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Eddie Foo S N Box 725


If you are a First Officer and having flown with a commercial air transport company for more than 5 years and have logged at least 3000 flying hours, this document is aimed squarely at you!
FOREWORD Yes, I have you, the Senior First Officers and the would-be command trainees in mind when I first pondered on the idea of writing something which I hoped could be useful in tackling the seemingly insurmountable LOFTs (Line Oriented Flight Training or Tests). Many believe the Company’s command training is the toughest training program imaginable. Like they said: “When the going gets tough, the tough gets going”. You really have to be tough to survive this endurance test! For those who succeeded, it is certainly no small achievement; they deserved it and should naturally feel proud of themselves. I wrote this document in good faith and based entirely on my own personal experience and perception, however little they may be. My aim here is to help you to get through your command training, to give you some ideas on what the Company expects of you as a future airliner commander. I do not pretend that these notes are all encompassing. In fact by itself, it is quite meaningless. However, when used sensibly together with other official training manuals, it will serve well as an “OVERVIEW” to LOFT & LOA (Line Oriented Assessment) exercises and as a useful guide to becoming a people-oriented commander. I have done quite a bit of research on all the technical information and tips passed down from former command trainees, and also in consultation with Mr Sen Gupta, our ground instructor. I used a lot of relevant materials from the ARM course notes and other books on aviation safety, airmanship and flight discipline found in major bookstores. Put simply, I merely consolidated and compiled them into a handy easy-to-carry, easy-to-use reference book, in an A4 size PDF format for easy electronic transmission. Of course there must be other ways of achieving the same goal, you have the liberty not to agree with what I said here, all I am doing here is to give you another option towards your command training. Caution: This is not an official document! Merely reading these notes will never be enough to tackle your Command LOFTs, because there is no substitute for hard work. I also did try my best to conform to the Company philosophy, policies procedures and practices whilst penning down my thoughts. However I am all too human, and plus the lack of resources, there are bound to be mistakes, despite of the vetting I have done with the help from my colleagues! Finally, I believe in sharing, and to help raise aviation safety awareness. Everybody will be better off (I hope!) and nobody will be worse off (I am certain). I reiterate that my intentions are good and I shall in no way be making any deliberate attempts to mislead you. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would not have written all these without advice and suggestions from some of my close colleagues and good friends. I wish to extend my heartfelt thanks to many of my colleagues who helped me vetting through my early drafts in weeding out typo and technical errors, plus their suggestions of inclusions of other vital topics. Otherwise the task of putting up a document like this would not have been possible. They are; Choo NT, Chua Eng Kiat, Allan Ong, Pradeep Kumar, Alan Ho as well as many others.


First Edition Some Sobering Quotes On Flight Safety:


“Aviation in and of itself is not inherently dangerous. But to an even greater extent than the sea, It is terribly unforgiving for any inattention, carelessness or neglect.” - A poster sold at most pilot shops “It often seems as if in-flight problems have an eerie way of finding exactly what it is that we don’t know and then exploit it!” “Many accidents have occurred while aviators were too busy chasing the mice to see the elephants bearing down on them.” “A skilled pilot without flight discipline is a flying time bomb”. - Tony Kern

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“Airplanes are near perfect, all they lack is the ability to forgive”. - Richard Collins

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“There are old pilots and bold pilots, but there are no old and bold pilots”. “Flying is not dangerous, crashing is.” - Anonymous

This file is free-of-charge


SOME ASSUMPTIONS MADE This document assumes that you have at least 3000 flying hours, or with at least 5 years of flying experience on the right hand seat of a jetliner with an air operator plying international routes, it also assumes that you have already acquired certain stick-and-rudder skills and other related flying abilities that are clearly the minimum pre-requisites to be a future commercial pilot-in-command of a multi-engine glass cockpit jetliner. It further assumes that you are a coherent; responsible as well as a disciplined aviator who takes his flying career seriously, otherwise, this is not an arena for you to hang around. This main emphasis of this document is not to show you how to be a “Top Gun” airliner commander. It centers on flight safety, situational awareness, judgment and decision making process. It also focuses on flight discipline, airmanship, crew resource management, error management as well as widely accepted and practised “command qualities”. I am no expert in these fields either, but I have done quite a bit of research on these topics from some human factors experts in their relevant fields, which I have consolidated and compiled them into this handy document. Anyone who is keen to explore what other aviation flight safety experts have to say will definitely benefit from reading their insights in this document. That much I can assure you. Of course, if you want to explore further, you have no choice but to spend time reading the books in these topics. For that, I have a list of recommended references for your bedtime reading! They can be easily purchased from Recommended References & Websites: 1. “Human Error” by James Reason. 2. “Managing The Risks Of Organizational Accidents” by James Reason. 3. “Aircraft Safety, Accident Investigations, Analyses, & Applications” By Shari Stamford Krause, Ph. D. 4. “Pilot Judgment & Crew Resource Management” by Richard S. Jensen. 5. “Redefining Airmanship” } These three book are written 6. “Flight Discipline” } by Tony Kern, a must read! 7. “Darker Shades Of Blue – The Rogue Pilot” } 8. “Situational Awareness Analysis & Measurement” by Mica R Endsley. 9. “Human Factors In Flight” by Frank H Hawkins. 10. “Human Factors In Multi-Crew Flight Operations” by Harry & Linda Orlady. rd 11. “Commercial Aviation Safety – 3 Edition” – by Alexander T. Wells. 12. “Flight Deck Performance – The Human Factor”. By David O’Hare & Stanley Roscoe. 13. “Cockpit Resource Management” - by Dr Robert L. Helmreich. 14. “Aeronautical Decision Making” - Jointly by NASA, FAA & Canada Transport. nd 15. “PILOT ERROR – The Human Factor – 2 Edition” - by Ronald & Leslie Hurst 16. “AIR DISASTERS” Vol 1, 2 & 3 – Macarthur Job & Matthew Tesch 17. Flight Safety Foundation Website - 18. Other Airline Safety Links: - Note: This document drew heavily from my previous work – “AIRBUS A310 Command Trainees’ Quick Reference Handbook” that I wrote 2 years ago. The approach to writing this new document is to benefit other aircraft type First Officers as well, albeit the author has flown only the A310 and the B744.


need for and recognition of crew. Continued Next Page 4 . Subsequently FAA endorsed LOFT to be utilised in any airline recurrent training program under FAR 121 in May 1978. Frank. manufacturers and regulatory bodies are rising with success. one notes the early emphasis on the rudimentary skills of manipulation of controls and the use of mainly psychomotor skills. Obviously. As the air route systems. The use of simulation technology and devices to accommodate crew training oriented to line operations is a remarkable challenge. LOFT is an augmentation of existing pilot training which concentrates upon command. air traffic control. QUOTES “Line-Oriented Flight Training is a line environment flight-training program with total crew participation in real-world incident experiences. the tasks of pilots grew in diversity. the major emphasis in airline operations is on crew training rather than individual skill attainment. that of command and resource management in the total crew resolution of realistic line-type problems”. A. and resource management skills. Northwest Orient Airlines and PAN AM Airways were the pioneers in adopting this revolutionary training program for their flight crew. dynamic pilot training in a simulated line environment. satisfactory crew performance assumes a sufficient level of individual skills on the part of each member. and one to which the airlines. however. aids to navigation. and more diverse high speed and complex aircraft entered the system. Captain A. rather than individual training.” HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The USAF Strategic Air Command. Captain H. is the interest in.WHAT IS LINE-ORIENTED FLIGHT TRAINING (LOFT)? In the evolution of flight training. with a major thrust toward resource management”. Hunt – Director. DEFINITION OF LOFT NASA describes: “LOFT is a developing training technology which synthesise high-fidelity aircraft simulation and high-fidelity line-operations simulation to provide realistic. “… Line-Oriented Flight Training. leadership. T. has filled a long existing need in airline-crew training. Today. Relatively new. VP Flight Training of PAN AM Airways. in principle. Flight Training of Northwest Orient Airlines.

LOFT involves simulated real-world incidents unfolding in real time. thereby minimising the probability of adverse impact upon the overall safety of the operation. 5 . it is necessary to practise human-error management skills. all available resources. such as high-workload situations. edited by Ronald and Leslie Hurst. However. Similarly. LOFT is casebook training.OBJECTIVES & ADVANTAGES OF LOFT • • • • • • LOFT is the application of line-operations simulation to pilot-training programmes. Some problems have no single. Note: Extracted from the book “PILOT ERROR – THE HUMAN FACTOR” Second Edition . LOFT involves a complete crew. but cockpit resource management is. not a checking programme in which errors are not acceptable. acceptable solution. A LOFT scenario requires the exercise of management skills. LOFT is training in judgment and decisionmaking. handling them is a matter of judgment. the consequences of crew decisions and actions during LOFT scenarios will accrue and impact the remainder of the trip in a realistic manner. each member of which operates as an individual and as a member of a team just as he does during line operations. Manual flying skills are essential prerequisite. LOFT will succeed only as a part of total training and crew education programme that ensures that basic knowledge and skill norms are met. An airline contemplating using the technique would do well to consult the excellent NASA Conference Publication for guideline in developing a programme that can be of positive benefit to the education and training of crews. when it does occur. the presence of error-inducing situations. LOFT is a training and learning experience in which errors will probably be made. LOFT is a combination of high-fidelity aircraft simulation and high-fidelity line-operations simulation. in part. it is also necessary to maximise the probability that error. The techniques now used in both Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line-Oriented Simulation (LOS) are moving closer to the day when total simulation will be reached and the time in the actual aircraft will be used for revenue operations. will be detected and corrected.1982. the former requires flight simulator or airplane. LOFT is resource management training but not skill training. Just as it is necessary to practise landing skills in order to gain and maintain aircrafthandling proficiency. The real success of LOFT programmes will depend on the scenarios that are designed for the use of the crews. Effective resource management recognises that under some circumstances. and utilisation of. steps must be taken to reduce the probability of error. the management of human errors. and the latter. LOFT requires effective interaction with. LIMITATIONS OF LOFT With all the obvious benefits of LOFT but there are still limitations: • • • LOFT will not solve all training problems. The purpose of LOFT is not to induce errors. human errors is likely.

More often than not. PROBLEM OWNERSHIP ACP Capt Albert Koh and Capt (retired) Ken Toft also emphasised to us that when there is an incident or problem presented to you. you must first establish whether that is your problem or someone else is trying to push the “buck” to you.COCKPIT or CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM) SIA takes a serious view of Cockpit or Crew Resource Management. The bottom line is. smoking in the cabin toilet. you must think and assess the situation first. In commercial flying. you should normally have sufficient time to consider various options before you jump into making a decision. two heads (or more) are better than one. This is particularly true when dealing with errant passengers and delays. the ATC. When faced with an aircraft malfunction or abnormal situation in the air or on the ground. information. The more you discuss with them. You simply have to use all your wits to handle such problems. My suggestion is that you should go and meet some of the newly checked out captains and ask them for advice or discuss as many as those scenarios as possible. unruly passenger on-board. rapid decompression due to hull damage or the aircraft is going to crash etc. and that decision is invariably bound to safeguard the lives of the passengers and safety of the aircraft first. the more familiar you become and you will find it a lot easier to handle such human-related problems. CRM in short. “task-master” or “god-like” style of decision making. equipment and people to achieve safe and efficient flight operations” (Especially in a time-constrained environment and under stress). or even the passengers on board. CRM is the effective management of the pilot’s available resources.. It is in your own interest to follow this widely accepted wisdom when making crucial decision in an abnormal situation. actions and behaviours are not encouraged anymore. not aggravating them! 6 . your first officer. time-pressed one such as aircraft on fire in the air. loss of personal property or passports by the passengers etc. can provide you with invaluable information to help you to establish a much better decision than you would otherwise relying solely on your own effort. for all you know there are better qualified people around that can handle that particular problem more efficiently than you know! It may not even be your problem at all! The LOFT instructor is fond of testing your ability in handling technical (engines or APU starting problems) and passenger boarding delays. Teamwork usually produces synergetic results. and unless that situation is a life-threatening. One-man-operation. Do not react immediately. identify the proper ownership of the problem and then use all the available resources at your disposal wisely in the hope of solving these problems. The aircrew are expected to co-operate and work as a team to handle any unforeseeable abnormal situations with the best possible effectiveness. For example. the engineering personnel. The case studies we learnt in the ARM courses had proven this beyond doubt. The official definition of CRM is: “Using all available resources. the cabin crew. safety of the passengers and safety of the aircraft are of paramount importance.

It is imperative that the flight crew must give undivided attention and seriousness to all types of malfunctions. lest you may compound it to a point that is beyond your ability to salvage.g. use the appropriate flight control settings based on the QRH settings. However. (not to react immediately first) and then take a deep breath. in Florida 1972 and United DC-8 crash (landing gear extension) in Portland in 1978. FLIGHT CREW PERFORMANCE DURING AIRCRAFT MALFUNCTIONS Studies have shown that the performance of flight crew is often affected when a malfunction occurs. prescribed procedures (rule-based). usually until STATUS page if applicable. For approach preparation. This comes only with repeated practice whenever possible. e. ATC & Cabin Announcements – Advise ATC and state your next plan of actions clearly so that they can assist you fully in combating the abnormal situation. Often. It has been demonstrated many times that an impulsive response to an EICAS or ECAM warning will invariably lead the command trainee astray in handling a malfunction and with disastrous consequences. even though serious in nature. sometimes it is better to take a deep breath and think for a little while before responding to an EICAS or ECAM warning. You should endeavour to make your PA at a timely moment and with a calm and reassuring voice. the flight crew’s response to a serious malfunction is handled better and usually i.w. 7 . when handling malfunctions of a less serious nature. typically an EICAS or ECAM or other external visual or audio warning (though not necessary all the time!). often leading to loss of situational awareness. you should do the following: EICAS/ECAM Warning – Carry out the actions as per the QRH or relevant actions. Some experienced captains suggest that when you have a third level ECAM warning. Landing With Abnormal Flight Controls – The secondary effects of a system loss usually mean flight control or lift augmentation devices problem. Landing Distance & Speed Corrections – To cater for degraded aircraft performance due to essential services lost. we all know that at that crucial moment. perhaps the first thing you should do is to put your hands below your thighs. Eastern L-1011 crash (nose gear light). can still afford some time for one to think through the problem and situation.a. Invariably you have to respond to some sort of warning(s). Make a PA to reassure and pacify the passengers. maintaining the flight path and keeping clear of ground are even more critical. HANDLING A MALFUNCTION OR ABNORMAL SITUATION There are certain well thought out patterns in handling a malfunction. flight crew tend to be less conformal to rules and more easily distracted. Most abnormal situations. look at the EICAS or ECAM display and then assess the nature of the malfunction. I think the moral of the story here is clear.REACTION TO THE ONSET OF A MALFUNCTION OR ABNORMAL SITUATION When a malfunction occurs. and follow prescribed handling procedures. think before you leap into the problem. we do not carry out the EICAS or ECAM actions until passing 400ft after takeoff. Even with a third level warning such as IN FLT ENGINE FIRE.

RECOMMENDED EMERGENCY PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENTS (PA) In the normal checklist. you may even have to consider forced landing or ditching before losing control of the airplane. The time saved in rushing things is typically insignificant as compared to handling the same situation in a well-paced and thorough manner. There are many notes written by my predecessors regarding the management of abnormal checklist actions. Note: This coordinated and well-orchestrated skill comes only with practice. as long as the airplane is under control and there is sufficient fuel on board. so that you can make an emergency transmission. you have to pace the PNF as to where and when to ask him to hold and to continue. time-constrained). it only makes things worse.TIMELY COORDINATED ACTIONS ON EICAS/ECAM. e. while you are having a shower! Unless English is your mother tongue. “After Emergency Landing or Rejected Takeoff”. IN FLT ENG FIRE . Never rush to do things in an abnormal situation. TWO ENG INOPERATIVE (B744/A340) or SINGLE ENG INOPERATIVE (B777/A310). More self help in the flight simulator will help to develop this essential skill.EXTINGUISAHBLE (Fire hazards). say. timely radio calls and PA to the passengers and cabin crew. and making your decision in a most expeditious and safe manner. so that you can get them out of the way quickly and spend more time in handling the abnormal situation instead.g. 8 . QRH AND PA In a LOFT scenario. it pays to do so! LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE The nature of some abnormal situations dictates that you have to land as soon as possible. or an ATC call. and at the same time tying up with other essential actions that are not mentioned in the checklist procedures. it will help you tremendously if you develop a sensible pattern of carrying out the EICAS/ECAM actions and backing them up with the QRH (for any additional items). “Ditching Announcement”. public announcement. Practise them often. “Rapid Decompression“ etc. ATC or engineering help etc. DUAL HYD SYS LO PR (Flight control problems). The electronic and the paper checklists are soul-less guides. • • • • • UNCONTAINED AIRCRAFT FIRE (Extremely time-critical fire hazard) ALL UNCONTAINED SMOKE PROBLEMS (Non removable smoke is a fire hazard) SERIOUS HULL DAMAGE (Questionable structural Integrity) ALL ENGINES FLAMED OUT – UNABLE TO RELIGHT (Time-constrained) FLIGHT ON BAT ONLY (Must Land within 30 mins before the batteries die!) The following situations are not as time critical. you must still carry out your EICAS/ECAM actions and checklist items. DYING PASSENGER (Medical case. But there are exceptions: The following are time critical situations that you have to land as soon as possible. • • • • • LOSS OF MAJOR ELECTRICS (Electrical problems). you have time to think before you act. there are some recommended emergency announcements such as: “Emergency Landing”. The ability to do just that is one aspect of the command qualities the Company is looking for in you. It is definitely an asset to be fluent with such “Speeches” when called for. requesting for weather information. or a PA to the passengers. Having said so.

Most LOFT scenarios will result in diverting to elsewhere. Communicate – You must convey your intention to your first officer. depending on the nature of the abnormal situation you encounter. If you are not entirely happy with the outcome of your actions. Cool and Collect! Otherwise. The one C you never want to be associated with is “Crash!”. Assess the situation. CONTROL YOUR OWN F. There are many things to consider before you make that crucial decision to press on or to divert. if the aircraft is suffering from a serious technical malfunction that you have no choice but to land as soon as possible. i. However. to deliver the passengers to their destination. fly the aircraft. you may have to make an emergency landing where help can be rendered to save his/her life. Your good composure will also have a Calming effect on your first officer and other supporting crewmembers. you should at least control your own “FATE”: • • • • F A T E Fly the aircraft. Your decision making process should at least cover the following: • • • • • • • Aircraft status. perhaps you can organise your action plans using the six Cs. Or. be Calm. Evaluate the results. ATC.e. distance to go and fuel on board Actual weather conditions Runway length (landing distance available) Landing aids (ILS. Course Of Actions – You must now map out your course of actions.E.T. If you don’t believe in all those “C”s. you will have difficulties discharging the first five Cs. All these will affect your decision making process whether to press on to destination or to divert. i.e. i. Contain – You must contain the abnormal situation. Composed – You must maintain your composure all the time. carry out the ECAM and QRH checklist actions etc to stop the situation from worsening. Sometimes the nearest airport may not be the suitable one to land. Take appropriate action.e. Control – You must bring the situation under control. 9 . THE SIX “C”s – Plus other “C”s To sum up what I just said. go through the FATE cycle again. which I learned and adapted from suggestions by IP Capt Philip Chua: • • • • • • Command – Immediately assume command and take charge of the situation.A. although not necessarily always. All these six Cs will increase your chance of a successful situation recovery.DIVERSION PLANS As a captain you have the moral responsibility to accomplish your mission. Ground Engineer of what to do and how best to assist you etc. VOR or NDB approaches) Fire fighting and rescue capability Engineering support and passenger handling Flight time limitations You can always devise your own mnemonics to help you remember all the essential points and actions to carry out. i.e. if a passenger is critically ill and requires urgent medical attention on ground. Press on? Divert? Or return to base? etc. cabin crew.

before making a decision. An expert in aircraft safety and accident investigation. The pilot evaluates the effect of the action on the change and on the progress of the flight. The formal definition of Good Judgment is: “The mental ability to perceive and distinguish alternatives. Observation. a wrong decision can cause an incident. Ph D. The capacity to make reasonable decision.000hr pilot can be as vulnerable as the 1000-hr pilot to a habit of poor judgment.” Good Pilot Judgment Can Be Learned: Just as you learn the mechanics of flight. Jensen for more information. based on your good judgment and your CRM skills. simply because the foundation of good judgment is formed by each person’s thought patterns. DECISION MAKING & CRM Therefore. Summary Of Good Judgment: To summarise. Ultimately your decision is to make a safe landing and save lives. Some pilots can’t always accomplish that. THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS Shari Stamford Krause. Note: Pilot Judgment can be further broken down to “Rational Judgment” & “Motivational Judgment”. The terms are not interchangeable. Understand the differences between correct & incorrect alternatives to a solution. so too you can learn how to have good judgment. recommends the following “DECIDE” Model. you may read the book “Pilot Judgment & Crew Resource Management” by Richard S. Wisdom. The pilot estimates the significance of the change to the flight. cause an accident or disaster that results in losing your own life. This is especially true when you have to decide whether to press on. prone to mistakes. Remember.” Whereas. This is the reason why a 20. The pilot chooses a safe outcome of the flight. Do not rely on the one-man-operation instinct. Conversely. • • • • • • Detect: Estimate: Choose: Identify: Do: Evaluate: The pilot detects the fact that a change has occurred that requires attention. The pilot acts on the best options. More heads are usually better than one. the core of the definition is to perceive and distinguish between correct and incorrect decisions.DEFINING GOOD JUDGMENT & DECISION MAKING There is a difference between having good judgment and making a good decision. you should. gather information from various sources first. The pilot identifies plausible actions to the change. Recognition. but it is beyond my scope here. good judgment is as follows: • • • • Awareness. the definition of a Decision is: “The act of reaching a conclusion or making up one’s mind. in the worst case. I really do not know how to put this across any better than what I’d already said… 10 . turn back or divert. when faced with an abnormal situation. your passengers’ and other innocent lives on the ground! We are mere mortal souls.

and recommendations. but it can be done. airmanship skills. the pilot can generally make himself/herself believe that it was all right to do it. 11 . Many pilots fail to make proper decisions. Acquiring aeronautical knowledge. articles in magazines. when it is too windy. In addition to the FAR. or performing a high speed. Successful decision making is measured by a pilot's consistent ability to keep himself. or refusing a revenue flight when it would require flying in marginal weather. low altitude pass). and Biennial Flight Reviews. Aviation has reached a new plateau. Airman's Information Manual. AC's. books written by expert pilots and instructors. human lives are held in the balance. Good judgment may mean not flying while under the influence of any medication. Not following this safety-oriented information is similar to not following the advice of a doctor or lawyer. sometimes due to a lack of knowledge. but too often the result of a human tendency to rationalize a situation until it appears justifiable. When a pilot operates an aircraft. Airworthiness Directives. and proficiency are relatively easy. A pilot can be his/her own worst enemy. Navigation has been reduced to calculator simplicity. When a pilot really wants to do something (such as loading that one last passenger when close to maximum gross weight. Pilots. and the aircraft in good condition regardless of the conditions of any given flight. any passengers. there are some do's and do not's that can ensure the prevention of most accidents. by learning and adhering to these published rules and procedures. Today's technology requires administrative management and aeronautical decision making skills as prerequisites for safety and efficiency. The most important decision a pilot will make is to learn and adhere to published rules. procedures. Modern autopilots and electronic displays have significantly reduced a pilot’s workload. NOTAM's. All of this information is safety-oriented. Therefore.DEVELOPMENT OF GOOD DECISION MAKING SKILLS The development of good decision making skills is far more difficult than developing good flying skills. can take most hazards out of flying. a pilot has a moral responsibility to operate in the safest possible manner. Pilot Proficiency Programs.

Lapses are unintended and often are caused by inattention or inadequate association at the time the item was learned. The operational definitions were derived from James Reason's works and other sources. Operational definitions of the concepts are provided below in alphabetical order. This condition can cause confusion and delay appropriate decision making if the person is not aware of the parameter change. discount contradictory evidence and stop searching once the confirming evidence is found. the outcome will be averting the situation and saving one’s skin. and the tendency to search for those cues more actively than for other cues. Knowledge-based Mistake . accident or disaster! Human behaviors can perhaps be classified into various operational definitions as many aviation psychologists do.The expectation of perceiving certain environmental cues.OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOURS & ERRORS When human beings and other mammals are subjected to a life threatening situation. Automatic Behaviour . This instinctive built-in defensive reaction will either save their skins or lead them to fatal mistakes.An error of omission in which an item previously known is forgotten. Continued Next Page 12 .A higher type of thinking. A knowledge-based mistake arises from incomplete or incorrect knowledge. not only what he or she has experienced in the past but also the situations that most readily come to mind.An error of commission in which the action proceeds as planned but the plan is inappropriate for the situation.A situation in which one or more parameters of a problem change. Metacognitive .A problem-solving mechanism in which an individual is influenced by. But bad judgment and the lack of situational awareness leads to bad decision making and finally culminating in making mistakes that lead to incident. Confirmation Bias . Good judgment plus situational awareness lead to good decision making. The confirmation bias can cause a person to search selectively for evidence to confirm an underlying belief. Metacognition refers to the monitoring and control of one's own thought processes and habit patterns. requiring a person to find a new solution. operation or situation and the rules of interaction between them. Mental Model . thinking about thinking. When a skill is highly learned perhaps because it has been practiced for years .the skill becomes automated and requires minimal conscious awareness and minimal application of mental effort. Concept Shift .A rote action performed without awareness or intent. their usual reaction will either be “fight” or “flight” from the situation.An individual's understanding of the elements of a system. Availability Heuristic . Lapse . and bases decisions on. automatic behavior can lead to inattention and error. Although automatic behavior allows a person to accomplish a task while thinking about something else.

Bonding individual crewmembers into a team in which each crewmember contributes and facilitates teamwork. Many pilots perished “bought the farm” because they made fundamental mistakes. I am certainly not qualified and I may be just as prone as anybody when it comes to facing this question of how to fight against making errors and mistakes. regardless of perceived cues.The tendency of a person encountering a new situation or event to be influenced by. similar information from other situations or events recently encountered. Vigilance Tuning . Slips are unintended and often are caused by inattention at the time of action. Slip . Rule-based Mistake . and to base decisions on. Note: Extracted from the book “Human Error” by James Reason. 13 . by understanding some of these underlying thought patterns and behaviours. A rule-based mistake typically occurs when misclassification of a situation leads to application of an inappropriate rule or to incorrect memory of procedures.Expectations that predispose a person to a certain course of action and/or thought. we hope that we are better predisposed to cope. Team Building . Therefore I urge all of you to take some time off to read some flight safety related materials that are readily available in the net as well as in the bookstores. Thought Pattern .Efforts by each crewmember to work with other crewmembers during the flight. Team Participation . a rule that is inappropriate for the situation.w. HOW DO WE COMBAT ERROR-MAKING TENDENCIES? It will be a tall order for me to teach you how to prevent errors from being made.Recency Bias .An error of commission in which the action does not proceed as planned. Let us just hope that they did not die in vain by offering many invaluable lessons for us to learn. Attitude and mind-set are related terms that often are used synonymously.An error of commission i. They are the windows to better flight safety awareness.Identifying the important items in a situation that require increased attention and monitoring.a. However.

I must land this damn aircraft.” Impulsivity: This attitude is found in pilots who act too quickly. Resignation or Complacency: This attitude is found in pilots who believe that they have little or no control over their circumstances.” It’s unlikely that they would take charge of a situation. “It won’t happen to me. “By hook or by crook. no time to waste.” Invulnerability: This attitude is found in pilots who act as though nothing bad can happen to them. Many pilots feel the accidents happen to others but never happen to them. Many pilots are so mission-oriented to the point of disregarding flight safety in attempting just to accomplish the mission. or at least alleviating these thought patterns is by simply recognising what thought patterns and attitudes you are most vulnerable to.D. chances are you can exercise self-control and prevent from any of these thought patterns from manifesting themselves and becoming bigger and harder to contain. especially in the cockpit. They might feel.” Press-On-Itis: (Or Get-Home-Itis) The urge to complete a task or mission regardless of the surrounding circumstances. That is what makes up of our individual personalities. and “Redefining Airmanship” by Tony Kern. NASA. Macho: This attitude is found in pilots who continually try to prove themselves better than others. “What’s the use?” These pilots might also deny that a problem is as it appears and believe. Conversely. They have a tendency to disregard rules and procedures. • • • • • Note: You can download a copy of the FAA ADM from ALPA-S website or write to me. • Anti-authority: This attitude is found in pilots who resent any external control over their actions. a pilot who exhibits several of such thought patterns and attitudes and does not really care about the consequences. is where the problem lies. Another common feeling is. the FAA... They tend to act with overconfidence and attempt difficult task for the admiration it gains them. “It’s not as bad as they say. A sixth thought pattern is also added by another aviation safety expert. who tend to do the first thing that pops up in their mind.PILOT JUDGMENT AND AERONAUTICAL DECISION MAKING (ADM) In recent years. now!” It appears that aborting a mission for safety reasons or a go-around constitutes a loss of face. Ph. The result was the development of the FAA’s ADM training guide. COUNTERING HAZARDOUS THOUGHT PATTERNS AND ATTITUDES Granted. One of the best ways to begin eliminating. If you are a normal. an accident waiting to happen! Note: Adapted and modified from the book “Aircraft Safety” by Shari Stamford Krause. But the degree to which we display these patterns. Those who think this way are merely taking chances and running unwise risk. “I must act now. 14 . and they might even go along with unreasonable requests just to be a nice guy. he is indeed a very dangerous pilot! He is a flying time bomb. CANADA Transport and private research facilities have collectively addressed the issues of pilot judgment and aeronautical decision making (ADM). disciplined person who adheres to rules and procedures. The infamous “Watch This!”. I can’t let them down. “The regulations and SOPs are not for me. “They are counting on me. Five hazardous thought patterns and attitudes were identified that affect judgment abilities.” Famous last words. most pilots exhibit traces of these hazardous thought patterns once in a while.

You have to be disciplined to do that. the timely application of what you know in tackling an abnormal situation is essential. AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE I again stress the importance of having a solid foundation of the aircraft technical. Practise your manual loadsheet calculations. e. Note: Talk to freshly checked out commanders in how to deal with passenger boarding delay. Some aviation experts suggest that we should formulate an annual study plan. more important. passenger smoking in the cabin or toilet. LOSS OF BOTH ENG GENERATORS (A310). you would have covered most of the aircraft technical.CHECKLIST DISCIPLINE I do not wish to give the impression that you should deviate from the Company approved practices. Some malfunctions’ checklists are long and tedious. you should read and digest the Company operational and fuel policies. you are likely to possess good judgment and make better decisions when called for. anti-skid/spoilers inoperative and other weight correction problems at least once a month. there is no shortcut other than the shortcut to doom! Knowing just the technical is not enough. COMPANY PHILOSOPHY. the DUAL HYD SYS LO PR (A310) etc. bomb on board. I have the following suggestions: Read one chapter of FCOM a week. In a year. You will be tested on how you handle all these problems in the LOFTs as well. is now strongly promoted by many major airlines all over the world. Resignation: What's the use? ANTIDOTE Follow the rules. missing passport or no show passengers with cargo bags loaded. BE A DISCIPLINED.THE ANTIDOTES AGAINST HAZARDOUS ATTIDUTES HAZARDOUS ATTITUDE Antiauthority: Don't Tell Me. dangerous goods etc. FAM. They are usually right. and to cover specific chapters and topics projected against a given month. covering the Flight Manuals. FAM. FCTM. unruly behaviour. but you have no choice. there is no other ways than the “Read all of them up” way. 15 . you need not go to the other extreme and attempt to be a ground engineer trying to know every nut and bolt of the airplane either. FSI as well as other relevant reading materials. POLICIES & PROCEDURES . e. Make sure that the goal you set for yourself is an achievable one. This disciplined approach to master your own airplane. you must duly complete all the QRH items with no exception! It is imperative that you and your FO must carry out the EICAS/ECAM and QRH actions conscientiously and never take shortcuts. begin with the less common ones. You must follow the checklist procedures. be conversant with them. Taking chances is foolish. when armed with these background knowledge. Not so fast. Granted. I'm not helpless.g. In fact whenever you have an aircraft malfunction. safety and security matters as well. Read one QRH checklist per day. passenger complaints. Think first It could happen to me.g. Go through the cycle again. Impulsivity: Do something quickly. critically ill or dying passenger in flight. The longest journey always begins with the first step. It is one of the main pillars of knowledge to enhance one’s situational awareness. as in CRM. I believe this is the only way to know your stuff. these are the boring stuff.g. The reward is. In LOFT. “Know-Your-Stuff” PILOT If you want to have all the aircraft technical knowledge at your fingertips. You have no choice but to finish them accordingly. I can make a difference. which is not too difficult or asking too much on yourself. e. It is absolutely essential for pilots to know the technicals of the aircraft they are operating. Invulnerability: It won’t happen to me Macho: I can do it. Revise those special operations you rarely encounter in normal line operations at least once a quarter. Sure.

If you are one of those who are used to being passive and non-assertive to the captains you worked with before. The instructor can always vary the LOFT scenario and you will be thrown off guard. Command.COMMAND TRAINING PROGRAMME From the FCTM. the purpose of this note I wrote here is exactly the same. a bad decision is better than no decision made. Those who are always proactive as first officers before will have little difficulty adapting to the new ball game. During line operations and in LOFTs/LOAs. Every LOA will be assessed and every LOA counts. the consent from your colleague who is doing the LOFT. Having said so. ultimately. you have to do well in all the subsequent LOAs before you will be given a shot at the FINAL COMMAND LOFT prior to checking out as a commander. Do not pre-empt. The best stand to take is to treat your LOFT or LOA as a real flight. using your own technical knowledge and skill. only use it as a guide. and handle any abnormal situation as it comes along. you really got to shake yourself off that. Many command trainees have fallen prey to this before. Do not appear hesitant and indecisive. One common pitfall faced by some command trainees was relying too much on the “10-year series” and blindly following or pre-empting the outcome as their predecessors did. That’s not what they want. There is nothing wrong in reading up the “10-year series” so long as you use them only as a guide. Perhaps with the exception of LOA 1. It is helpful to watch each other’s practice LOFT sessions and listen to the instructor’s debrief. do not wait for things to happen. assessing the real time situation and make your decision and take your own course of actions. This will surely lead to your downfall. you are in fact the acting commander. the instructor is there merely to assess and see whether you behave otherwise! Be fearless in making decisions. Be decisive! Take charge! Three more Cs here. instead of blaming yourself for goofing the exercise. Spend your precious time and energy in preparing for the next LOA instead. but prior permission must be obtained from the instructor first. and of course. you have to use your own wits and resolve to tackle the LOA! FIRST OFFICER MENTALITY (or CO-PILOT SYNDROME) – SHAKE IT OFF FAST! Many instructors had commented that some command trainees faced difficulties initially in their training mainly because they were still not used to the sudden new found responsibility of being an acting commander. they can still be of help as reference materials. It is in your own interest to stop behaving like a first officer from now on. command training comprises of no less than 5 LOAs and several additional practice LOFTs from Phase 2 onwards. quickly learn the lessons and move on. If you fumble in one LOA. Control and Communicate! 16 . as a command trainee. do not despair. You must aim to do well in all the LOAs. Note: Do not follow your predecessors blindly! This is a serious trap. FAST! Make things happen for you.

STRESS COPING . You certainly will face a lot of stress and you must learn to cope. they really do help. Command training is inherently stressful. find a way to relieve it. Who can you blame when your entire future flying career is being put under a microscope with such close scrutiny for so long a period! Good stress-management is the key to a successful completion of the command training programme. but gauging when too much stress will affect your ability to aviate is a key to knowing yourself. It is probably the least understood and yet the most crucial factor. The amount of positive help and understanding from the family can make a big difference in your performance and endurance in the programme. succumbing to stress will have serious detrimental effects. The burden of severe psychological stress alone can exceed an aviator’s capacity to cope. include them too. 17 . Try to relax before and during the LOFT exercise. If your children are old enough to understand. Do not make plans for anything disruptive such as moving home (or even having a baby!). When the stress level is building up. De-stressing yourself is a must. emphasise that there will be many occasions when you need to be away from home either doing self-help or be involved in discussions with you colleagues. stress will have a serious negative effect in your performance and well being. the anxiety and distress caused directly by the training you are undergoing. Go out occasionally and have a drink with your friends. You can relax by listening to music. even your health. In particular. you will be surprised how much better you can perform if your mind and body are in a relaxed state. exercise regularly and keep fit. watch a movie with your family. If not handled properly. As I have mentioned earlier. So it is absolutely necessary that you must learn to cope with the stress involved. All command trainees experienced stress. some suffered more than others.RELAX! LEARN HOW TO DE-STRESS YOURSELF Stress is the physical and mental demand on your body.FAMILY SUPPORT Spend time to have your spouse understand the importance of the command training. This is a sacrifice only for a few months.

For this pilot. In this example. A superior pilot uses superior judgment to avoid stressful situations which might call for use of superior skills. is based on a pilot's ability to cope with the situation. the pilot is susceptible to an environmental overload. A generalized stress reaction can develop as a result of accumulated stress. Stress is cumulative. There is a limit to a pilot's adaptive nature. If the number or intensity of the stressors becomes too great. a pilot's performance begins to decline and judgment deteriorates. a cold and fatigue may reduce the minimal margin of safety as well as the overall margin of safety throughout the flight. Accidents often occur when flying task requirements exceed a pilot's capabilities. when in fact there are subtle signs that the pilot is beyond his/her ability to respond appropriately.HANDLING STRESS IN FLYING. The difference between pilot capabilities and task requirements is the margin of safety (See diagram below). the margin of safety is minimal during the approach under ideal conditions. This limit. the stress tolerance level. Stress is insidious. so slowly that stress can be well established before becoming apparent. Stress has a gradual and cumulative effect that develops slowly. A pilot may think that he/she is handling everything quite well. Personal Capabilities Over Time RISK Margin Of Safety Effort TAXY TAKE OFF CLIMB CRUISE DESCENT APPROACH LANDING TAXY TO GATE A TYPICAL FLIGHT PROFILE 18 . At this point.

if not impossible.g. Some pilots break rules simply for the immediate gratification of some emotional need. speeding. or family problems? Have I been drinking within 8 hours? Within 24 hours? Am I tired and not adequately rested? Have I eaten enough of the proper foods to keep adequately nourished during the entire flight? Reaching a consensus on all matters within the aviation community can prove difficult. Fatigue. Have I been taking prescription or over the counter drugs? Stress. driven by his or her own emotions. THE "I'M SAFE" CHECKLIST Illness. however. emotionally unbalanced pilot has strong tendencies to satisfy a personal need regardless of the consequences.). Even though the rules and procedures are designed to serve most of the people most of the time. Eating. Do I have any symptoms? Medication. personality traits that cause irrational behavior also make pilots prone to disregard the rules that would assure safe operations. a pilot should be an emotionally stable person who can accept the fact that he/she is not in possession of all facts or skills for all situations and be willing to accept the recommendations of those who specialize in evaluating. overeating. Existing rules would go a long way to remedy the accident rate. Alcohol. However. and administering aviation procedures. When a pilot exhibits one or more of the five hazardous attitudes or irrational behavior. smoking. that pilot may also be exposing any emotional weaknesses in his/her personality. 19 . assessing. a pilot can always argue for different ways of doing things. health. mature pilot will accept and follow the rules and procedures which will benefit the aviation community.HOW TO BE A SAFE PILOT A pilot does not have to be a genius to be a safe pilot. Even though the pilot may know that this emotional need is not considered a healthy habit (e. Am I under psychological pressure from the job? Do I have money. nonetheless. the pilot is. etc. The immature. An experienced.

and transmitting feedback to us from the Management regarding our progress in the programme. if you always have a reason to rebuff what they point out to you! THE UN-TEACHABLE: Most people will only regard such defensive acts and attitudes as being “un-teachable” and irritating. Capt Geoffrey Yzelman was our mentor. he was a keen listener to our problems. who even spent his precious personal free time to render extra help to us by conducting many extra LOFT sessions in the flight simulator. You can also discuss stress management with them. They have conducted many command training courses over the years. Perhaps it was our fortune to have such a selfless mentor. Being too defensive or full of excuses is a sure way to be reactivated as an FO back to your original Fleet! THEY KNOW THEIR JOB: Let’s face it. so do not blame them with things such as “Personality clash”. never be defensive. if you have all the attributes to be one! Note: Recently. being a command trainee. Never argue. ALPA-S has also introduced a counseling service for pilots concerning welfare as well as flying matters. Just listen. when this invisible tag is placed on your neck. quickly learn and correct those mistakes the instructors pointed out to you. Captain Allan Ong and other trained counselors are the men to speak to if you need any specific help concerning your command training or personal problems. I am essentially quoting what DFO Capt Maurice De Vaz told us. “So and so does not like my face”. Management would like to see all of you making it. learn and fix those weaknesses in you. you are in serious trouble indeed. Otherwise. “Do I have those problems?” If the answer is a “YES”. and then to terminate and cast you off. no effort will be spared and all available resources will be utilised to make sure that you make it. IS THE COMMAND TRAINING PROGRAMME FAIR? Honestly. Therefore. spend time and resources to train you. it is in your own interest to seek advice and assistance from your line instructors as well as your LOFT instructors. the instructors or Management are people with a lot more A310 flying experience than you. especially in those critical moments. Problems developed at the final stages of command training are more difficult to overcome. you should look in the mirror and ask yourself that soul-searching question. and he was a huge pillar of support to all of us.WHEN YOU ARE TOLD YOU HAVE A PROBLEM (or WEAKNESS) ADMIT IT! If you are told you are having problems with your command training. especially in areas mentioned during their debrief sessions with you that might have strong impact in your performance appraisal and grading. 20 . Ultimately what is most important is that you must first be able to recognise your own weakness and problem. your mentor is your best bet in problem solving concerning yourself. (Check it out on the ALPAS website). Never give up. start working straight away to overcome them. otherwise how are you supposed to fix them if you do not know they exist in the first place? THE MENTOR – YOUR BEST FRIEND: All of us found the mentor-trainee relationship especially beneficial during our command training. They know their job. it does not quite make sense to select you. PROBLEM SPOTTING & RECOGNITION: Problems that are spotted in the early phases have a better chance of being fixed simply because you have more time to work on it. You better believe it! Do not give silly excuses and try to defend yourself. “He is biased!” etc. Otherwise they might as well promote you to the rank of captain without this training programme. Instead. Discuss your areas of concern with your mentor.

This is one essential skill in tackling LOFT. While doing unsupervised self help. good command decision-making pattern without guesswork.SELF HELP IN THE SIMULATOR – (Practice Makes Perfect) The best thing that ever happened to us was when the Management allowed the FOs and command trainees to make use of the flight simulators’ idle slots for self help. practising your LOFT scenarios during self-help will enable you to establish a sensible. It is important that you must spend as much time as you possibly can to “bash” at the flight simulator with your coursemates. you just make full use of the flight simulator to familiarise with all the possible malfunctions and abnormal situations. doing practice LOFT amongst the command trainees without supervision do have some disadvantages. The result is time saving and sparing your brain to engage in more profitable activities when the crunch comes. I hope! Otherwise the opposite may result. One word of caution. When used properly. Without the flight simulator to practise the various LOFT scenarios or to better appreciate many of those complex malfunctions. One good way of enabling them to know what you are about to do is to say it out clearly and precisely what you intend to do. do not be too carried away as to who is doing better than who. This holds true even in a real emergency situation. He is one asset that all of you must utilise to the fullest. do watch out for the other extreme of talking too much with too many disjointed and confusing words that you end up having a verbal diarrhea! The secret is to be concise with your choice of words! The reward is good communications that leave no doubts to your instructor and supporting FO of your intentions and actions. it will be even more beneficial if you can get him to help you in the flight simulator whenever possible. instruments and c/b position. However. since none of you are “good” enough to really assess how well or how bad you perform amongst yourselves. All command trainees must make periodic arrangements to meet up with their mentor to discuss all matters pertaining to command training. there is a danger that all of you may in fact be “groping in the dark” or “a blind leading another blind” and yet thinking that things are going well when in fact it may not be so. You are encouraged to do self-critique amongst yourselves but with the clear mutual understanding that the idea is to learn and to spot the mistakes. not forming new ones. 21 . and make full use of it to develop sensible action patterns and to iron out your common errors and bad habits. it would certainly mean a much harder endeavour to pass the command training. VERBALISING YOUR THOUGHTS (BEFORE THE ACTIONS) It is essential that the instructor and your supporting FO are aware of your thoughts and decision making process during a LOFT session. I shall elaborate on that later. It was only made possible a few years back by the former ADFO(T) Capt Leonard McCully. If your mentor is an SIP of the same Fleet. you should always leave the assessment part to the SIPs/IPs and Management. His comments and critiques on your practice LOFT will be invaluable. It will also help you to familiarise with all the cockpit switches. and not “compete” to be the top gun in your course! There is no trophy or first prize.

the ECAM provides good actions feedback for QRH actions to be carried out by the PNF. perhaps other than just rolling your eyeballs momentarily to glance at the left ECAM display to confirm the actions feedback (A310). with one engine out and the remaining engine running at TOGA power. In the worst case. do watch out for the lurking danger of developing some undesirable bad habits if you are not disciplined enough. a total loss of flight control may result. After which you must quickly refocus your eyes on the primary flight instruments again and control the flight path. if an engine fails after V1 during takeoff. 22 . A concerted effort is necessary on the pilot flying to scan the primary flight instruments continuously and to adjust rudder pedal force and constant trimming and retrimming the rudder as the speed begins to build up at acceleration altitude.e. meanwhile keeping the PFD’s “triangle” and “tee-pee” matched and wings almost level. For the A310. by rolling his eyeballs to look at the left ECAM display to confirm that the QRH actions are carried out accordingly. Therefore. It is natural for command trainees to let their defensive guards down during unsupervised self help sessions and sub-consciously allowing such bad habits to take root. The PF is strongly discouraged from taking his eyes off the scanning of the flight instruments. i. There were many occasions where command trainees were sucked into such bad habits and allowed the aircraft to depart. Tips: Always scan your instruments. One of the worst habits that subtly crept in among us was the tendency of not scanning the instruments during engine out exercise with autopilot off with only basic flight instruments available. you also need to put in almost full or full opposite rudder at speeds close to V2 or V2 + 10kt. The PF needs only to take a quick glance. Otherwise momentary departure from the flight path is very common.000lb of thrust each. doing so doing would only be at the detriment of good instrument flying. the powerful asymmetric yaw can be a real challenge to control. The result: Reinforcing the instructor’s impression of you displaying less than desired manual flying ability. Apart from keeping the aircraft attitude at ≈11° nose up. never turn your head and take your eyes off the primary flight instruments unnecessarily. or at least causing a momentary loss of flight path control. This flying technique applies to virtually any glass-cockpit aircraft. Develop this disciplined habit early and you will have won half the battle already. or when making EFIS and FCU changes. It is not necessary to look up at the overhead panel or turn your head to look at the PNF. The design of the PFD and the ND displays allow rapid scanning and good instrument flying provided the pilot flying can observe and follow the good basics. This is equally true for the B744 with two engines inoperative on the same side. disciplined. • Watch Out For Bad Habits Forming Subtly During Unsupervised Self-help Sessions: I have mentioned the benefits of self help earlier.B744 WITH TWO ENG INOPERATIVE OR A310 WITH ONE ENG OUT • One Engine Out With No Autopilot: The A310 is equipped with two powerful Pratt & Whitley 4000 Series engines that can deliver 52. However. constant scanning of the instruments without turning one’s head and eyeballs away unnecessarily.MANUAL FLYING .

it is still not too late to change! CRM – Be an “ACRO” commander! You need to rally all resources available to help you solve your line oriented problems and emergencies. cabin crew. cabin crew. you are the pilot-in-command of a multi-million dollar asset and with hundreds of innocent lives as well as the Company’s reputation that go with it. cabin crew. you will never lose him! Compassion – In commercial flying. They want to see that you are always calm. Continued Next Page • • • • • 23 . otherwise. The benefits of CRM are just incredibly indispensable these days. If your FO makes a mistake. If you are compassionate by nature. and bring him back on track. they must be convinced that you are the man that the Company can trust.WHAT DO THE INSTRUCTORS EXPECT TO SEE IN YOU? It is really no secret that they require you to perform to the standard they expected before they check you out as a commander. you are dealing with a lot of people around you. proficient and competent airliner pilot. You must never lose your composure in a LOFT or you are finished! You must not overload your first officer whilst fighting the emergency. Composure – You must be able to display your composed nature while tackling every conceivable situation. and of the passengers above your self-interest. It will be obvious to them after you have done 3 to 4 LOFTs. all will in one way or another reflecting yourself to the guy sitting behind watching every of your move. you really got to exude that confidence in you. The stake is very high indeed. I shall elaborate on these later. the tone. passengers. That is. in the air and on the ground. you should have no problem. correct him but not censure him. and collect in handling all abnormal situations. All you need is to prove that you are a skilled. ATC and ground staff. like reading a wrong checklist item. Try to be a nice but firm guy. a commander who places the interest of the Company and the welfare of your first officer. You must never “lose” your first officer in an emergency situation. If you can do that. Your FO. pace and loudness of your voice. The fact that you are already a command trainee means that you have already been assessed to have the fundamental flying skills and potential to be a commander. The Company believes that CRM can bring out the best in a commander while working closely with his first officer. ATC etc. Try to give your orders or instructions in a measured and controlled pace. Don’t be surprised that you will be exposed to handle all these people in the LOFTs! The instructor behind will play all these different roles. cool. Remember. Gone are the days of a task-master style of approach to the people supporting your flight operations. he will assess you in how you can display those “Human Relations” traits. the ground engineer. The following are qualities that they are looking for:• Integrity – In line training and simulator training. You must also be a responsible man and possess a strong sense of duty and well-being. Maybe we should give him an OSCAR for that! On a more serious note. A confident pilot means half the battle already won. manifested in the way your body language. It is a very serious business! Technical Knowledge and Flying Skill – You must have the necessary technical background and flying skill to get you out of all envisaged abnormal situations. Confidence – In the flight simulator.

do not lose hope. You must continue to be in command of the situation right down to crash landing or ditching. Let’s assume that you have been told that your character is somewhat less than pleasant. It makes the environment so much more pleasant and conducive for increased productivity.” As defined by Dr. and continue to stay focused on the main task (flying the mission) without losing control of the situation (e. it is already a first positive step taken in the right direction. “SA is like mentally detaching yourself from the seat. As a command trainee. It is natural for people to like working with nice guys. I think you still can do something about it. and still know exactly where you are (spatial orientation). Continue to work on it even after you have checked out as a commander. ceaselessly and conscientiously making efforts to improve those weak areas they pointed out to you. • Pleasant Character – It is difficult to change one’s character in a short period. . even in seemingly hopeless situations like MULTIPLE ENG FLAME OUT and unable to relight. I shall elaborate more on this later. a renowned SA researcher.Manfred Von Richthofen . Whatever primary tasks you are engaged in doing.” ACP Capt Albert Koh said. If.“The Red Baron”. and not just get bogged down by flying alone with a tunneling vision!” Don’t we all know that when we are watching someone doing recurrent or base check in the simulator. As long as you show that you are a keen learner. they will simply have to work harder to improve one’s SA. restless perseverance “. Once you are conscious of yourself and make amends. and actively making plans for the next move to combat that situation with all resources available. people can see that you are making that extra effort. So long as you continue to work on it. you will think and act accordingly better. • Situational Awareness (SA) – “SA is the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space.ceaseless. we seemed to see a lot more (a bigger picture!) than that poor guy in the hot seat? Can you do what Capt Albert Koh has suggested? I believe SA can be developed over time. It is this “Big Picture” qualities we all wish we always had. 24 . We all want to be like the ACRO guy. “Success flourishes only in perseverance . For those who are not endowed with that gift. and the projection of their status in the near future. and imagine moving yourself back behind the seats and then as though you are watching yourself and the FO fly! You will realise that you can see a lot more and appreciate the situation better. There are plenty of such testimonials to attest to this claim.g. you shall prevail in the end. the comprehension of their meaning. you must still have the spare capacity to sense and know what is happening around you and to take whatever actions necessary to combat that situation. You must display that “fight-till-the-end” and “never-give-up” spirits in you. they will do their part to help and see you through. Mica Endsley. in case you are being identified as a “weak” candidate in your course. My own definition of SA is “The ability to think clearly when encountering a situation while your are flying. you will be closely assessed on your situational awareness. handling of the emergency).• Perseverance – You must never show that you are about to give up.

knowing your teammates. Comprehension and Projection. you must remember that SA requires a lot of mental effort. Tony Kern for one strongly believes that it is possible to improve one’s SA. that is. you must also dedicate sufficient energy to fly the aircraft in the real time. such as future routing. Comprehension (You Understand): You understand the immediate implications of the thunderstorm and think about turning the aircraft to avoid it. which almost certain of a good outcome. which allows you to pick the best of the alternatives presented to you. the secret lies in knowing yourself thoroughly. recent researches in this unique subject have brought to light of many lessons learned. as I have mentioned earlier. and be familiar with the environment you are flying in. 25 . Projection (You Think Ahead): You think ahead about the future consequences of avoiding the thunderstorm. in turn. Perception You understand the potential meaning of it. you can see the “Big Picture”. This is all about good airmanship. many people believed that SA could not be taught. In order to improve one’s SA. it allows a good decision to be made. whilst it is important to think ahead and be “ahead of the curve”. it was the kind of “Right Stuff” that Tom Wolfe said you either have it or you don’t.SITUATIONAL AWARENESS EXPANDED From the definition by Dr Mica Endsley. knowing your aircraft. Perception (You Notice): You notice a huge thunderstorm cell is directly ahead of you on your radar screen. Projection THE BIG PICTURE! A practical example of the 3 SA levels – NUTA – (Notice – Understand – Think Ahead). thoroughly understand the pillars of knowledge of you job! A good SA will afford a good judgment. You noticed something has happened. which I am going to talk about soon. It is no use just thinking of the future and forget about the present! In the past. However. In a nutshell. and estimate its possible consequences. passenger comfort etc. Comprehension You think ahead. However. the element of luck not withstanding. as well as managing the risks involved in the flight operations you are in. we know that SA has three levels: Perception.

Airmanship excellence is self-sustaining and contagious. you get better situational awareness and resulting in making decisions based on good judgment. violations of flight discipline create a slippery downhill path towards habitual non-compliance. Team. team. Kern is a renowned aviation historian and an experienced pilot himself). Airmanship is the consistent use of good judgment and well-developed skills to accomplish flight objectives.** WHAT IS EXPERT AIRMANSHIP? There are three fundamental or bedrock principles of expert airmanship. This consistency is founded on a cornerstone of uncompromising flight discipline and developed through systematic skill acquisition and proficiency.e. environment and risk. A high state of situational awareness completes the airmanship picture and is obtained through knowledge of one’s self. It is that simple! **Note: From the book “Redefining Airmanship”. through discipline. to have the maximum amount of “leftover” attention to handle the unexpected distraction. or yours. Airmanship means sharing knowledge. Tony Kern. aircraft. Airmanship goes beyond merely stick and rudder skills. we have a moral obligation to share what works in a high-risk endeavour like flying. Airmanship is preparing us. someday. fun and infectious. Self.e. Beyond which there are five areas of expertise found among expert pilots. skill and knowledge. When all these strong points are focused in place. BEDROCK PRINCIPLES PILLARS OF KNOWLEDGE > Self > Aircraft > Team > Environment > Risk CAPSTONE OUTCOMES > Situational > Awareness AIRMANSHIP Skill > Proficiency > Discipline > > Judgment Airmanship is uncompromising flight discipline. (Dr. we must also be able to recognise the symptoms of lost SA and have the critical actions for recovery “hard-wired” to prevent disaster. 26 . as well as “good hands”. Error-free flying. i. is a mark of an airman. The little bit of information that you pass along may be what saves another’s life. But since any of us can become overloaded. Skill. Good airmanship is not compatible with any flight discipline violations of any kind or of any magnitude. on the Airmanship Model as propounded by the author Dr. All of us should strive to achieve that too. It means honing and refining procedures and techniques to a personal level of excellence at which a missed checklist step or botched radio communication just doesn’t happen anymore. which culminating to expert airmanship. Aircraft. Proficiency and the Discipline to apply them in a safe and efficient manner. Environment and Risk. The pursuit of excellence is exciting. i.

Sadly.” The ACRO commander views his crew from a Theory Y perspective – seeing the first officer and other crew members as individuals liking their work. • • • • • People perform to their best ability. skilled and respected. A high concern for both performance and people on the flight deck. when appropriate. The practice of giving crewmembers a clear understanding of what is expected of them and providing feedback concerning their flight deck performance. Crewmembers are not afraid to make recommendations to commanders. they were also more likely to put the airplane and people at risk because of their over-inflated ego. There is a greater job satisfaction among crewmembers. Effective teamwork produces synergistic behaviour – The total performance of the aircrew is greater than the sum of the performances of the commander. “A team builder. There is mutual respect between an ACRO commander and his crew. A catalyst. and a mentor. a coach. egotistical” haughty individuals. they were truly the “mismatch” of the peopleoriented. An emphasis on two-way communication: the free-flowing give and take of information between commander and crew.** WHAT IS AN “ACRO” COMMANDER? In the ARM 1 Course. emphasis on excellence in performance and task competency. To drive home a point. braggart. who were not only difficult to work with. in the early sixties and seventies. charismatic and competent leader. The practice of using punishment as a “last resort” (after more positive approaches fail) and then to correct mistakes rather than to seek revenge. There is a full utilisation of all available resources by the commander. CRM-conscious “Modern Glass Cockpit Era”! 27 . The ACRO style motivates rather than intimidates people. desiring more responsibility and capable of growth and development if given the opportunity. Professor Marvin Karlins defined “ACRO” characteristics as. a dynamic. where performance in managing flight operation goes far beyond just flying the airplane. these were “foolhardy. An ACRO commander is the preferred style in the modern era of aviation. macho. The encouragement of harmonious interpersonal relationships and teamwork. The impact of ACRO commander style on cockpit performance will result in. • • • • • • • • The desire to create a flight deck environment where crewmembers are valued and encouraged to “become all they are capable of becoming” as aviators. An “ACRO” commander possesses some or all of the following qualities. One aviator characterised the ACRO commander as a person who is able to command respect of his colleagues without demanding it. first officer and the rest of the crew taken together. the “god-like” ACE style of pilots used to reign supreme in the sky and on the ground. A willingness to involve crewmembers in flight deck operations. according to Professor Karlins. self-centred. The tendency to motivate through rewarding appropriate performance and improvement in performance.

the ATC and the airport rescue services displayed the highest standards of airmanship and CRM that managed to save many lives that would otherwise be of certain death. 28 . on 19 July 1989 over Sioux City. Full utilisation of each aviator’s technical and behavioural competences. I have reproduced the abridged findings. cabin crew. In fact. where the disintegrating fan blades completely severed all the hydraulic lines. Leadership which encourages the growth. One outstanding example to heighten this is the ill-fated DC-10 of United Flight 232. It is characterised by the following flight deck behaviours: • • • • Successful interpersonal relations between crew-members that encourages cooperation and teamwork on the flight deck. airmanship and CRM go hand in hand. lessons learnt and practical applications of this incredible episode (see next page). it can be said that airmanship is the individual structure on which CRM builds. As you can see. Effective flight deck communication. a renowned aviation psychologist who conducted many Aircrew Resource Management Courses for SIA pilots and cabin crew. the pilots. A full NTSB report of the story is available elsewhere. goals. The damaged tail-mounted engine caused an incredible “oneto-a-billion” chance catastrophic total hydraulic systems failure. practising effective airline and personal effectively with people. development and active participation of all crew members in coordinated flight deck operations. ARM and CRM are synonymous. Technical Skills S ynergism In A ction Behavioural Skills *self-other interface *leadership *communication S afety In A viation S atisfaction In A viation **Note: Extracted from ARM 1 materials given by Professor Marvin Karlins. In the ensuing events.** WHAT IS SYNERGISTIC FLIGHT DECK MANAGEMENT? It is a procedure for maximising airline safety and aircrew job satisfaction through creation of a cockpit atmosphere conducive to high quality performance and rewarding interpersonal relations. The Company’s Model for aircrew effectiveness is: “Achieving Synergistic Flight Deck Management” SKILL + INTERACTION = ACHIEVEMENT Individual competencies to The aircrew working together Accomplishment of fly the airplane and work as a team. flight deck management.

Use all of your resources: • Work as a team. Analyses. Tap into your fellow pilots’ knowledge. There were no disjointed comments. 110 passengers and 1 flight attendant died in the crash.Written by Shari Stamford Krause. Communicate clearly and directly. it was indeed a miracle that the death toll was not much higher! Flight Crew Performance: The National Transport Safety Board believed that under the circumstances.D) Footnote: If you are really keen. the cockpit crew’s effort alone would not have been sufficient to get the aircraft to the airport without the steady guidance (and calming influence) of one controller from Sioux City Approach.” Capt Haynes also mentioned that. The captain had commented that tensions were high.” Lessons leant and practical applications: No better lessons can be learned from this accident than those described by Capt Haynes himself. the captain then has the opportunity to evaluate the problem and make sound decisions. you may also write to me for a 86-page full NTSB report on this episode written in MS Word document format. They maintained vigilant of the situation throughout the flight. the “flightcrew’s performance was highly commendable and greatly exceeded reasonable expectation. This applies to the entire flight crew. & Applications” . Mr Kevin Bauchman. Capt Haynes final advice to us: “Use them (your crew and ATC. Every crew member from Flight 232 communicated in a clear manner. but the remaining 185 survived. Don’t keep an emergency situation a secret. 29 . skill. As noted in CRM research. Alfred C. and other ground support personnel) as team members – you are not alone up there.Accident Investigations. expertise – and hands. Ph. Brief flight attendants. Be open to suggestions. Keep ATC in the loop. or domineering attitudes. by allowing the first officer to fly the airplane in an emergency situation. is a tremendous supporter of CRM and has said: “I am firmly convinced that CRM played a very important part in our landing in Sioux City with any chance of survival. Haynes.UNITED FLIGHT 232 – LESSONS LEARNED & PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Of the 296 persons on board. The crew did not allow themselves to become distracted. Considering the gravity of the emergency situation. Maintain cockpit discipline. I also believe that its principles apply to no matter how many crewmembers are in the cockpit. • • • • • (Extracted from “Aircraft Safety . but hearing the steady voice of the approach controller provided tremendous calming influence to the crew.” They added that the interaction between the pilots during the emergency was “indicative of the value of CRM” The captain. confusing statements. Passenger survival depends on a prepared cabin. The captain viewed each crewmember’s ideas as instrumental to the safe outcome of the flight.

EFFECTIVE PILOT / MANAGER In a recent CRM project (1986). These are critical elements to successful flight operations in all environments. not unsafe. an individual in a team environment can act with more confidence and initiative. due to a phenomenon known as “groupthink”. Pg 57. but acting with an understanding of assured mutual support and allows more aggressive approach to mission accomplishment. in which conflict avoidance takes precedence over the task at hand. as a result of the observation of 114 airline pilots who had taken the management attitude questionnaire. Reference: "Cockpit management attitudes: Exploring the attitude-performance linkage" Aviation. there are occasions when the negative outcome may result. where rapid changing conditions can leave an individual’s situational awareness in the dust. Discusses personal limitations. 30 . Buoyed by the knowledge of competent. Note: With wisdom I learnt from these experts. Space & Environmental Medicine. This ironic decrease in performance can be due to conflict between team members or. Advantages: The advantages of teamwork are the increased reliability and mutual support. teammates. I reproduce them here for you to ponder (from “Redefining Airmanship” by Tony Kern). Is sensitive to personal problems of other crew.1198-1200. Each person can afford to be less cautious. Adapts management style to crew and situation. Interpersonal relationship affects operations and decision making on the flight deck. Coordinates cabin crew activities. Provides training for other crew. Verbalises plans while acting as pilot flying. which I must warn you of as well. Ironically. at the other extreme. Dr Robert L. perhaps even expert. Hazards: (Interpersonal conflict and “Groupthink” phenomenon) There are also hazards involved with team operation. Recognises his diminished decision capability in emergencies. teamwork approach should be approached systematically. Helmreich (and 3 of his partners) concluded that the effective pilot / manager is one who: • • • • • • • • • • Recognises his own personal limitations. resulting in a team performance that is actually poorer than individual performance. Because of such inherent pitfalls. Has a relaxed and harmonious flight deck. ONE FINAL WORD ON CRM AND GOOD TEAMWORK I have emphasised the advantages and benefits of CRM and good teamwork many times. Encourages other crew to question decisions. look out for the possible pitfall. I hope you will also remember them.

so seek to avoid such situations from arising. know the environment you are operating in. the demands of the mission must not exceed you and your crew’s ability to handle. Second. philosophy. especially since the “Jet Era” in the 1950s. On the other hand. weather. policies and procedures were introduced and enshrined to ensure flight safety. always be prepared (thoroughly) for each flight. terrain. To a large extent.RISK MANAGEMENT Flying is inherently risky and can never be 100% risk-free. ATC facilities and difficult approaches etc. flight safety must not be compromised. Third. we should strive towards “zero accident rate”. COPING ABILITIES MATRIX Actual Coping Ability Low High Over Confidence Realistic Esteem (Danger) Insecurity Realistic Esteem (Excess Caution) Perceived High Coping Ability Low Perceived Coping Ability & Actual Coping Ability 31 . if you are that type of person who is always inclined to “show off” your flying skills or seek thrills to impress your peers. we must always bear in mind that in doing so. First. At a personal level. you are a liability here. that are much more reliable and safer to fly these days. RISK EXPECTANCIES MATRIX Actual Risk Low High Undue Concern Preparedness (Excess Caution) (Caution) Preparedness Unpreparedness (Safety) (Danger) Perceived High Risk Low Perceived Risk & Actual Risk 2. Fourth. In commercial flying. you will be tested on your risk management skills too. as part of risk management. we do not take unnecessary or unjustifiable risks in any form. 1. Whilst we always strive to operate the airplane in a manner as efficiently as we can. Note: In your command LOFTs. know your own and other crew’s limits. At the Corporate level. accident rates were greatly reduced these days.g. but modern technology has made it possible to produce airplanes. e. risk management means self-discipline. constantly keep abreast of changes and maintain technical knowledge currency. airport.

the definition of fool is. • Do not resign to fate. • Estimate expectancies conservatively. Be aware of the onset of excessive stress and unload your workload to satisfy priorities. analysis and logic. remember. • Avoid the “white cane” syndrome – never use the aircraft to “feel” for the ground. sense. not with emotion. it may take a much longer time to find you. • Allow adequate safety margins in all phases of flight. Remember that it can happen to you! • Anticipate negative. “One who is deficient in judgment. Avoid being a “thrill seeker”. • Take the time to make deliberate decisions. Consciously Accept Risks Evaluated with Forethought. this chain can be broken. Evaluate them carefully. yours or someone else’s. risk sensitivity (the expected adequacy of coping ability) and risk penalty.GUIDELINES FOR RISK MANAGEMENT Compensatory risk reducers: • Always be CAREFUL in judgment. Frequently. not for flying. communicate etc. Safety must dominate all of your decisions. • Anticipate situational demands and avoid those which may jeopardise your coping ability. Ask the questions: a. risks are increased by a chain of bad decisions. What can happen? b. navigate. Will I be able to deal with it? c. • Never compromise safety. Box canyons are for playing cowboys and Indians. especially catastrophic outcomes. • Avoid hazardous attitudes. • Always plan ahead. If it is not worth doing safely. Never stop planning and always be ready to adjust your plans as necessary to manage risks. emotions and logic that can adversely bias judgment. However. Continued Next Page 32 . • In assessing risks. they are generated by the product of risk expectancy. all other hazards may be more difficult to see. Step back away from the situation that you are in and analyse it as if you were not personally involved. • Never panic. either find ways to reduce the risk and choose another alternative. surprise”. widen your safety margins. it is not worth doing. to take unawares. Always respond with objectivity. Remember that the risk itself could be a motivator. Also. Then take your own advice. • Manage your workload. Remember. • Remember operational priorities: Fly the aircraft. • If risk level is unacceptable for a decision alternative. It may be easier to spot properly lighted aircraft and obstructions in visual conditions. especially on approach. one who can easily be deceived. Estimate benefit expectancies on the low side and cost (risk) expectancies on the high side. Be as objective as possible. Do not be so categorised. “Proper prior planning prevents peril”. Always have an alternative plan and leave yourself strategic escape alternatives (an “out”). be especially cautious. Take command of the situation. if you have a survivable accident at night. • If you fly at night. If action is taken before it is too late. they will dominate other risk factors. and anticipate special night flying risks. What will be the consequences if I cannot cope? • Remember. Understanding and Logic. • Remember. remain or return to being calm. This may require the creative development of a new alternative. or understanding.. • Never accept unjustifiable risks.

value. In other words. • Maximise your coping ability: a. the cost of losing is extremely high – loss of your own life (and perhaps many others’). we must manage risks. Otherwise it amounts to gambling. risk assessment in the absolute sense in every aviation decision is not possible. Remember. Accident prevention is a worthwhile goal that is intimately connected with the efficient management and intelligent supervision. • Try to anticipate and prepare for any foreseeable emergency.” Moody. Keep your equipment in good conditions. you must weigh the risks against the benefits in a given situation before you act. Always carry a torch light (be prepared for a total electric failure in a night flight). g. Keep yourself in good physiological and psychological condition. you should use your good judgment and CRM skills to manage it. Always get a good weather briefing. This is in essence. Inspect it thoroughly and frequently. 33 . accident-free days are the pleasant by-product of efficiency. understand its limitations and update it frequently. In flying.2. Know your limitations and those of your equipment. or appreciation of. d. c. if you gamble with risk. In the final analysis. This is especially important if the preparation is simple or if the risk is great. the appropriate course of action is to optimise risks in view of the payoffs. the bottom line is. No pilot should ever attempt to play “Russian Roulette” when faced with an abnormal situation. Correct any anomalies promptly. “Risks are a necessary part of a worthwhile progressive life. We need not treat safety as a separate part of our planning or our accomplishment. h. Preparatory risk reducers • Review the SMART process: Systematic Management of Acceptance of Risk through Training. Note: Extracted from the book “Pilot Judgment & Crew Resource Management” by Richard S. Proper supervision increases the value and decreases the risk. Plan your flight carefully. elementary safety practices (1968) MANAGING RISK Vs GAMBLING WITH RISK RISK = Probability of a loss x Cost of a loss x Exposure Remember. Jensen. always file a flight plan (plan the flight. or safe living from ethical thinking. Do not let your judgment of risk be falsely biased by successful completions of dangerous flights made with poor judgment. Learn as much as possible about your aircraft. fly the plan). The risk should not be greater than the value of the undertaking. good risk management. b. safe recreation from safe working. A good knowledge base is essential for effectively planning your flight and for dealing with emergencies. neither should we separate the principles of safe driving from safe flying. every decision has a negative or risky side. f. However. Refusing to accept risks is equivalent to refusing to seize opportunities. Minimising or attempting to avoid risks would mean that nothing would ever get done in this world. it is possible to assess the relative risk comparing one alternative with another. Minimising risks is tantamount to minimising costs with no concern for. e. This form of risk assessment requires a thorough knowledge of aviation system as mentioned in the preceding paragraphs. Instead of trying to simply minimise risks.

a crew that discusses the possibility of a late runway change and prepares for the shorter track distance involved. This could be the crew realize that they have become high on the profile and intervene in a timely manner to regain the correct path. • Mitigating The Consequence Of Errors Already Committed: By seeing that the flight is not progressing in the expected manner. The second is trapping the error before they are commited. if one can successfully mitigate errors committed before they have opportunities to develop into full-blown problems. then CRM can be seen as a set of error countermeasures with three line of defense. The third stage is crucial. This could be the crew that on realizing that the approach gate is not going to be met. Helmreich. • Trapping Errors: By being vigilant crews can spot an error and correct it before it has any serious consequences. The third is mitigating the consequences of those errors that occur and are not trapped. make the decision to go around. we have succeeded in preventing an incident or accident from occurring. it has been recognized that human error is ubiquitous and inevitable. as Dr Robert L.ERROR MANAGEMENT Following the latest research in advanced CRM. If error is inevitable. However. crews can intervene to prevent the situation becoming a crew based incident or accident. Helmreich put it: The first is the avoidance of error. 34 . Adapted from BA’s Enhancing Operational Integrity and Error Management notes from Dr Robert L. planning crews can prevent errors occurring. Otherwise. EXTERNAL THREAT/ERRORS INTERNAL THREAT/ERRORS AVOID TRAP MITIGATE INCIDENT / ACCIDENT ERROR AVOIDING STRATEGY • Avoiding Errors: By careful briefing and adherence to SOPs and adequate preparation. looking at it positively. For example. human error can be seen as providing a valuable source of information where we can draw lessons learned. it is almost certain that an incident or accident is likely to follow.

navigation features. Arationality is defined as -– “action without conscious analytic decomposition and recombination”. Carefully establishes a baseline for normal instrument indications. To move on to expert performance requires movement into the area between rationality and irrationality called. Studies have shown that the major human activity of importance to expert piloting is cognitive rather than psychomotor. Continued Next Page 35 . they don’t even make decisions. Has excellent communications skills and can readily adapt them to the audience and situation. proficiency is transitional. aircraft sounds. They went on to say that judgment is an important distinguishing characteristics of the various levels of skill acquisition. The expert in this domain is one who: • • • • • • • • • Possesses a high level of skill and works constantly to improve it. Jensen and his team of aviation human factor researchers. Rationality is the mark of the competent performer. They know what to do based on mature and practised understanding. Richard S. weather phenomena etc. The competent performer makes judgments based on prior experiences in ways that cannot be explained. The expert has an immense library of distinguishable situations. in a recent study using the expert approach. terrain. including location of other aircraft.Proficiency Stage Stage 5 . had developed a set of nine distinguishing characteristics of an expert pilot. In chess.Expert Stage.WHAT IS AN EXPERT PILOT? The path from a “novice pilot” to become an “expert pilot” with five distinctive stages are: Stage 1 . Possesses superior mental skill and capacity for problem diagnosis. In their model. Knows his limitations. Is a keen observer of the flight environment. automaticity is the key.000 types of positions. Is highly motivated to learn all there is to know about this flight domain. Acquiring interpretive abilities or pilot judgment is the key to becoming an expert in the aviation domain. “Competent performance is rational.Novice Stage 2 . and has the willpower to overcome the pressure of people around him to push the limits of his skill. some say that a master can recognise 50.Competence Stage Stage 4 . Has superior ability to focus (or compartmentalise) attention on the flying task at hand and the mental discipline to change his focus of attention when new information suggest that a change is necessary. there is no judgment in the novice and advanced beginner stages. “arationality”. Is skeptical about “normal” aircraft functioning and is constantly making contingency plans for those circumstances when things might go wrong. vibrations and g-forces with respect to control action so that his threshold for slight variations is very small. ATC clearance. risk assessment and problem resolution. Experts do not solve problems.Advanced Beginner Stage 3 . According to a study by Dreyfuss & Dreyfuss in 1986. experts act arationally”. is motivated to avoid situations that might push his skill to those limits.

‘Stick and rudder’ skills play but a small role in differentiating the expert from the competent. it is desirable for all of us to aim at being expert pilots (stage 5). a competent pilot is one who does not possess these superior qualities found in expert. if one wishes to be an expert in this domain. (e. mental models found in the “expert” have not been developed in the competent pilot. Standard operating procedures and regulations can block people from becoming expert by forcing them to comply with procedures rather than do what they know to be safer and more effective (Fahlgren and Hagdalg. United Flight 232. However. the tasks might be more heavily weighted on the perceptual-motor skills. one must excel in cognitive skills or judgment. The competent pilot may have as much flight time as the expert. Automatic systems can block pilots from becoming experts by forcing them to follow symbols and control actions that are designed into the system without thought for many novel situations offered in aviation.only and only then – becoming an “expert pilot” can be the realised goal. Note: Extracted and adapted from the book “Pilot Judgment & Crew Resource Management” By Richard S. Because motivation in these “competent” pilots is focused on outside of the cockpit. cognitive skills and good judgment that the crew prevailed against the great odds they faced). If one only considers the tasks necessary to be a competent pilot. EXPERT PILOT Vs COMPETENT PILOT An examination of the qualities that differentiate the expert from the competent pilot reviews that much of the task of the expert involves cognitive activity. While you must be at least a competent and proficient pilot (stage 3 and stage 4) to carry out the tasks at hand. efficient operations. only then through fostering flight discipline and expert airmanship .e. In addition to these personal motivational factors.WHAT IS A COMPETENT PILOT? Conversely. Jensen. to fly and to deliver passengers and goods safely from point to point. Cambridge ISBN 0 291 398094 9 36 .g. He has demonstrated completely by taking the biennial flight review but that is as far as he takes aviation. some other reasons why competent pilots often do not become experts include the organisation (bureaucracy) for which they work. 1990). – University Press. where there wasn’t any procedures prescribed for the situation. i. the extra skills knowledge. only through their own creativity. automatic systems in the aircraft and creativity blocking standard operating procedures can block pilots from becoming experts by turning down their every request for changes that they have found from their experience that are needed for safe. has the stick and rudder skills sufficient to pass all necessary flight tests and has the knowledge necessary to pass all written tests.

be it your professional display of airmanship or rogue antics. as long as they are in the interest of flight safety directly concerning the airplane you are in charge and in the environment you are operating in. Most important of all. your influence on these young hopefuls will be contagious and will have an insidious effect. “Red begets red. Light-TheFire” rogue pilot yourself. the Pilot-In-Command may deviate from any rule of this part to the extent required to meet that emergency. In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action. will have a strong influence on them. the operation of that aircraft. that I mentioned time and again. If you are an A310 captain. the outcome will be desirable and good. prestige. to whichever category you belong. more likely so when they identify you as their “hero” to follow. it is imperative that you. • • The Pilot-In-Command of an aircraft is directly responsible for. you will be seen as a man with power. the future commanders. YOUR ONGOING RESPONSIBILITY AS A COMMANDER The profession of airline captaincy is not simply the ability to fly and command a large airplane with skill. you are. It also involves self-imposed discipline as a way of life. fostering all the desirable traits of CRM. the way you dress. A year or more down the road. and is the final authority as to.3 (similarly in the ANO). especially in the way you operate and fly the airplane. Your style of behaviour. which style would you prefer to see them becoming? 37 . which should etch permanently in your mind as a future commander. Section 91. an ongoing resolve – year in. the outcome is predictably disastrous. talk. You are in fact constantly sending out signals to these impressionable young men. regarding the duty and responsibility of a pilot-in-command of a commercial airplane. your personal views. airmanship. So. black begets black. precision and verve. their unsuspecting role model! If you are indeed a skilled. They will sub-consciously watch you and mimic your actions.” Therefore. status and achievement. and your attitude towards the work environment. you will be flying with a lot of newly checked out first officers or having second officers observing flight operations in your flight deck. year out – to operate at all times and under all circumstances within the defined parameters of safety and airplane performance. uncompromising flight discipline etc. YOU ARE AN UNSUSPECTING ROLE MODEL TO NEWLY CHECKED OUT PILOTS Few people realise that their actions. you can write to me for a copy of the FAR Part 91 extract. “Kick-The-Tire. Both of these are powerful statements allowing you to decide or to take whatever actions you deem necessary. frankly. should strive to be good role models. It is no child’s play. outlook and values you attach to commercial flight operations.RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY OF A COMMANDER As cited in the Federation Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 91. behaviour and the ways they carry themselves can have a very strong impact on their subordinates. There is a Chinese saying. disciplined professional and a responsible commander. whether intentionally or not. you may even be appointed as a supervisory captain or a line instructor pilot. If you are an ill disciplined. Let me ask you a soul-searching question: Of these young men who one day will be commanders themselves. chances are. As a captain. Note: If you are keen. and interact with others.

the conduct of the flight you command IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY AND YOURS ALONE. the stereotype of the “god-like” captain in the cockpit can have a powerful behavioral impact and consequences. and obedience to authority figures. you. I think we have no problems with that either! (FAM page 5. PNF supports the PF as a non-flying team member. Although SIA is not recommending that captains lose their position of leadership in the cockpit. EXCEPTION 2: During line check.. “Pilot Flying” and “Pilot Not-Flying” are specific flying roles. the co-pilot is his assistant.4. and most present day captains would prefer to accept a challenge occasionally rather than miss a warning. YOU ARE THE COMMANDER! Whether you are PF or PNF.g radio calls. the commander of the airplane is a captain assigned to take charge of that flight concerned. as a commander. the co-pilot may be a captain. At any time. although the captain under check is theoretically the commander of the flight. Perhaps the following observation sums it up best. the examiner (LIP/IP/SIP) is really the commander of the flight. if you are the commander.CAPTAIN / FIRST OFFICER · COMMANDER / CO-PILOT · PF / PNF RELATIONSHIPS Sometimes we have to be clear of the different “hats” we are wearing. there is a difference between a person in command and being a “god” in the cockpit. if the examiner has doubts of the captain’s competence or ability to continue the flight in a proper and/or safe manner.e. Professor Marvin Karlins mentioned that in a country like Singapore. I have the following definitions I learnt from SIP Capt Aloysius Chua.1) YOU ARE AN AIRPLANE COMMANDER. The commander. PF flies and controls the aircraft and its flight path. “Commander” and “Co-pilot” are defined by their specific duties and responsibilities. a first officer. and always will be the sole responsibility of the commander. EXCEPTION 1: There is only one occasion I can think of when the co-pilot can assume command. assumes the role of a PNF. mis-selection or ATC advice. or even a senior commander on training. period! If any First Officer having any notion that when he is PF. paper work etc. However. then. infallible “god-like” individual that he may once have been considered and some even considered them to be. NOT GOD! In the ARM course.. he is empowered to relieve the captain of command. when the commander is incapacitated. where respect for. will have to gently “nudge” him back to reality! Make no mistake. monitoring the PF’s flight path and performing certain specific duties. The captain is superior in rank. i. real or not. the second-in-command. The commander is ALWAYS the unequivocal overall in-charge of the flight.” 38 . e. in fact. when giving a sector to the first officer. malfunction. he is the pilot-in-charge. “It is nowadays generally accepted that an airline captain is not the omnipotent. “Captain” and “First Officer” are ranks accorded by the Company based on appropriate qualifications and seniority. there is no argument at all. Under no circumstances is he relinquishing his command to the first officer. The safe conduct of that particular flight shall be. It is no longer a sin for other crew members to draw attention to discrepancies. is a strong cultural norm. They are. commander of the aircraft and must be “in charge” of the flight operations. in real life.

whether you like it or not. if you display such undesirable traits. one always intrudes the other guy’s personal space. While you are reading this. so why make it even more stressful by destroying the pleasant cockpit atmosphere? So it all boils down to good CRM again. promotes a friendly environment that stimulates and encourages healthy information exchanges. not to socialise or have anything to do with you. I am sure you straight away can think of some of these real monstrous personalities you have come across in your flying career. it is indeed is a very crammed office. regardless of whether he was a captain. Make peace. typically in the flight deck. Your peers will always enjoy your company. People begin to avoid you. tense. there is hardly any personal space to speak of. You will lose support and initiative of your crew. Don’t make it worse! Build bridges. I continue to practise this even now. war-zone like cockpit environment is absolutely counter productive and stupid.. working with @#$%&*s (expletive removed) only stifles such benefits from blossoming. you will be a senior pilot. stressful. I used to make the first move to introduce myself when I met some one new in Flight Ops office or even out station. you would be old and lonely and feeling so miserable. you would be like waking up from a nightmare. and it is likely that they will continue to socialise with you and to learn from you. not walls. I believe my intentions are genuine and friendly and without motive or hidden agenda. But there are environments that just do not permit such luxury. By nature we all have our own little defined “personal space” to safeguard our privacy. and you feel disgusted immediately. not war! Working with an @#$%&* who always creates an unfriendly. possibly cursing and swearing at some of them right away too! The moral of the story is. Sometimes the flight can be typically long. explosive. Working with nice people helps to reduce tension and stress.. you have the power and ability to make it a “warm and friendly” or “cold and hostile” world! 39 . especially from your first officer. with high-workload and stressful in nature. I usually attempted to “break the ice” first. and it would be too late to regret!!! Got that? The choice is yours. So we must learn to tolerate each other with this forced intrusion and make the best out of it. you would probably realise by then that you have no friends left. People like to work with friendly.HOW TO HAVE A GOOD WORKING RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS – (CRM AGAIN!) When I was a first officer. nice and helpful guys. Believe me.. You will lose friends and ultimately you will be ostracised. their faces and the images of those bad experiences you had with them come popping right out in front of your mind. worst of all. do you want to see yourself as the monstrous one that pops out in front of someone else’s mind when he is reading this? If you are such monster yourself. a fellow first officer or second officer. highly charged. you are more likely to make friends than enemies. Welcome to the real world! Remember. when you are retired and the power and influence you once enjoyed evaporate (to which nobody cares!). one day. many years later. many will not even forget you after your retirement! They will continue to invite you to their social gatherings like I have witnessed quite a few of such gracefully retired nice “senior citizens” already! On the other hand. In this manner.

then. “Happens Only To The Other Guy” syndrome. The “Watch This!” or “Show Off” syndrome. often wrong decisions with disastrous outcome. Rogue pilots account for a disproportionate number of accidents and incidents. and everyone over whom they fly. Lackadaisical. From the days of the early barnstormers. and for this reason alone we cannot rely on natural selection to rid us of the rogue pilot. “Can’t be bothered!” attitude towards work. it is not entirely wrong to assume that a rogue captain can also bring down the reputation of a major airline too! Are you the type of pilot having such inclination once in a while? Watch out! Try to recognise the following hazardous thought patterns that epitomise rogue behaviours: • • • • • • Anti-authority – Machismo – Invulnerability – Impulsiveness – Complacency – Press-On-It is – Deliberately flouting rules & procedures. But these pilots don’t just hurt themselves. Sometimes.ROGUE PILOTS – “A skilled pilot without flight discipline is a flying time bomb!” Rogue pilots are: “Pilots who are willingly and unnecessarily failing to comply with existing guidance or taking unwarranted risks”. Makes hasty. military jets. other pilots and their passengers. many of them are just one poor decision or temptation away from fiery disaster. compromises flight discipline and safety. daredevil pilots pushed aviation out of its infancy. as we refer to it. Worst of all. Rogue pilots are silent menace. The false sense of glory they exhibit usually lead to needless. “rogue” behaviour. one through which the survival of the fittest would eventually purge our ranks of this undisciplined and undesirable sub-species of pilots. We must consciously guard ourselves against the tendency to fall prey to any of these undesirable traits and turn ourselves into rogue pilots without even knowing it! Adapted from the book “Darker Shades Of Blue – The Rogue Pilot” By Tony Kern 40 . Rogue pilots are found in the cockpits of major airlines. has been a constant. within us . endangering themselves. or the split-second seduction to attempting a risky maneuver. Far too often the result of an act of poor flight discipline results in the death of innocents. smitten by the romance and derring-do of their heroes. shameful tragedy. If a single rogue trader like Nick Leeson could bring down Barings Bank. a 200-year old financial institution. The “Die die must get it done” syndrome. when crowd-thrilling. it is very difficult to expose these ill-disciplined pilots. they sometimes appear among normally disciplined pilots.every time the lure of an adrenaline rush. and in general aviation. most of us would see it as an improvement in the gene pool. This enemy is more often than not. sometimes deadly price that rogue attitudes can exact. Rogueism is indeed the dark side of airmanship. If they killed only themselves with their antics. Yet far too many modern pilots. overlook the terrible. Rogues are unique brand of undisciplined pilot who places their own egos above all else. undermining aviation and threatening lives and property everyday. as well as their own blind desire to test the limits of their skills.

More often than not. Air crashes always get major headline news treatment. directly or indirectly linked to the crash to shift all blame to the dead aircrew members. and 44% of all fatalities attributed to the approach and landing phases related accidents. They are what I have been talking about all along here. These causal factors are frighteningly familiar. Naturally. Note: Information obtained from Flight Safety Foundation Special Reports – Issues November/December 1998 and January/February 1999. the reality is harsh. Deliberate non-adherence to procedures. Poor professional judgment/airmanship. 56% of the major commercial air disasters occurred during the approach and landing phases. Post impact fire. Yes. Pilots’ names are always spelled correctly and flashed on headlines of major newspapers and other mass media. The major contributing factors to these fatal accidents are.APPROACH AND LANDING . usually without the consent of the aggrieved parties concerned. there will be people losing their loved ones. Omission of action/inappropriate action. Windshear/upset/turbulence. The wife is instantly widowed and children orphaned. Non-precision approaches (especially VOR-DME approach) are five times more prone to CFIT related accidents than ILS precision approaches. what is important and serves as a sobering reminder to all of us is that when a fatal accident happens. brother or son perishes. tragic and so heartbreaking that we do not like to even think or talk about. The statistics are not important.RECENT MAJOR AIRLINE FATAL ACCIDENTS It is perhaps timely for me to squeeze in a reminder here about approach and landing fatal accidents and CFIT (Controlled Flight Into Terrain) suffered by commercial airliners over the last 20 years. as well as lessons learned from our fallen colleagues so that they would not have died in vain. Failure in CRM (cross-check/coordinate). husband. and the only way to prevent such accidents from ever occurring to you or all of us is to practise all the wisdoms and guidelines given here by those experts. We must endeavour to make sure that this will not happen to us. Icing. it will be in the interest of a lot of parties. System failure (flight deck information). Why? Because dead men usually cannot defend themselves. a father. Slow and/or low on approach. • • • • • • • • • • • • Lack of positional awareness in the air. 41 . it is oh so very convenient to shift all anticipated blames onto these dead men. dead pilots are usually found “guilty” until proven innocent. The dead pilots’ personal history mercilessly exposed. Flight handling. “Press-On-Itis” or “Get-Home-Itis”.

when there is an incident or accident. anti-authority feelings and “press-on” syndrome get the better of you. I've chased the shouting wind – along and flung my eager craft through footless halls of air. not any before nor any after. second probably only to being a Formula One driver or being an astronaut. Sunward I've climbed. Jr. my friends. delirious burning blue – I've topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace. the one name the press or media will always spell correctly is the pilot’s name! Finally. you must have the unceasing flying enthusiasm to match the exacting demands of this profession. Do not let complacency.. unless other than circumstances beyond our control – fate! Remember. only then will you enjoy your flying career until the day you retire! WHY MEN LOVE FLYING AND AIRPLANES? “It is appearances. Beauty.TREASURE YOUR JOB and GUARD IT JEALOUSLY Flying is undoubtedly one of the best jobs men could ever dream of doing. if I may say.. and joined the tumbling mirth of sun-split clouds – and done a hundred things you have not dreamed ofwheeled and soared and swung high in the sunlit silence. Up. Freedom. you do not know how many of your earth-bound friends out there wish they were in your shoes. aviation offers it all. And. machismo. Hov'ring there. and they. You love a lot of things if you live around them..Ernest Hemingway “Science. -John Gillipse Magee. told truly.Charles A. up the long.” . Put out my hand.“ . Where never lark. make sure that we don’t lose it because of our own weaknesses. Lindberg "High Flight" Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of earth.. that is as lovely as a great airplane. and danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings. characteristics and performance that make a man love an airplane. Since we are the few privileged ones with wings that can soar in the deep blue yonder. or even eagle flew. and men who love them are faithful to them even though they leave them for others. and touched the face of God. Adventure. but there isn't any woman and there isn't any horse. impulsivity. invulnerability. We must make strenuous efforts to guard our flying career jealously. are what put emotion into one. while with silent lifting mind – I've trod the high un-trespassed sanctity of space. WWI USAAF Pilot 42 . treasure it.

I am afraid to say that. So we must endeavour to reduce that probability of making fatal mistakes by exercising sound judgment. by your own choice. You will also be flying a lot with newly checked out first officers. go get it! The IIII ! I wish all of you the very best! Reminder This file is for free. In essence. you know that all the hard work. displaying the highest professional standard expected of you by your Company and by your fare-paying customers. If you continue to work hard. flying skill. Every flight must be considered as a new challenge. Guard us against those hazardous thought patterns from ever taking root. high situational awareness and good airmanship. Well. The feeling? You can well imagine it. proficiency. There is no commercial interest involved whatsoever. time and sacrifices you put in have finally paid off. It is your duty to ensure that every flight you command is a safe flight. good flight discipline and good health. One glaring difference is that there will be no instructor watching you like a hawk on the right hand seat or there to guide you. the reward is immeasurable in terms of sense of achievement and job satisfaction. If your goal is set. Frequent recurrent training and good flight discipline will significantly reduce that from happening. and cannot afford the luxury to be complacent. you are new and for the first time in your commercial flying career: YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN! Remember. The rest is really up to you. It is only the beginning. Finally. we are mere mortals. you know you deserved them. We are no Olympian Gods. You have to be on your guard all the time.CONCLUSION – THE FEELING AFTER BEING CHECKED OUT AS ONE When the Boss pins that pair of 4-bar epaulettes on your shoulders. 43 . a lot has been said so far (and yet so little!). and you must try your best to meet that new challenge with your knowledge. we know too well that we are human and prone to make mistakes. after becoming a commander does it not mean that the learning process will come to an abrupt stop. you have chosen to be a professional airliner driver. you do not have. being a pilot-in-command of a multi-million dollar asset and hundreds of lives at stake every time you fly.

you are unable to shoot the VOR 22 or NDB 22 approaches (below minima). visibility and MDA/DH of these approaches. If you are manually flying with limited instruments. Don’t get me wrong. but in a LOFT situation. 44 . instead. you are usually under stress and timepressed. Especially for Penang. It makes your decision making process so much easier. procedures. SIN-KCH. such as LOSS OF BOTH ENG GENERATORS. ceiling. With the policies. It is definitely a plus point if you are familiar with the various approaches to these airports concerned. VOR 22 approaches. Runway lengths – So that you know in advance whether that airport you have in mind to land or divert to can accommodate the envisaged problem? Runway approach aids – Help set up your instruments for the approach in a snap. LOA or actual life-threatening situations. BKK-SIN. CGK-SIN. you will soon have some of the following familiarised almost by the back of you hand:• • • • • • Critical-point of a specific route – Facilitate your decision to proceed or turn back. My emphasis here is the speed and time you save whilst setting up the aids. even the NDB 22 approach. practices and the training we have. PEN-SIN. we should be relying on our own experience and training to handle whatever the situation that may arise in LOFT. Make an effort to memorise the frequency to tune. it really helps. LOFT ROUTES Most of the LOFTs are conducted on the typical routes such as SIN-PEN. so that you only refer to the Jeppesen charts to confirm you instruments settings. This will save time and allow yourself to be familiar with these airports you are going to operate in and out. If ILS 04 is out and visibility is reported to be 4000m. we should be able to handle a myriad of possible abnormal situations. a common trap! Refer to Penang Jeppesen charts for details. or SIN-BKK. Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA) – The minimum altitude you can descend to in an emergency with assured navigational aids and communications coverage as well as obstacle clearance. you will realise the benefits of knowing these settings by heart. If you do self help in the simulator often enough. the ILS 04. My predecessors have actually consolidated these airports into a handy chart. we should be creative enough to use all resources available to tackle it to the best we can. KCH-SIN. Even in a noval situation. For example in Penang. SINCGK. course to set. all these extra preparations help. You will save invaluable time when preparing for these approaches. Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA) – The lowest altitude you can descend without worrying about obstacles and obstructions. Always refer to them when you are not doing anything in particular. it will take much longer time. Tips: Prepare at least two updated Jeppesen folders with relevant charts covering all the possible airports used to conduct LOFTs and LOAs. do and then brief. it is best that we should tackle the exercise with an open mind. I do not encourage the practice of memorising Jeppesen charts in normal line operations. We must never give up trying to save our own skins from any perceivable situation. Nearest suitable alternates – Divert to an airfield suitable for A310. otherwise you have to read.LOFT SCENARIOS LOFT & LOA scenarios are fluid.

Never be complacent. Master them. Guangzhou. Be wary of the potential hazards and possible weather scenarios. ATC and ground operations. Flying is a sociable job. No two flights are the same. The chief steward or traffic officer (Oscar) may come to the flight deck with a problem and in many instances may address the instructor directly (He is still the captain!) by habit. handling the aircraft should now be in your “pocket”. After all. you must increasingly shoulder all the responsibilities of the flight. including passengers if necessary. Liaise proactively with all personnel you will meet. Do not try to impress with super low-drag approaches! Always remember the key words – “Safety! Safety! Safety!” There is a common saying. Share experiences and notes with each other. Brakes Deactivated Procedure) and the Fuel Policy. Take charge from the word “Go!” – From flight planning until reporting off duty. the thinking should have been done much earlier. “A superior pilot uses his superior judgment to avoid situations requiring his superior flying skills to get out!” Flight safety is of paramount importance in all SIA line operations and should never be compromised. so start acting as a commander. You can always seek opinion of the instructor (as part of CRM anyway!). Diplomatically steer the discussion back to you and take the initiatives. Line operations are very fluid and your flight considerations are always changing – Be it ATC imposed restrictions. Try not to let the instructor handle the problem unless he has specifically indicated otherwise.g. They would like to see a measured and more conservative approach. passengers related incidents or aircraft technical problems. Even the first officers can give you some unexpected tips that will help you through your command training! There is a wealth of shared knowledge and information from those who have been on this path before you. 45 . Especially Kathmandu – know your “escape routes” well. Have an action plan where possible. especially if it is a new airport you are flying into. However. Should you need to do a missed approach. Dhaka and Hochiminh City --. Also important is a good understanding of the MEL procedures (e. You are the command trainee.A310 or B744 LINE FLYING AND LINE OPERATIONS All that I have written earlier are essentially aimed at addressing LOFT related exercises. the instructors will not be looking for clockwork precision in your descent and approaches. always meet up with your colleagues whenever possible to discuss about flying matters. Kathmandu.just to name a few. the instructors will take a back-seat approach. you will find the combined exposure of your course mates highly rewarding and an invaluable enhancement to your own experiences. e. The FAM and Line Operations sections in the Company documents are important here. You will be assessed on your overall ability and “commandability”. The early phases of your command training will introduce you the aircraft performance and handling characteristics. NOW! Prepare for flight before hand.g. a suggestion from Chua Eng Kiat prompted me to say something on line flying too. See the “Big Picture!”. In the later stages of your training. you have to fly as many as 100 sectors in all the phases combined before checking out. Note: Manual load sheets are required in many A310 stations. You will also be exposed to new airports and the peculiarities of various routes. You will find that more and more.

I truly believe in sharing line operations related information. whereas foreign captains never had to be subject to such grueling tests. the least we could do is to help ourselves. All command trainees should work as a team.. they joined the Company as incumbent captains and not command trainees! Since we national pilots are all in the same predicament. the one who receives your knowledge becomes a richer person without you being poorer!” Once again I salute all my predecessors who assisted me one way or another.HELP EACH OTHER – SHARE INFORMATION & EXPERIENCE I have only done the first cut. Eddie Foo Box 725 dragon52@pacific. Finally. In future.. but the end product is only fashioned by steady coaching. in sharing line operations flight safety information: “Nobody is worse off.Johnnie Johnson NOBODY IS WORSE OFF – EVERYBODY IS BETTER OFF These notes were extracted from various sources including former A310 captains. I hope people like you will continue to update this and build on it. Well. we must help our fellow pilots all the time. share knowledge and never be a selfish man. I will make every effort to update the notes based on current inputs. in making this (unofficial) quick reference handbook a possibility.” . and I think it is the first step in the right direction. it appears that those who worked as a team had a higher chance of success than those lone wolves. This belief has always been the driving force in me. and experience. What I have written is probably only the tip of the iceberg in terms of scenarios covered in the training syllabi. Like they 46 .. We always lament that our SIA command training is tough. A man may possess good eyesight. “Great pilots are ask them for help while they are still “hot” in their systems knowledge. In the flying business. our future command trainees will be better predisposed to face all possible LOFTs/LOAs. but I believe I have taken the initiative. much practice. and perfect coordination. everybody is better off! WORDS OF WISDOM ACP Capt Albert Koh once said: “The most beautiful part in sharing one’s knowledge with another person is that. and feedback from you will be most welcome. sensitive hands. do not feel shy to solicit help from those freshly checked out commanders. In doing so. so that we are all better off and nobody is worse off for sure. not born.

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