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B.Padmasri IV B.Tech, ECE S.V.College of Engineering, Tirupati E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT: Wireless communications are an essential and continuously expanding part of modern life. Smart phones presents a number of challenging requirements on the display module, such as low power
1. INTRODUCTION: Today’s mobile devices are a far cry from the devices of 20 or even 5 years ago. Gone are the days of carrying a separate camera, phone, music player and PDA today’s mobile devices range from cell phones to smart phones to PC tablets and each incorporates these functions into one
consumption, video quality speed, and viewability in a broad range of lighting conditions. As clear as an image on paper, IMOD displays can be viewed in any lighting condition including direct sunlight. Two to three times as bright as other technology. The IMOD displays minimize eye strain, and their wide viewing cones are free of the inversion effects that plague polarization-based displays. Qualcomm’s new media FLO technology will enable user to watch high performance video on portable device and applications such as this need a display offering superior viewability and less power consumption.
multipurpose device for its respective market segment. As computer technology and multimedia converge, the industry has witnessed a dramatic change in how consumers view their mobile devices. Today’s indispensable tools bring users information and entertainment. But as functionality increases and consumers use their devices for more than just making and receiving calls or sending and receiving email, consumers demand more including extended battery life and superior
viewability in all environmental conditions in short, a convergent device. The key to such improvements is the display.
not only with regards to superior viewability. are relatively new. MOBILE DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES: Ink and paper are arguably the de facto standard for information display. The CRT was developed less than 100 years ago and the increasingly popular flat-panel display less than 40 years ago. An IMOD based reflective flat panel display can comprise hundreds of thousands of individually addressable IMOD elements. and outdoor viewability. but struggle with color and refresh rates. Display technologies such as backlit LCDs. In this section we will compare them. on the other hand. A revolutionary display technology. bright colors while in a second state it absorbs incident light and appears black to the viewer. Interferometric Modulator (IMOD) technology is the revolutionary technology found in Qualcomm’s mirasol displays. suffer from poor viewability in direct sunlight and do not offer convergent capabilities. however. IMOD displays represent one of the largest examples of a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) based device. with particular emphasis on energy consumption and readability. Display technologies. power and ease of manufacture. A wide variety of display technologies are aiming to capture the key characteristics of ink and paper. found primarily in e-readers. for reading at least. makes all of this possible. offer low power. Developed over 5. upon micro-electro-mechanical providing a paper-like reading experience. For some time now. . but also with respect to cost. based on industry-proven MEMS technology. organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) and electrophoretic displays (EPD) were all steps in this direction. reflective LCDs. In one state an IMOD reflects light at a specific wavelength and gives pure.Today’s liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) 2. promise to take the quest for paper-like displays to a new level. The Interferometric Modulator (IMOD) is an electrically switched light modulator comprising a micro-machined cavity that is switched on and off using driver ICs similar to those used to address LCDs. Qualcomm’s mirasol displays. Based systems.000 years ago. electroluminescent (EL) displays. Electrophoretic display. engineers have been working to create a display technology capable of consume significant power.
In the case of an LCD.3 Transflective Displays: Transflective displays are a hybrid of emissive and reflective display technologies. a constant source of power is required to both modulate the liquid-crystal material and to power the backlight. most portable devices employing reflective displays are the continuous refresh type. resulting in image degradation or flicker. So far. In high ambient light conditions. Transflective displays employ a partially transmissive mirror as the secondary substrate. A transmissive LCD consists of two transmissive substrates between which the liquid-crystal material resides. whose active display material emits light.2 Reflective display: In a reflective display. Transflective displays were engineered to overcome the shortcomings of emissive displays. namely the backlight’s high power consumption.2. 2. displays liquid-crystal . the backlight turns off and the display functions as a reflective display. By placing a backlight underneath one of the substrates and by applying a voltage to the liquid-crystal material the light reaching the observer can be modulated so as to make the display pixel appear bright or dark. 2. one of the substrates found in a transmissive display is replaced with a reflective usually substrate. they transflective. as in the case of an OLED display. employ Reflective consume substantially less power than emissive displays. In low light situations. the majority of these types of displays must constantly be refreshed or the displayed image will be lost. However. as well as a traditional backlight. such as poor image quality at low ambient light levels. since the material providing modulation is liquidcrystal. Such is also the case with OLED and EPD constant power must be provided to the light-emitting materials in order to prevent screen flicker. A display can also directly emit light. and the shortcomings of reflective displays. An LCD requires constant refreshing at least sixty times per second in order to prevent the liquid-crystal material from transitioning to a different modulation state. the device operates as a transmissive display. employing the backlight. reflective or material on top of the reflective substrate so as to modulate the ambient light reflecting off the reflective substrate.1 Emissive/Tran missive Displays Displays are classified as one of three types: emissive/transmissive. Since there is no backlight in reflective displays.
green and blue color sub pixels that together can Fig 1: Basic Structure of an IMOD Pixel Figure 1 illustrates the basic produce full color using spatial dithering.A transflective display is a compromise and its image quality is generally subpar. The application of a lower voltage level returns the membrane to the original position. Full-color versions of IMOD displays. called the open state. a process which is much more efficient than using color filters. the membrane experiences electrostatic attraction and is drawn towards the glass. They will use the same operating principle as bichrome Regardless. and the thin films on the glass. The pixel consists of a glass substrate which is coated with thin films. 3. as shown in Figure 8. while indoors they are not as bright as emissive displays. This color is generated by interference of light. When a voltage is applied to the membrane . will be brought to market after the initial bichrome displays. and drives the individual elements separately in order to obtain gray levels structure of an IMOD pixel. it can display any two colors. Beneath the glass is a reflective conductive membrane which is separated from the glass by a thin air gap. BASIC STRUCTURE OF IMOD PIXEL displays. they offer a compromise for applications where a wide variety of lighting conditions are seen and transflective displays are widely used in the portable device market. but will consist of grids of red. Spatial dithering divides a given sub pixel into many smaller addressable elements. The display constructed of IMOD pixels in Figure 1 will be bichrome that is. In sunlight they are not as bright as purely reflective displays. This state is called the collapsed state and the pixel appears black as the light entering is shifted to the UV spectrum. In this state the pixel appears bright and colored.
a mirasol display is an optically resonant cavity similar to a light of certain wavelengths Figure 3. 4. Fig 2: mirasol Display Colour Pixel Structure The low power advantage of the mirasol display is due to the mechanical structure of the IMOD pixel. Depending on the height of the optical cavity. Each of which require multiple processing steps. the colour is When ambient light hits the structure. The device consists of a self-supporting deformable reflective membrane and a thin-film stack (each of which acts as one mirror of an optically resonant cavity). both residing on a transparent substrate. Based on the phase . WORKING PRINCIPLE: At the most basic level. it actually can use a subset of LCD manufacturing due to its simpler structure. it is reflected both off the top of the thin-film stack and off the reflective membrane. In fact. the modulation is accomplished via the Movable membrane rather than the liquid crystal. The IMOD element of a mirasol display provides functionalities that would require three separate elements in a LCD. A mirasol display can be manufactured on current FPD manufacturing lines. reflecting off the membrane will be slightly out of phase with the light reflecting off the thin-film structure. First. Second.Fabry-Perot etalon. IMOD Structure Showing Light Reflecting off the Thin-film Stack and Mirror Interfering to Produce Color generated using the air Gap rather than colour filters.
More specifically. membrane and the non-linear forces of the applied electric field. Hysteresis Effect in an IMOD Pixel The membrane is held in the open state by applying a voltage Vbias. As a result. while the green and blue wavelengths have a phase difference which leads to destructive interference. which allows for near-zero power usage in situations where the display image is unchanged. 4. This means that mirasol displays benefit from considerable power savings. which work on the principle of absorption and waste much of the light entering the display. as certain wavelengths will be amplified with respect to others. while others will destructively interfere as shown in Figure 3. the membrane will collapse and stay in that state as the voltage returns to Vbias levels. As shown in Figure 4. such as LCDs. By applying a short write voltage pulse. the resulting electro-opto-mechanical behavior is hysteretic in nature and provides a built-in “memory” effect similar to the thin-film transistor (TFT) element in an active-matrix display.1 Bistability One of the key advantages of the mirasol display’s design is its bistable nature. Color generation via interference is much more efficient in its use of light compared to traditional color filters and polarizer’s. it derives from an inherent imbalance between the linear Figure 4. the red wavelengths have a phase difference which leads to constructive interference.difference. especially compared to displays that continually refresh. some wavelengths will restorative forces of the mechanical constructively interfere. As illustrated. the human eye will perceive a red color. The bistability of mirasol displays comes from the inherent hysteresis derived from the technology’s electro-mechanical properties. In .
utilizes a very low power front light in extremely dim conditions. It should be noted that in very dark environments all displays (including figure 5: Consistent viewing quality of mirasol display (real world) JND. without degradation of contrast ratio or color depth. and are often overpowered in direct sunlight. but they can be expressed quantitatively by the decreasing JND count indicated below the TFTLCD images and the constant JND count indicated below the mirasol display images. or “just noticeable difference”. indeed to be consistently viewed in almost any environment. is a recognized method of expressing the number of separately discernable image . The results are applied. abilities to conserve energy. because of its high reflectivity. Consequently. enable new applications. SUNLIGHT VIEWABILITY-THE ULTIMATE MEASURE DISPLAY. and enhance revenue streams compliment the display’s fundamental ability to be viewed in direct sunlight. emissive displays become washed out in diffuse sunlight. yet the available light output consistently obscures in the face of modest room lighting and is significantly degraded in bright office lighting. 5. Worse. causing the membrane to snap back into the open state. Figure 5 clearly illustrates the consistent viewing quality that would be available from a mirasol display versus the viewing quality expected from a TFTLCD. Emissive displays generate their own illumination.order to return to the open state. provide freedom to industrial designers. a short negative unwrite pulse (Vunwrite) is newsprint) will need supplemental lighting. The mirasol display’s remarkable OF A qualitatively clear to the viewer. the viewing quality of emissive displays deteriorates to the same extent that the display light emission is washed out. and the mirasol display.
readability: Luminance is the amount of light that reaches the human eye. a decrease in JND count represents a decrease in the quality level of the viewed image. the deformable IMOD membrane only has to move a short distance a few hundred nanometers in order to switch between two colors.. rather than absorbed. 380nm to 780nm). element’s switching time is 1000 times faster than traditional displays. This metric dictates whether or not the human eye will be able to perceive transitions between the dark and light areas on the switching speeds as slow as tens or hundreds of milliseconds. Conversely. Based on human perception. and a newspaper measures on the order of 60 percent reflectivity. As a result. In addition. Traditional STN.2 Readability Humans view the world by sensing the light reflecting from various surfaces. there are two critical factors luminance which and associate the ability to discern small levels of difference in an image with perceiving the image as having high quality. mirasol displays switching speed is maintained across a wide temperature range.levels available to the viewer. KEY ATTRIBUTES 6. Figure 5 illustrates the mirasol display’s ability to deliver consistent viewing quality across all levels of illumination.1 Speed Since visible light wavelengths operate on the nanometer scale (i. compared to a backlit image. A white sheet of paper measures between 70 and 90 percent reflectivity. on the order of tens of microseconds. The key metric is the reflectivity of the display’s white state. whose . unlike organic liquid-crystal-based displays. 6. This switching speed directly translates to a video rate-capable display with no motionblur effects.or cholestericbased passive matrix An displays IMOD have determine contrast. which is measured by comparing it to the reflectivity of a standard white source. it is the amount of ambient light that is reflected from the display. a reflected image from a newspaper is more appealing and easier to view for the human eye. In the case of a reflective display. 6. This switching happens extremely fast. One can switching speeds decrease as temperatures go into low environmental ranges.e. Contrast is the ratio of the display’s white state reflectivity to its dark state.
8.com/media/do cuments/mirasol-displays-imodtechnology-overview. Not only does this promising technology offer the brightness and power consumption required tomeet the demands of Industry Compatibility.com/benefits/t echnology. A high contrast ratio makes the image look sharper and improves readability. en.org/wiki/Interferometri c_modulator_display http://www. and performance.qualcomm. If the contrast is too low. the display will appear washed out and the user will have difficulty perceiving image details. a new alter-native will soon be available. For reference. However.mirasoldisplays. ADVANTAGES: Significant Power Savings. approximately 4:1. At the same time. it has the potential to play a role in a more-diverse array of display market segments than its competitors. with the emergence of IMOD technology. Easy Integration—Low Risk Adoption. Unlike other display entrants. 7. A Display for All Conditions.display. REFERENCES: www. CONCLUSION: Currently. True-to-Life Image Quality. manufacturers and consumers alike. Robust Functionality—Enhanced Durability. IMOD technology provides system designers the flexibility they require to differentiate their products based on image quality. These capabilities may one day enable it to .wikipedia. 9. a newspaper has a contrast ratio of empower a uniquely new generation of FPDs for mobile applications. LCDs are the technology of choice for mobile applications. power consumption. which translates to spatial detail. it also takes advantage of existing LCD manufacturing processes and benefits from the unique functionalities of MEMS structures.
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