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The Bible: The Embodiment of Divine Revelation Bobby Long 1737-805 Thursday, April 05, 2007

Introduction There are three aspects to the Bible encompasses the divine revelation of God. They are 1) The Bible, 2) Divine Revelation, and 3) God. The first two being true are dependent on the existence and veracity of the last; God. If God does not exist then the first two will be null and void. If God does exist, but is a liar, then, although the Bible may be divinely revealed by an existent God, it would hold no credibility as being truth.

How do we know the Bible is Gods Word? What proof is there? Is any proof needed? These are some of the questions this essay will address. But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts; and [be] ready always to [give] an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear: (1Pet 3:15 KJV). It should be the desire of every Christian to be ready for the questions and objections of the world regarding our faith.

This task should be accepted with great enthusiasm since it is these most basic truths concerning the faith that will, one day, propel us into an eternity with Christ. The focus of this paper will be seven main categories: 1) The A Priori Argument Proving our need for a reliable and infallible source of theological truth. 2) 3) The Argument for Analogy Relationships and ratios in the Bible. The Argument for the Indestructibility of the Bible Inability to exterminate the Bible. 4) 5) 6) The Argument for the Character of the Bible Divine Revelation. The Argument for the Influence of the Bible Impact of the Bible. The Argument for Fulfillment of Prophecy A view of prophecy as it relates to prediction of the future as can only be revealed by God. 7) The Argument for the Ability of Scripture to Prove Scripture Scriptural Continuity.

As these topics are expounded on, it is the hope of the author that the faith of the reader is increased, their hope is stirred up, and most of all, that God is glorified.

The A Priori Argument Why is it important to have a source of truth? Relativism says that whatever one sees as truth is truth for that person. Some religions believe that there are many roads or paths to God. Some say that Christs work on the cross was not complete in paying for all sin of every man. Others believe that Christ was just a prophet and didnt really die on the cross. Other religions believe that we are not a product of intelligent design, but spontaneously generated.

The Bible declares itself to be absolute truth because it flows from the spirit of the one and only God whose nature is absolute truth. But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, [even] the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:(Jhn. 15:26 KJV) Who or what is true? How can we know? What is the process that we attain knowledge of any kind? Does genuine belief in something as true make it true? The answer is no. One can genuinely believe and even die in defense of a lie.

This argument is well deserving of definition. A priori pertains to knowledge, judgments, and principles which are true without verification or testing. It is universally true. 1 These are truths that stand alone, independent of any experience regarding itself. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, [even] his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: (Rom. 1:20 KJV) If applied to the Bible as encompassing the divine revelation of God, this argument would see no reason to doubt the Scripture or God because it regards both as universal truths, needing no proof, nor any verification that such claims would ever come in question by any moral agent. It is a necessary truth that, by definition, is beyond negation and will never contradict itself. It is true in every aspect, in ever realm of reason, in every conceivable way.

Although this term is used in many arenas other than philosophy, how knowledge is acquired is of concern here in relation to proving the need for a reliable, infallible source of truth.

Gottfried Liebniz says that all knowledge can be classified in two groups. These groups are those that spring from innate reason and those that come from fact. He writes, There are also two kinds of truths, those of reasoning and those of fact. Truths of reasoning are necessary and their opposite is impossible: truths of fact are contingent and their opposite is possible. When a truth is necessary, its reason can be found by analysis, resolving it into more simple ideas and truths, until we come to those which are primary. 2 (Leibniz, 1714) If Liebnizs assumptions on epistemology are correct, and we then apply the a priori view to scripture, it comes to reason that the human moral agent is born with an innate knowledge of an omnipresent, omniscient, and omnipotent God. We have a priori knowledge of God. A posteriori knowledge, or knowledge gained by facts or by experience, brings to light the attributes, actions, and character of God. Attributes such as honesty, integrity, and sovereignty are in concert with what is written of God in the Bible and what we know of God innately.

We know there is a God. Our continued examination of historical timelines, prophecy, cultural practices, and other evidence either validates or dismisses source material used to make claims or observations concerning God. To support and validate this natural knowledge of God, we look to the Bible a posteriori. I have never seen God, but I know He exists because the Bible says He does. The Bible is true because of validating facts and evidences that has never been contradicted. If the Bible is true, then it is the Word of God, if it is the word of God, then it will be 100% accurate.

Christianity believes that the Bible is the source document for inerrant and infallible truth. This belief arises not only from the a priori knowledge of God, but also, from the a posteriori arguments that will be presented in the balance of this document. The remainder of this essay will shift some of the proof from strictly a priori to a combination of the two. To rest a belief and faith solely on an a priori argument is not sound. The validity of the Bible as the source document for an infallible truth is two fold. The Bible says, Then said

I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book [it is] written of me, (Psa 40:7 KJV)

In the same manner, to rest solely on our interpretation of facts and experience is also in error. The human ability to process experiences can deceive us. And GOD saw that the wickedness of man [was] great in the earth, and [that] every imagination of the thoughts of his heart [was] only evil continually. (Gen. 6:5 KJV). Two people can experience the same event and come out with two interpretations of that event. Vincent Cheung writes, So, although I affirm that Scripture is indeed logically undeniable, when I use "undeniable" in the context of discussing man's innate knowledge, the emphasis then is not on the logical undeniability of Scripture, but that some core biblical premises cannot be denied in practice despite the unbelievers' claim to the contrary. Thus, we refer to man's innate knowledge not to prove Scripture (rather, it is Scripture that proves the innate knowledge), but only to explain why we can communicate with unbelievers and how to properly relate to them. In other words, when we are speaking of the innate knowledge of God, we are considering the strategic aspect of apologetics, and not the strictly rational aspect. That the Scripture is logically undeniable is demonstrated by engaging the contents of Scripture itself, and not man's innate knowledge.3 (Cheung, 2005) Moving to the term divine revelation; The term holds both premises of a priori and a posteriori. The revelation or the revealing of God as it is continually and forever justified by the canon of scripture known as the Bible, upholds and solidifies our belief and faith in God and our knowledge of God relating to His attributes and character. To the class of truths that need proof belong those of divine revelation. All truths known to man are divinely revealed to him in some sense, but I here speak of truths revealed to man by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. The Bible announces many selfevident truths, and many truths of demonstration. These may or might be known, at least many of them, irrespective of the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. But the class of truths of which I here speak, rest wholly upon the testimony of God, and are truths of pure inspiration. Some of these truths are above reason, in the sense that the reason can, priori, neither affirm nor deny them.4 (Finney, 1851) Examples of a truth that is above reason would be that of redemption, and that of free will and the sovereignty of God. Gods plan of redemption is far outside the scope of human reason. The process God chose to bring man back to a right relationship with Him would cost Him His life. To allow the sacrifice of the innocent to atone for the guilty is not within the capacity of the human intellect to comprehend. The truth of free will and the sovereignty of God portrayed in scripture is another that is outside the scope of human reason. We must take Gods testimony that these two teachings are not at odds with one another but, work in harmony.

The Bible is infallible because God cannot fail. The Bible is without error because God is without error. We know God cannot fail and He is without error because the selfauthenticating nature of the Bible says those things about God. The revelation by someone

or something reflects the character of that revealed. In this case, Gods character and attributes must be exhibited perfectly in anything that supposes to be His revelation. If error and fallacy is found, then logic says it is not a revelation of God. The Christian system takes biblical infallibility, or the proposition, "The Bible is the word of God," as its self-authenticating first principle. By self-authenticating, I do not mean that the Bible verifies itself in our experience (although it does), since if it is by our experience that the Bible proves to be true, it would not be self-authenticating. Neither am I referring to the inward testimony of the Holy Spirit that the Bible is true, although this happens to those chosen by God for salvation. Rather, I mean that the content of the Bible verifies itself; it needs not appeal to any premises external to itself. From this first principle of biblical infallibility, the rest of the system follows by necessity through valid deductions. Since the first principle verifies itself to be true, any propositions validly deduced from it is also true. Since biblical revelation condemns all other systems of thought, and whatever it says is true, the Christian faith is therefore the only true system of thought, by which every proposition is evaluated and made intelligible.5 (Cheung 2001) In contrast, philosopher John Locke forwards the idea that knowledge is only written on the board by pen of experience. Our mind is a kind of blank blackboard that reflects every experience we have. He says that, Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion of and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our ideas. In this alone it consists. Where this perception is, there is knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of knowledge.6 (Locke, 1689) One thing is certain, whether the mind is a blank slate and all knowledge is a posteriori as John Locke proposes, or whether knowledge is all a priori, or a combination of the two, one thing stands. The childrens nursery rhyme speaks volumes when we sing, Jesus loves me this I know, for the Bible tells me so. Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book [it is] written of me, (Psa 40:7 KJV) God saw fit to give us both truths that are verified by other sciences such as archeology and history, and wants us to get lost in the infinity of His ways.

The Argument for Analogy The Bible contains sixty-six books, penned by more than forty authors over sixteen hundred years. Yet, when these book are analyzed, we see an integrated design that points to one source; The Holy Spirit of God. Of my favorite authors Chuck Missler says that the fingerprints of God are all over the Bible. Throughout the Bible we find the fingerprints of a supernatural message system. Numerous design features in the Biblical text defy coincidence and demonstrate that the Bible is an integrated message system.7 (Missler) As this section is a part of an overall theme of supporting the premise that the Bible is the encompassment of divine revelation, we must keep at the forefront of our topics; God and His revelation to us in the form of the Bible. Much could be said concerning the parables as they pertain to the Kingdom of God and humanity. Volumes have been written concerning the structural symbols of such as the Temple, or the Tabernacle, and their symbolism. However, in the interest of brevity, this part will deal with a select number of analogous passages that are not intended to be a foundation of doctrine, but validate the canon of scripture as truly divine revelation.

The online encyclopedia Encarta defines an analogy as, the name of an inductive form of argument which asserts that if two or more entities are similar in one or more respects, then a probability exists that they will be similar in other respects. 8 Analogy is common place in the scripture. The two entities being compared in this essay are one and the same; God and the Word of God. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (Jh 1:1. KJV) God then went one step further and shows us what the Word looks like in human form and gave us the embodiment of Himself and His Word in Jesus Christ. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.(Jh 1:14. KJV) The Bible not only declares that it was given by God the Father, to humanity, but that we beheld the living Word of God in Jesus Christ.

I have heard that the Rabbis have a saying that when the Messiah comes, He will not only interpret the meaning of scripture, but He will interpret the very spaces between the Words.

For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.(Mat 5:18 KJV) A Jot is the smallest of all Hebrew letters and a tittle is a little horn on a letter. In other words, Jesus was saying that EVERYTHING in the Bible is important and speaks of Himself.

Some of the more broad analogies found in scripture compare Christ to Scripture or what is called the incarnation model, and Christ to Adam. Christ to Scripture is analogous in the way Christ is both human and divine. Christ cannot be separated. He was 100% human and 100% divine. Diminishing either is a tragedy and heresy. The scripture also is revealed to man by God, the Holy Spirit then inspired man to write the revelation down, and the Holy Spirit illumines the scripture to man. The nature of scripture therefore has a miraculous divine character yet was written within the vocabulary boundaries of the writer giving it the human touch.

Another way theologians analogize Christ is His comparison to Adam. By one man, sin entered the world to plagued mankind; by one mans righteousness all can find justification. As Adam fell, Christ was lifted up. As the sin of Adam led to spiritual death, the righteousness of Christ leads to spiritual life.

Other analogies are not as apparent. The Bible is written in a way that mirrors the attention to detail of God. In Genesis 5, we have the genealogy of Adam to Noah. In this one analogous comparison between the attributes of God and the writings of the Bible, we can glean that: God is all knowing, Outside of time and space, Loves His creation, God became flesh, The nature of sin, The effects of sin on man, and God is in control.

The names in order are, Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, and Noah. Adam Man9 Seth Appointed10 Enosh Mortal11 Kenan Sorrow or dirge12 Mahalalel Blessed God13 Jared Shall come down14 Enoch Teaching, to train15 Methuselah (Muth & shalach) his death shall bring16 Lamech Suggests Desparing (where we get the term lament)17 Noah Comfort or rest18 Now let us examine the meaning of each of these root words;

When the meanings of the words are put together, we have a very interesting sentence. Words in brackets were added for ease of reading: Man [is] appointed mortal sorrow, [but the] blessed God, shall come down, teaching, his death shall bring, [the] despairing comfort or rest.19 Here we have an outline of the gospel of Jesus Christ in the genealogy from Adam to Noah. Gods plan of redemption was not a hap-hazard reaction to mans folly. Mans propensity to sin did not take God by surprise. This is just one of many examples that God is outside the constraints of time and can see the beginning from the end. The volume of the Book is written of Jesus indeed.

God does not deal in approximations. An analogy given by Holy Spirit is exactly right or our assumptions are not right. The story of Noah can be used as an analogy of the exactness of God. In the following passage, we find that God is telling us that the ark rested and a new beginning was instituted for man. And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. (Gen 8:4 KJV) The significance of analogy appears when compared to another historical event that takes place a thousand years later.

The seventh month in the Genesis calendar becomes the first month in the religious Jewish calendar when God told Moses, This month [shall be] unto you the beginning of months: it [shall be] the first month of the year to you.(Exd 12:2 KJV) This, of course is speaking of the preparation for Passover. On the tenth day, the families picked a spotless lamb, and kept it in their house for inspection. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth [day] of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of [their] fathers, a lamb for an house: (Exo 12:3 KJV) On the fourteenth day of the first month, they were to kill it at sundown. And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. (Exo 12:6 KJV)

Jesus rode into Jerusalem on the tenth of Nissan. This event is commonly called the Triumphant Entry. He was in the house being inspected until the fourteenth day when He was then crucified. This is analogous of the inspection that an Israelite family would give of the sacrificial lamb. What ties the story of Noah and the crucifixion together is the day of the resurrection. Jesus said that, just as Jonah was in the earth three days and three nights, He would be in earth three days and three nights. According to His words, three days after the fourteenth would be the seventeenth. On the Genesis calendar, Jesus would have walked out of the tomb representing our new life in Christ, on the very day that Noah walked out of the ark representing our new life on earth.20 God wanted us to know the exact month and day of these events not only for historical reference but to validate Biblical authorship to God by divine revelation.

Before we leave Noah, it is interesting to see Gods mercy, grace, judgment, and His salvation in this story. Noah preached repentance for hundreds of years prior to the flood showing Gods mercy to an unrepentant people. The Bible says that Noah found grace in the sight of God. This illustrates that Noah, as upright and perfect in generations as he was, still needed the grace of God. Noah was told to go in the Ark seven days prior to the actual judgment of God. This teaches us that we need to have faith and trust in God when the sun is shining, when the rain is falling, and when life threatening events are upon us. God will not always deliver us from the storm, but He will always take us safely through the storm. As

Noah and his family were safe in the Ark, we are safe in Jesus. God shut the door. This illustrates the security of the believer found only in Jesus. Once the door was shut, the door was shut. No one could have gotten in (or out) if they had wanted to. One would have to question why someone would want to leave in the first place. Finally, all the religious speculation was over when the rain started to fall. As those in the days of Noah found out, taking about the sermons or philosophizing over when the rain would fall would not save them from the judgment. Only those that had faith enough to be found in the Ark, when God shut the door, would be saved. Gods mercy finds the faithful.

God takes the parallels and analogies in scripture seriously. When the children of Israel were in the desert, and Moses was instructed to strike the rock for water, this was indicative of the rejection of the Jewish people toward the living water or Jesus Christ. The second time Israel was in need of water, Moses was instructed to speak to the rock. Instead of doing what God said, he struck the rock again. Water still flowed, but for this act of disobedience, Moses was prohibited from entering the promise land. Why?

Moses was instructed to speak to the rock or request the water to come. This is a picture of the second coming of Christ at the end of the tribulation period. This second coming will occur when the Jewish nation rejects the anti-Christ and calls out for Jesus to come again to put an end to the tribulation period. If Moses would have followed Gods command and spoke to the rock, it would have been a striking example of Jesus coming forth at the request of His people. When Israel acknowledges Christ as the Messiah, and calls on the Rock for salvation, the Lord will hear their cry and deliver them.

Time and time again, we see the Bible using events to accentuate Gods attributes. A vivid analogy of Gods mercy and grace can be taken from the burning bush. What captured Moses attention wasnt that the bush was on fire, but that it, which was believed to be an acacia thorn bush, was not consumed. Fire is analogous of Gods judgment. The thorn bush would parallel the curse on the earth and mankind. Though the fire engulfed the bush, it was not consumed. From this, we learn that although we are in the midst of the curse, Gods mercy and grace is the only thing that can keep us from being destroyed and consumed.


The willingness of Abraham to offer his son Isaacs life and the securing of Isaacs bride is more that just a story of the faithful. In an examination of the scripture we can make several observations. 1) The first time the word love is used in scripture is when God instructs Abraham to take his only son whom he loved on the hill and sacrifice him. 2) Abraham was given instruction to offer Isaac three days prior to the actual sacrifice. 3) The offering place was atop a mountain named Akedah, later named Golgotha.21 4) Isaac was not mentioned as one of those that returned down from the hill. Moreover, Isaac is not mentioned again until Abrahams un-named servant, who is believed to be Eliezer, returns with Isaacs Gentile bride.

The parallels to God pour from this story. The first time love is used in the Bible refers to a fathers love toward an only begotten son that would be sacrificed. In time, God would sacrifice His one and only Son on the same mountain. When God gave Abraham the command to kill his son, in Abrahams eyes, Isaac was already dead. This is a symbol of Jesus in the grave three days before the resurrection. After the angel stopped Abraham, he named the place Jehovah-Jireh, or in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen. Abraham is a type of the Father, Isaac is a type of the Son, and Eliezer is a type of the Holy Spirit. Isnt it interesting that after the sacrifice, Isaac is not mentioned again until he is reunited with a Gentile bride that his Father sent an un-named servant to go choose. We are the Gentile bride, chosen by the Holy Spirit, sent by God for His Son, Jesus Christ. That should make the Christian turn cart-wheels and shout glory to God! We see Gods love in Abrahams love of Isaac and the care in which God chooses the bride for His Son. We also see that as the bride of Christ, we are chosen, but we must also accept the invitation.

The Argument for the Indestructibility of the Bible From the very first words coming from Satans mouth in Genesis 3: 1-6, we see an endeavor to corrupt the Word of God. On through History, time and time again, attempts have been made to literally destroy the scripture. The Word itself declares that it will survive.


For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath mercy on thee. (Isa. 54:10 KJV) In 2 Chronicles 33, King Manasseh did evil in the sight of the Lord, set up idol worship, paganism, and some believe, tried to destroy the book of the law. This can be inferred from the next chapter in verse 14 where Hilkiah finds the book of the law in the Temple. It was as if they had found lost treasure. When Josiah read the words of the Law he rent his clothes because he knew the wrath that was poured out due to generations past.

In scripture, we find several places where scrolls were burned and destroyed. Jeremiah had declared judgment from the Lord. Jehoiakim was furious and retaliated against the Word by cutting it to pieces and burning it. And it came to pass, [that] when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he cut it with the penknife, and cast [it] into the fire that [was] on the hearth, until all the roll was consumed in the fire that [was] on the hearth. (Jer. 36:23 KJV) Although the scripture was burned, Jeremiah re-wrote another at the command of the Lord. Jehoiakim paid a heavy price for doing evil in the sight of the Lord which included burning the words of the Lord. A blood curse was pronounced against his house. This would be significant due to the fact that Jehoiakim was in the line of Judah whose line the Messiah would come. The remedy is put forth in the genealogies of Jesus found in Luke and Matthew.

As the end of the third century came to a close, the Roman Emperor Gallerias was succeeded by a ruthless tyrant named Valerius Diocletian. Diocletian tortured Christians relentless. His cruelty is unparalleled in history. In March of 303 AD, Diocletian ordered the following edict against the Church. The Historian, Eusebius writes the following passages: It was in the nineteenth year of the reign of Diocletian, in the month Dystrus, called March by the Romans,[N] when the feast of the Saviour's passion was near at hand, that royal edicts were published everywhere, commanding that the churches be leveled to the ground and the Scriptures be destroyed by fire,22 (Eusebius) All these things were fulfilled in us, when we saw with our own eyes the houses of prayer thrown down to the very foundations, and the Divine and Sacred Scriptures committed to the flames in the midst of the market-places, and the shepherds of the


churches basely hidden here and there, and some of them captured ignominiously, and mocked by their enemies.23 (Eusebius) It was Diocletians intent to exterminate Christians from the face of the earth and every thing that went along with it, including scripture. The Emperor took a satanic pride in his work as Clark writes: Moreover, after a couple of years of these persecutions, he became so arrogant that he claimed to have exterminated the Christian writings from the face of the earth. He even erected a monument over the ashes of burned Bibles with the inscription: Extincto Nomine ChristianorumExtinct is the name of Christians. He also fashioned a medal with the engraving, The Christian religion is destroyed and the worship of the gods Restored.24 (Clark) When Diocletian died, a new order was seen when Constantine took the Throne in 306AD. On the battlefield, Constantine believed he saw a cross that was sent by God. Later, in a dream, he felt that God had shown him a similar cross and told him to conquer in this symbol. The Christian church went from direct attempts at eradication to privileged, when Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD.

With Constantine not only wanting to tolerate Christianity but to propel it to prominence, the Church exploded. This bred a different kind of problem. As persecution purified the church, acceptance as the religion of the Emperor now contaminated the church with those that saw membership a vital part of their career.25 The government was now paying the salaries of some of the Bishops. The Church began to take on a new face of hierarchy that led eventually to power hungry Popes and ambitious monarchs that ruled the people with a hand sometimes heavier than that of the Roman Empire.

Early reformers began to question the validity of the false doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. Early reformers were burned at the stake, threatened, and scripture was burned. The paragraphs below show just how adamant the Roman Catholic Church was in regard to keeping the Word of God out of the hands of the common person. We prohibit also that the laity should be permitted to have the books of the Old or New Testament; unless anyone from motive of devotion should wish to have the


Psalter or the Breviary for divine offices or the hours of the blessed Virgin; but we most strictly forbid their having any translation of these books.26 "No one may possess the books of the Old and New Testaments in the Romance language, and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned lest, be he a cleric or a layman, he be suspected until he is cleared of all suspicion."27 To snatch away from the hands of Christians the New Testament, or to hold it closed against them by taking away from them the means of understanding it, is to close for them the mouth of Christ.28 Emperors have made their threats, still the Bible stands. Popes have had councils, issued edicts, papal bulls of all sorts, yet nothing had prevented the Bible from withstanding attempt after attempt of destruction by the most powerful leaders of their time. Gods Word has proven true and is indestructible.

The Argument for the Character of the Bible Absolute Truth; If character is to be an argument for the divine revelation of the Bible, then the character of the divine must mirror the character of that which it revealed. Therefore, the Bible not only should be, but must be, an absolute representation of the character of God. The character of God can be represented as holy, pure, and true. Reason says that God, as an absolute being, will reflect absolute truth. This means free of error or contradiction. This section will briefly deal with three primary areas: 1) validity of old and new testaments, 2) truth revealed by archeological evidence, and 3) truth in science.

Contemporary critics of the scripture today take issue with the Bible simply because we no longer have the original autographs. Human errors, slips of the pen, and even deliberate attempts to alter the text, have been a few of the main arguments against the character of the Bible. A closer examination reveals something totally different. The continuity and character of the Bible we have today can be attributed to the scribes and the Massoretes and ultimately to God. Scribes were professional copiers. There were no printing presses or any way to produce replicas of any text other than hand writing. The rules for copying scrolls were extreme. But then, how else would one entrusted with furthering the scripture treat the very word of God. "How do ye say, ... the law of the Lord is with us? Lo, certainly in vain


made he it; the pen of scribes is in vain" (Jeremiah 8:8). Here are some of the rules of the scribe when copying scripture: (1) The parchment must be made from the skin of clean animals; must be prepared by a Jew only, and the skins must be fastened together by strings taken from clean animals. (2) Each column must have no less than 48 nor more than 60 lines. The entire copy must be first lined. (3) The ink must be of no other color than black, and it must be prepared according to a special recipe. (4) No word nor letter could be written from memory; the scribe must have an authentic copy before him, and he must read and pronounce aloud each word before writing it. (5) He must reverently wipe his pen each time before writing the word for "God" [which is Elohim] and he must wash his whole body before writing the name "Jehovah" [which is translated "LORD" in our KING JAMES BIBLE] lest the Holy Name be contaminated. (6) Strict rules were given concerning forms of the letters, spaces between letters, words, and sections, the use of the pen, the color of the parchment, etc. (7) The revision of a roll must be made within 30 days after the work was finished; otherwise it was worthless. ONE MISTAKE ON A SHEET CONDEMNED THE SHEET; IF THREE MISTAKES WERE FOUND ON ANY PAGE, THE ENTIRE MANUSCRIPT WAS CONDEMNED. (8) Every word and every letter was counted, and IF A LETTER WERE OMITTED, AN EXTRA LETTER INSERTED, OR IF ONE LETTER TOUCHED ANOTHER, THE MANUSCRIPT WAS CONDEMNED AND DESTROYED AT ONCE." 29 The Jewish Massoretes get their name from the Hebrew word massorah, or tradition. Due to the demand for scripture, they formed guilds of textual experts. In order to keep the textual continuity of the scripture, they developed ingenious ways to mark the scripture as they reproduced the text in order to explain, or clarify a meaning. No text was altered, however, if explanation was needed, the word was marked and explained in the margins. There work was extremely important due to the dispersing of the people after the destruction of the temple in 70AD. 30 These texts, sometimes denoted as MT or the Massoretic Text, became the foundation of the Bible we have today. 15

Manuscript evidence for the accuracy of the Old Testament (OT) is unshakable. Until 1947, the oldest manuscripts relating to the OT were from the year 900AD. Impressive as this was, something extraordinary happened. Scrolls were found in the caves of Qumran that dated back to approximately 150 - 200 BC. These are known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The importance of this lies in the comparison of what was found from 150 - 200 BC and what was possessed that dated 1000 years later. The accuracy is astonishing.

An example of the preciseness in copy is the comparison of Isaiah. The earliest copy of Isaiah prior to the Dead Sea Scrolls dated to 980AD. When compared to the Dead Sea copy, the error rate was less that 5%. The majority of variations was unremarkable and carried no weighed theologically or interpretively. The New Testament (NT) is even more profound in the surety of the text. Dr. Ron Rhodes points out that, .. in addition to the many thousands of New Testament manuscripts, there are over 86,000 quotations of the New Testament in the early church fathers. There are also New Testament quotations in thousands of early church Lectionaries (worship books). There are enough quotations from the early church fathers that even if we did not have a single copy of the Bible, scholars could still reconstruct all but 11 verses of the entire New Testament from material written within 150 to 200 years from the time of Christ.31 The following chart shows categorically that the New Testament is more accurate than any other ancient manuscript.
Author2 Lucretius Pliny Plato Demosthenes Herodotus Suetonius Thucydides Euripides Aristophanes Date Written died 55 or 53 B.C. 61-113 A.D. 427-347 B.C. 4th Cent. B.C. 480-425 B.C. 75-160 A.D. 460-400 B.C. 480-406 B.C. 450-385 B.C. 850 A.D. 900 A.D. 1100 A.D. 900 A.D. 950 A.D. 900 A.D. 1100 A.D. 900 A.D. Earliest Copy Approximate Time Span between original & copy 1100 yrs 750 yrs 1200 yrs 800 yrs 1300 yrs 800 yrs 1300 yrs 1300 yrs 1200 Number of Copies 2 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 10 Accuracy of Copies ----------------------------


Caesar Livy Tacitus Aristotle Sophocles Homer (Iliad) New Testament

100-44 B.C. 59 BC-AD 17 circa 100 A.D. 384-322 B.C. 496-406 B.C. 900 B.C. 1st Cent. A.D. (50100 A.D.

900 A.D. ---1100 A.D. 1100 A.D. 1000 A.D. 400 B.C. 2nd Cent. A.D. (c. 130 A.D. f.)

1000 ??? 1000 yrs 1400 1400 yrs 500 yrs less than 100 years

10 20 20 49 193 643 5600

---------------95% 99.5%

This table was taken from wwww.carm.com32

With a support base of over 24,000 manuscripts having a 99.5% accuracy rate, the deniability of the accuracy of the New Testament is absurd to say the least.

With the legitimacy of the Old and New Testaments well established in the accuracy of the text, we move now to archeological evidence as continued support for the truth of scripture in verification of cities, people, and geography in the Bible. "I may fairly claim to have entered on this investigation without prejudice in favor of the conclusion which I shall now seek to justify to the reader. On the contrary, I began with a mind unfavorable to it...but more recently I found myself brought into contact with the Book of Acts as an authority for the topography, antiquities, and society of Asia Minor. It was gradually borne upon me that in various details the narrative showed marvelous truth. In fact, beginning with a fixed idea that the work was essentially a second century composition, and never relying on its evidence as trustworthy for first century conditions, I gradually came to find it a useful ally in some obscure and difficult investigations."33 (Ramsey 1951) There has been no archeological dig that has ever uncovered any finding that has disagreed with the coinage, geography, or societies found in the Bible. Even those people once thought to be myth or legend, have been validated by archeological findings. The Hittites, King David, and Pilate are some of these that once thought to belong only to the pages of scripture, but now have been revealed as true. Nelson Gluek writes: It may be stated categorically that no archeological discovery has ever controverted a single biblical reference. Scores of archeological findings have been made which confirm in clear or in exact detail historical statements in the Bible.34(Gluek, 1960) The list of evidences is quite overwhelming. Ranging from the Tower of Babel, the Exodus, the listing of Kings, in correct chronological order, the walls of Jericho, and on and on it


goes. Again, this is not something to base ones doctrine or theology. It is just evidence of the authenticity of the scripture.

The Bible and science have always seemed to be at odds. This cant be farther from the truth. What is at odds isnt the Bible and science, but the presupposed hypothesis of those that have disregarded the Bible and have removed it from even the slightest possibility of consideration. There are several instances where the Bible has confirmed scientific fact long before science discovered it. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.(Gen 1:1). It should be noted that we have the five elements of science, as proposed by the British philosopher Herbert Spencer, listed in the first verse of the Bible. "In the beginning [time] God [force] created [action] the heavens [space] and the earth [matter]"35

The laws that govern our universe are seen in scripture as well. Simply stated, the first two laws of thermodynamic are: 1) Matter can neither be created nor destroyed, and 2) The universe and everything in it tend to go from a state of order to disorder unless energy is applied from an outside source. These two principles are well established in scripture. Paul writes in his letter to the Collosians; For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether [they be] thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:(Col 1:16) In Gensis 2:1, we read, Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. The word finished gives the sense of total completion, never to be done again. When God created the universe and all matter in it, there would never be anymore made.

The second law says that we are all wearing out. The universe and everything in it will one day find itself in a state of disorder. Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment, and they that dwell therein shall die in like manner: but my salvation shall be for ever, and my righteousness shall not be abolished.(Isa 51:6)


We can see this in everyday life. We have to constantly add energy to postpone the disorder that plagues this world. From the cosmic decay of the universe to the cleaning of my garage, all things are going downhill and there is nothing that can stop it save the redeeming of the universe by the Creator God Himself.

Other recent Biblical facts that are supported by scientific evidence are: Science The earth is suspended in space. Bible He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, [and] hangeth the earth upon nothing. (Job 26:7 KJV) All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea [is] not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again (Ecc 1:7 KJV) [It is] he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof [are] as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in: (Isa. 40:22 KJV)

The Water Cycle

The Earth is round

The Bible also speaks to radio waves, dinosaurs, biology, fossils, and oceanography and other disciplines. As science attempts to explain the world around us, the Bible has been supported time and time again by their findings. When science and the Bible seem to be contradictory, we can rest assured that it is science that should reconsider its position or be willingly ignorant of the scripture, or dumb on purpose. Christians need not fear science for true science can only be explained in the context and boundaries of scripture.

The Argument for the Influence of the Bible The Bible has been used as a textbook in the early colonial days. It has been a best seller since the records have been kept. It has fueled revolutions, inspired kings, and is the foundation of the American legal system. Images of Biblical figures have been painted, sculpted, and written about in the most noted of locations and in classical literature. No other book has had more influence over history and society as a whole as the Bible. Arthur Pink states that:


The Bible has done more for the emancipation and civilization of the heathen than all the forces which the human arm can wield, put together. Someone has said, Draw a line around the nations which have the Bible and you will then have divided between barbarism and civilization, between thrift and poverty, between selfishness and charity, between oppression and freedom, between life and the shadow of death. Even Darwin had to concede the miraculous element in the triumphs of the missionaries of the cross.36 The United States of America is undeniably the most powerful nation on the face of the planet. Although we have seemingly displaced our nation from the Christian ideals that our fathers died for, we can see in the opening statements of our Constitution that God is the underlying justification of the separation from Britain. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.37 The writings of Shakespeare are littered with numerous references to Biblical passages. Dozens of books have been written to compare and contrast his writings and the scriptural overtones that are evident in his comedies. More than any other single study, Shaheen's trilogy supplies the evidence to confirm Peter Milward's conclusion that the "deepest inspiration in Shakespeare's plays is both religious and Christian (1973,274). Shakespeare texts-though secular in orientation (see Frye 19-42)2 -are "charged with religious overtones, largely in virtue of their frequent, though unobtrusive, Biblical references (Milward 87).38 In the early 1500s, it was the desire to get back to Biblical truth that fueled the Reformation. In the 1700s, Americas freedom was born as a response to religious tyranny. In the 1800s, missionaries made great strides in changing entire civilizations with the preaching of the gospel. Billy Sunday, C.H. Spurgeon, and Dwight L. Moody had tremendous impact in this time period. In the 1900s we see the gospel changing the world one life at a time through the evangelistic efforts of Billy Graham and Chuck Smith. Writer and thinker A.W. Tozer produced works such as The Pursuit of God. Para-church organizations such as Focus on the Family, American Family Association, Back to the Bible, and others rally tremendous Christian influence on Senate and House votes. The influence of the Bible can be seen in virtually every part of life. However, for anyone who has been changed by the message of


the Bible, each says the greatest influence the Bible has ever had, is the change it has made the individuals soul.

The Argument for Fulfillment of Prophecy Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times [the things] that are not [yet] done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure: (Isa 46:10 KJV) Out of all the sections in this essay, this one is the most fulfilling (pardon the pun). The greatest evidence that the scripture is true and faithful is in its perfection in prediction of future events. This section will review two biblical predictions and list, in table form, several others. The most conservative of critics, and the most daring assailants of Gods Word are compelled to acknowledge that all the Books of the Old Testament were written hundreds of years before the incarnation of our Lord, hence, the actual and accurate fulfillment of these prophecies can only be explained on the hypothesis that Prophecy came not at any time by the will of men: but holy men of God, spake, moved by the Holy Ghost.39 The demise of the city of Tyre as described in Ezekiel 26 is a common reference to fulfilled prophecy. In this passage, Ezekiel vividly predicts not only that Tyer will fall, but gives details regarding the use of Tyer and the condition after the destruction. Note the comparison between the scriptural text and that of historical data by Phillip Myer. Here is the prophecy in Ezekiel. And they shall destroy the walls of Tyrus, and break down her towers: I will also scrape her dust from her, and make her like the top of a rock.(Eze. 26:4 KJV) And they shall make a spoil of thy riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise: and they shall break down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses: and they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the midst of the water. (Eze. 26.12 KJV)
And I will make thee like the top of a rock: thou shalt be [a place] to spread nets upon; thou shalt be built no more: for I the LORD have spoken [it], saith the Lord GOD. (Eze. 26:14)

Here is Phillip Myers account: "Alexander the Great reduced Tyre to ruins in 332 BC. Tyre recovered in a measure from this blow, but never regained the place she had previously held in the world. The larger part of the site of the once great city is now as bare as the top of a rock -- a


place where the fishermen that still frequent the spot spread their nets to dry" (Meyer)40 One of the most relentless proofs of Biblical accuracy in foretelling future events is found in the book of Daniel. It is an extraordinary book of prophecy. The events in Daniel have led many critics to believe that it must have been written after 160 BC due to the startling accuracy of the predictions. However, not only was Daniel found in Qumran as part of the Dead Sea Scrolls dating back to 200 BC, Josephus explains that when Alexander the Great came to Jerusalem in the fall of 332 BC, after defeating Tyer, he was presented with the book of Daniel. And when the Book of Daniel was showed him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present; but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favors they pleased of him; whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year.41(Josephus) Further evidence that Daniel was written prior to the events, lie in the prediction in chapter 9. This prophecy deals with the Messiah and his return to Jerusalem five hundred years prior to the birth of Jesus. Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. (Dan 9:25 KJV) The Babylonian calendar year is 360 days. This is used because Daniel wrote this while in captivity under the Babylonians. A week of years is equal to seven years each having 360 day in a year. Sixty-nine weeks of years would equate to 173,880 days or (69 x 7 x 360). This would be the number of days that would pass from the time the decree is made to rebuild Jerusalem until the Messiah would appear. This decree went out on March 14th, 445 BC, from Artaxerxes Longimanus. 173,880 days later, Jesus rides into Jerusalem on a donkey fulfilling this prophecy to the exact day.

Other prophecies were fulfilled by His subsequent death on the cross and resurrection from the dead, thus solidifying the claim that God authenticates His authorship by telling us the end from the beginning.


**The above table was taken from http://www.allabouttruth.org42

The statistical probability that Jesus would fulfill just seven of the hundreds of prophecies that were written of him, are outlined in the insert above. The denial of the divine

revelation as seen in the ability of scripture to accurately and categorically predict future events is statistically absurd.

The Argument for Scripture to Prove Scripture This final section concerning the argument for the Bible as the divine revelation of scripture will deal with how the Bible proves itself. This collection of sixty-six books, penned by over forty authors, over thousands of years is unique not only in analogy, indestructibility, character, influence, and fulfilled prophecy, but also in its integrated message or continuity of teaching. The Bible must be taken as a whole. It's all or nothing. Disregarding certain portions of scripture in favor of others cannot be done unless the Bible is not what it claims to be the revealed Word of God.43 To adequately exemplify the continuity of the Bible, we will look at two examples; the continuity found in the teaching of the trinity, and salvation by grace.


The doctrine of the Trinity is the Biblical teaching that the one true God exists in three separate persons. They are the essence of God revealed in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. It is true that the word, Trinity is not in the Bible. However, neither is

omniscient, but we use this term to describe an attribute of God. The same is true in the use of the Trinity to describe an attribute of God. The word Trinity is used in an effort to define the fullness of the Godhead both in terms of His unity and diversity.44 In a review of scripture as a whole, we can see this idea promoted throughout the Bible. A good analogy would be the dimension of time. Time exists in past, present, and future, yet it is all time. The establishment that God is one God can be found in the Old Testament and the New. I [am] the LORD, and [there is] none else, [there is] no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:(Isaiah 45:5 KJV) Thus saith the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I [am] the first, and I [am] the last; and beside me [there is] no God. (Isaiah 44:6 KJV) And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. (John 17:3 KJV) But to us [there is but] one God, the Father, of whom [are] all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom [are] all things, and we by him. (I Cor 8:6 KJV) The following table outlines passages in the Bible where God is God, yet He is performing as all three persons of the Trinity. Father
Called God Creator Resurrects Indwells Everywhere All knowing Sanctifies Life giver Fellowship Eternal A Will Phil. 1:2 Isaiah 64:8 1 Thess. 1:10 2 Cor. 6:16 1 Kings 8:27 1 John 3:20 1 Thess. 5:23 Gen. 2:7: John 5:21 1 John 1:3 Psalm 90:2 Luke 22:42

John 1:1,14; Col. 2:9 John 1:3; Col. 1:15-17 John 2:19, 10:17 Col. 1:27 Matt. 28:20 John 16:30; 21:17 Heb. 2:11 John 1:3; 5:21 1 Cor. 1:9 Micah 5:1-2 Luke 22:42

Holy Spirit
Acts 5:3-4 Job 33:4, 26:13 Rom. 8:11 John 14:17 Psalm 139:7-10 1 Cor. 2:10-11 1 Pet. 1:2 2 Cor. 3:6,8 2 Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1 Rom. 8:11; Heb. 9:14 1 Cor. 12:11


Speaks Love Searches the heart

Matt. 3:17; Luke 9:25 Luke 5:20; 7:48 John 3:16 Eph. 5:25 Jer. 17:10 Rev. 2:23

Acts 8:29; 11:12; 13:2 Rom. 15:30 1 Cor. 2:10

** The above chart was adapted from

Just as scripture proves scripture in the doctrine of the Trinity, it can also be found in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ. Grace is getting what we do not deserve. Each of us deserves death and the judgment of God. Jesus took our punishment and provided a way to be reconciled to God. It is our faith in the shed blood of the Lord in the total, finished work on the cross that saves. It is not our good deeds, our service, our heritage, or our church membership. It is the grace of God, through faith in Jesus and Jesus alone. This principle is standard through out scripture. We find this echoed in the Old Testament in the following passages:

And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. (Gen.12:3. KJV) This particular passage is speaking of Abraham. We know that Abraham was called out of the Ur of the Chaldees. This people were a Gentile nation that was deep into idol worship. It is safe to assume that Abraham was following after the traditions of his people when he was called out by God. It was only by grace that God chose Abraham to bless the world. Abraham did nothing to deserve this. It was by shear grace. And he believed in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness. (Gen. 15:6 KJV) What was accounted to Abraham as righteousness? The subject of this faith was that God would raise Isaac from the dead. When God told Abraham to sacrifice his son, Abraham knew that God must raise Isaac from the dead in order to complete the unconditional, unilateral covenant He had made. This is confirmed and explained in the New Testament in the following passage: And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, [saying], In thee shall all nations be blessed. So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham. For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed [is] every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, [it is] evident: for, The just shall live by faith. (Gal 3:8-11 KJV) 25

[Cometh] this blessedness then upon the circumcision [only], or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness. (Rom 4:9 KJV) Behold, his soul [which] is lifted up is not upright in him: but the just shall live by his faith. (Hab 2:4 KJV) This is the passage that revolutionized Martin Luthers thought, and ignited the flames of the Reformation. Luther finally realized that justification didnt come by good works, visits to holy sites, or by ritualistic procedures. This verse told Luther that the price was paid and it was by grace that God saves through faith in Jesus.

The Bible is its own interpreter. Obscure passages are explained in the light of more direct passages. It is our responsibility to interpret scripture in light of the entirety of the Bible. R.C. Sproul summarizes it well when he writes: The Bible itself is its own Supreme Court. The chief rule of biblical interpretation is sacred Scripture is its own interpreter. This principle means that the Bible is to be interpreted by the Bible. What is obscure in one part of Scripture may be made clear in another. To interpret Scripture by Scripture means that we must not set one passage of Scripture against another passage. Each text must be understood not only in light of its immediate context but also in light of the context of the whole of Scripture.46 Some say that the study of passages should be taking in context of the verses. To rightly divide the Word of God and get divine clarity, one must take passages in light of the entire of the Word.

In summary, the arguments set forth in the preceding essay are nothing but words on paper if souls are not won to the kingdom. The argument may be won, but if a soul is not transformed, the battle is lost. Of all the opinions made, of all the proofs given, the appeal goes to the conscience of man. There is a Savior, His name is Jesus.




Leibniz, Gottfried. (1714). Monadology, in Philosophical Essays, edited and translated by Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1989. Leibniz (1714), 33

Cheung, Vincent., CAPTIVE TO REASON, Copyright 2005 by Vincent Cheung. All rights reserved. Published by Reformation Ministries International PO Box 15662, Boston, MA 02215, USA., pg. 53.
4 5

Finney, Charles., Lectures on Systematic Theology--1851 Edition--Lecture LV., Lecture I; pg 23

Cheung, Vincent, SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY.,Copyright 2001, 2003 by Vincent Cheung. All rights reserved. Published by Reformation Ministries International PO Box 15662, Boston, MA 02215, USA., pg. 24 &25

Locke, John, AN ESSAY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING., 1689, Book 4, Chapter 1, Of Knowledge In General., Part 2
7 Missler, Chuck., Learn The Bible In 24 Hours., copy write 2002 by Chuck Missler., pg. 31-32 Missler, Chuck., Learn The Bible In 24 Hours., copy write 2002 by Chuck Missler., pg. 41 Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History. Book VIII, Ch. 2. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History. Book VIII, Ch. 2.

















Clark, B. J., The Indestructibility of the Bible As Proof of Inspiration, 1996, p. 61-62 COUNCIL OF TOULOUSE - 1229 A.D., Canon 14 THE COUNCIL OF TARRAGONA - 1234 A.D. Cannon 2



UNIGENITUS (Section 3)[2]Condemnation Of The Errors Of Paschasius Quesnel[1]Pope Clement XI Dogmatic Constitution issued on Sept. 8, 1713.





Ramsey, Sir William., St. Paul the Traveler and the Roman Citizen (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1951), pp. 7-8.


Gluek, Nelson., Rivers in the Desert., 1960, pg. 31 Pink, Aurthor W.., The Divine Inspiration of the Bible., Pg. 34 The Declaration of Independence., IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776 Naseeb, Shaheen., Biblical References in Shakespeare's Comedies., Univ. of Delaware Press, 1993 Pink, Aurthor W.., The Divine Inspiration of the Bible., Pg. 19 Myers, Phillip., General History for Colleges and High Schools., (Boston, Ginn & Co.) pg 55 Josephus, Flavius., Antiquities of the Jews - Book XI, viii, 3-5 Farinaccio, Joseph R.., Faith With Reason Why Christianity Is True., Pg.43









Sproul, R.C., Essential Truths of the Christian Faith., Part II -The Nature and Attributes of God, sect. 11- The Triunity of God., Copyright 1992 by R. C. Sproul



Sproul, R.C., Essential Truths of the Christian Faith., Part I- The Nature and Attributes of God, sect. 8- The Triunity of God., Copyright 1992 by R. C. Sproul


QUESTION AND ANSWER PAGE Q1: What is the difference between knowing something a priori and a posteriori? A1: knowledge that is a priori deserves no proof. It is innate. A posteriori is knowledge gained by experience. Q2. According to Leibniz, there are two kinds of truths. What are they? A2. Truths of reasoning and truths of fact. Q3. What is Psalm 19:1 and how does it apply to the a priori argument? A3. [To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.] The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork. (Psa 19:1 KJV). This passage shows that all are responsible to know that there is a God. Q4. What class of truth does Divine Revelation fall according to Finney? A4. The class of truth that needs proof. Q5. According to the online encyclopedia Encarta, define analogy? A5. the name of an inductive form of argument which asserts that if two or more entities are similar in one or more respects, then a probability exists that they will be similar in other respects. Q6. What is the meaning of the proper Hebraic root names in the genealogy between Adam and Noah and how does that prove as an analogy? A6. Man [is] appointed mortal sorrow, [but the] blessed God, shall come down, teaching, his death shall bring, [the] despairing comfort or rest. We can see in this outline that God is all knowing, outside of time and space, Loves His creation, God became flesh, the nature of sin, the effects of sin on man, and God is in control. Q7. How is the first mention of love in the Bible analogous to God? A7. The first time the word love is mentioned is in the context of God instructing Abraham to sacrifice his only begotten son. This mirrors Gods sacrifice of His own Son. Q8. Who was the first being to try and distort the Word of God? A8. Satan in the garden of Eden in the deception of Eve. Q9. What is Jeremiah 36:23 and how does it relate to the indestructibility of the Bible? A9. And it came to pass, [that] when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he cut it with the penknife, and cast [it] into the fire that [was] on the hearth, until all the roll was consumed in the fire that [was] on the hearth. (Jer. 36:23 KJV) Jehoiakim took a knife to Jeremiahs writings. The Lord gave the exact word back to Jeremiah and pronounced a blood curse on the house of Jehoiakim.


Q10. How did Diocletian attempt to destroy scripture? A.10: Diocletian issued an edict that all the churches and scripture was to be burned. Q11. What are other words that describe character? A11. Nature, quality, spirit, or moral fiber. Q12. In the transcription process, what are two of the rules the scribes had to adhere to when copying texts of the Bible. A12. The revision of a roll must be made within 30 days after the work was finished; otherwise it was worthless. ONE MISTAKE ON A SHEET CONDEMNED THE SHEET; IF THREE MISTAKES WERE FOUND ON ANY PAGE, THE ENTIRE MANUSCRIPT WAS CONDEMNED. Every word and every letter was counted, and IF A LETTER WERE OMITTED, AN EXTRA LETTER INSERTED, OR IF ONE LETTER TOUCHED ANOTHER, THE MANUSCRIPT WAS CONDEMNED AND DESTROYED AT ONCE."

Q13. How many proof texts of the New Testament do we have in our possession today? A13. Over 24,000. Q14. What is the percentage of accuracy ascribed to the New Testament in relation to the original text? A14. 99.5% Q15. What are the 2 laws of Thermodynamics? A15. 1) Matter can neither be created nor destroyed, and 2) The universe and everything in it tend to go from a state of order to disorder unless energy is applied from an outside source. Q16. How do they apply to the character of the Bible? A16. The Bible does not support science, science supports the Bible. If a scientific theory does not support a Biblical principle then it is the theory that needs to be adjusted. The two laws of thermodynamics can be seen in Gen. 2:1 and Col 1:16. Q17. What does Arthur Pink say about the influence of the Bible? A17. The Bible has done more for the emancipation and civilization of the heathen than all the forces which the human arm can wield, put together. Q18. What is the inscription above the bench of the Supreme Court of the United States? A.18. The 10 Commandments.


Q19. What does Joseph Farinaccio say concerning the ability of scripture to prove scripture? A19. The Bible must be taken as a whole. It's all or nothing. Disregarding certain portions of scripture in favor of others cannot be done unless the Bible is not what it claims to be the revealed Word of God. Q20. What advantage is a well established argument with a non-Christian if the end result isnt salvation? Q20. Nothing