 035 Farrit!+ op cit + :2-000 036 6owt!+ op cit + 9 03@ Faffne!+ op cit + 065

039 I,id + 3@-39 and Friedman+ #o,ert I Lealots for Lion" Inside Israel's 8est %an4 Settlement (o-ement =7ew Hor4+ 7ew Hor4" #andom ;o*se+ 0::2>+ 032-52 03: %lanche+ $d+ .Is the (!th Fading for the Israeli Arm!I . Aart 0 . Jane's Intelligence #e-iew+ 9+ no 02 =6ecem,er 0::6>+ 51@-55? and %lanche+ $d .Is the m!th fading for the Israeli Arm!I . Aart 2+. Jane's Intelligence #e-iew :+ no 0 =Jan*ar! 0::@>+ 25-29 01? &ohen+ St*art A + The Scroll or the SwordI 6ilemmas of #eligion and (ilitar! Ser-ice in Israel =Amsterdam+ 7etherlands" ;arwood Academic A*,lishers+ 0::@>+ 00-21 010 &re-eld+ op cit + 0::9+ 2:9 012 %ro!de+ (ichael J + .Fighting the 8ar and the Aeace" %attlefield $thics+ Aeace Tal4s+ Treaties+ and Aacifism in the Jewish Tradition+. or on-line+ Internet+ 2? 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKwww Claw comKArticlesKwar3 html 013 ;o*gh+ ;arold+ op cit + 0::9+ 00-02 and %erger+ J*lian+ .&o*rt F*r! At Israeli #eactor . F*ardian+ 03 )cto,er 0::@+ in &enter for 7onproliferation+ .7*clear A,stracts+. 03 )cto,er 0::@+ or on-line+ Internet+ 22 7o-em,er 0::9+ a-aila,le from http"KKcns miis ed* 011 &re-eld+ op cit + 0::9+ 252 015 Dalr!+ 7icholas+ .Israel's Silent Fam,le with the %om,+. 7ew Scientist =02 6ecem,er 0:@1>+ 9?@-?: 016 ;arden+ (aCor James 6 + Israeli 7*clear 8eapons and 8ar in the (iddle $ast+ (aster's Thesis+ 7a-al Aostgrad*ate School+ (ontere!+ &A+ 6ecem,er 0::@ 01@ 6owd!+ op cit + 2? 019 Aronson+ Feoffre!+ .;idden Agenda" US-Israeli #elations and the 7*clear G*estion+. (iddle $ast Jo*rnal+ 16+ no 1 =A*t*mn 0::2>+ 60:-63? 01: 6ata from Time+ 02 April 0:@6+ <*oted in 8eissman and 'rosne!+ op cit + 0?@ 05? %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 29? and &ohen+ Israel and the %om,+ op cit + 2@32@1 050 Tahtinen+ 6ale # + The Ara,-Israel (ilitar! %alance Toda! =8ashington+ 6&" American $nterprise Instit*te for A*,lic Aolic! #esearch+ 0:@3>+ 31 052 .;ow Israel Fot the %om, . Time+ 02 April 0:@6+ 3: 053 %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 3?2

051 'a4*+ op cit + 66 and ;ersh+ op cit + 206 055 DalPr!+ op cit + 9?@-?: 056 6ata from &IA+ <*oted in 8eissman and 'rosne!+ op cit + 0?: 05@ )tten,erg+ (ichael+ .$stimating Israel's 7*clear &apa,ilities+. &ommand+ 3? =)cto,er 0::1>+ 6-9 059 Ar!+ op cit + @5 05: I,id + 000 06? 6ata from 7%& 7ightl! 7ews+ <*oted in (ilhollin+ op cit + 0?1 and %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 3?9 060 6ata from Dan*n* <*oted in (ilhollin+ op cit + 0?1 062 ;ar4a-!+ #o,ert $ .After the F*lf 8ar" The F*t*re of the Israeli 7*clear Strateg!+. The 8ashington G*arterl! =S*mmer 0::0>+ 061 063 %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 3?9 061 Al,right+ 6a-id+ %er4ho*t+ Frans and 8al4er+ 8illiam+ Al*toni*m and ;ighl! $nriched Urani*m 0::6 8orld In-entories+ &apa,ilities+ and Aolicies =7ew Hor4" Stoc4holm International Aeace #esearch Instit*te And )3ford Uni-ersit! Aress+ 0::@>+ 262-263 065 ;o*gh+ ;arold+ .Israel's 7*clear Infrastr*ct*re+. Jane's Intelligence #e-iew 6+ no 00 =7o-em,er 0::1>+ 5?9 066 I,id + 262-263 06@ Spector+ and (c6ono*gh+ with (edeiros+ op cit + 035 069 %*rrows and 8indrem+ op cit + 293-291 06: &ordesman+ op cit + 0::6+ 231 0@? I,id + 231 0@0 I,id + 23?+ 213 0@2 %rower+ 'enneth S + .A Aropensit! for &onflict" Aotential Scenarios and )*tcomes of 8ar in the (iddle $ast+. Jane's Intelligence #e-iew+ Special #eport no 01+ =Fe,r*ar! 0::@>+ 01-05

0@3 Al,right+ %er4ho*t+ and 8al4er+ op cit + 262-263 USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter The USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter was esta,lished in 0::9 to pro-ide ed*cation and research to the present and f*t*re leaders of the USAF+ and there,! help them ,etter prepare to co*nter the threat from weapons of mass destr*ction %arr! # Schneider+ 6irector USAF &o*nterproliferation &enter 325 &henna*lt &ircle (a3well AF% AL 36002-612@4 =331> :53-@539 =6S7 =1:3-@539> $mail" %arr! SchneiderUma3well+af mil USAF site location for this report" http"KKwww a* af milKa*KawcKawcgateKcpc-p*,sKfarr htm This report is also posted at" http"KKwww fas orgKn*4eKg*ideKisraelKn*4eKfarr htm

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