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Chapter 1 Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have

on behavior within an organization. Disciplines of Org. Behavior Pyschology- the mental and behavior characteristic of an individual or group Sociology- Study of people in relation to their fellow human beings Social Psychology- influence of people on one another Three Levels of Individual Effectiveness 1. 2. 3. Three Theoretical Approaches of Effectiveness 1. Goal Approach- oldest/most widelyt used evaluation approaches Empahsizes goal achivement and western values 2. Systems Theory- group of elements that individually establish relationship w/each other Inputs Process Outputs Captial manufacturing Cars (Human Resources...goes back around in circles) 3. Stakeholder Approach (Invest, consumers, employee, community) Achieving balance among various parts of the system Stresses satisfying the interesting of the organizations/effectivness is achieved by satisfying the demand of the most powerful coalitions ex: womens groups, veterans, etc Mcdonalds Case: Hot Dogs were the most popular item, San Berandino, CA by Dick and Mac McDonald. Ray Kroc later bought and founded the corporation. Went from Hot Dogs to burgers, to chicken products. Chapter 2 Organizational Culture: A pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered or developed by a given group Schiens 3 Layer Organizational Model I. Artifacts (Creations) II. Values III. Basic Assumptions Four Types of Culture I. Clan Culture-working family, tradition+rituals, teamwork, spirit, Self-management 1. Nordstrom- employees called Nordies; make you feel that you are the organization II. Bearucratic Culture- Emphasizes rules, policies, procedures, chain of commane 1. Military- CEO Pres VP Mid-LVL Mgrs Employees III. Entrepreneural Culture- Innovation, creativity, risk taking, aggressively, seek opportunity 1. Facebook, Google, Apple (Free Thinkers) IV. Market Culture- Emphasis on increased sales and market share, financial stability, profit 1. Little feeling of teamwork and cohesivness Nike, Starbucks, Adidas Socialization- Process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, language and social skills that are the norm among a group or community

Three Stages of Socialization I. II. III. Chapter 3 Globalization- interdependacy of transportation, distribution, communication and economic network across international borders (Transportation: water, rail, air) Distribution: Manufactorer Wholesale Agent Retail Communication: Email, Skype, phone, etc National Culture: prevailing set of values, beliefs, attitudes and norms shared by a majority of the inhabitants of a country Embedded in the laws and regulations of a country Many vary between dominant and subcultures Hofstede: Studied the National culture of 40 different countries using IBM employees 4 Types of Cultural Dimensions Uncertainty Avoidance High <-------> Low High: Many written laws EX: Japan Low: Few Written Laws EX: US Masculinity vs Femininity Masculine: Aggressiveness/Assertiveness EX: Japan, US Feminine: Quality of Life EX: Norway, Sweden Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism: I more than We EX: US Collectivism: WE more than I EX: Japan Power Distance Large: Leaders should be supported (not ? Leadership) EX: Japan Small: Leaders held accountable EX: US Expatriate Managers- A manager for the firms home nation who is on an overseas assignment Three Phases of Culture Shock Phase I- Fascination (1-2 Months) Phase II- Frustration (2-3 Months) Phase III- Adaptation some americans like countries so much they retire there (1 month Expatriate Training 1. Predeparture- Language skills, training, personal/family orientation, career planning 2. Overseas Assignment- Language Skills, local mentoring, stress training, business issues 3. Repatraition- financial management, reentry, career management Classwork: Travel overseas with your family versus stay in the US, kids in HS

Chapter 4 Individual behavior- Is caused, goal directed, observed, measureable, motivated. Most people hate their jobs because they hate their superiors. Differences: Ability- a biological or learned trait that permits a person to do something mental or physical Skills- task related competetancy Job Anaylsis- defining and studying a job in terms of behavior 1. Perception- based on the five sense (sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing) 2. Stereotyping- over-generalizede and over simplified belief about people's personal charactoristics 3. Attribution- Processes by which individuals explain causes of behiavior and events 1. Internal vs External 4. Attitudes: can be changed 5. Personality: cannot be changed 6. Self Efficacy- ability to complete tasks or reach goals Chapter 5- Theories of Motivation Motivation: The result of forces actring on an employee that initiate and direct behavior Internal: Content Motivated factors within a person that energize External: Process Motivation describe, explain, analyze how behavior is energized Maslows Needs Theory: Lower needs must be met before moving up (college students)

Alderfer's ERG Theory (Content): Growth, Relatedness, Existence (Progression and Regression)

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (Content) Only one conducted in the workplace (200 Accountants/Engineers) Intrinisic Satisfiers and Motivators Ex: Work itself, Achievement and Recognition Extrinisic Dissatisfiers and Hygenic Factors Supervision, Working Conditions, Salary McClelland's Learned Needs Theory Need for Affilitation- need to interact with others Need for Achievement Need for Power Thematic Aperception Test (TAT)- shows which is most dominant in particular ppl Entrepreneur Case: Military, Laundromat, etc (Page 153) what motivates entrepreneurs Chapter 6 Operant Conditioning- A form of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by it's consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency and strength. Skinner's ABC Analysis Antecedents Behavior (Pos) Conseq 1 (Pos Rein) Conseq. 2(Neg Rein) Behavior (Neg) Conseq 1(Extinction) Cons. 2 (Punishment)m Goal Setting Theory Process of establishing goals Conscious Goals: Goals that a person is trying to achieve and is aware of when directing behavior Goal Specificity: level of performance required to achieve the goal Goal Difficulty: Level of performance to achieve the goal Goal Intensity: Process of setting a goal or determining how to reach it Goal Commitment: Amount of effort to achieve a goal Chapter 7 Stress- feleing tense, anxious or worried Stressor- any potentially threratening or harmful external event or situation

3 Causes of Individual Stress 1. Importance- will this matter next week? Month? If not does not have much importance 2. Uncertainty- not knowing what lies ahead 3. Duration- how long does the problem last? Work Stressor Role Conflict compliance with one set of expectation conflicts w/compliance with another set of expectations Qualitative Overload Lacking to ability of complete a job or feeling that perfomance standards are too high Quantitative Overload having too many things to do or insufficient time to complete a job Burnout- overworked Type A vs. Type B high strung versus laid back Wellness Programs Stress Prevention Chapter 8 Group- 2 or more employees who interact with each other; performance influenced by the others Formal created by managers/management Command comes together based on what the manager tells them to do Informal come together naturally through individual efforts (common interests) Management typically has no say or influence in the people in the group Group Development 1. Forming- group memebers get to know each others for the first time 2. Storming- conflict: everyone not on the same page, some may drop out 3. Norming- Group cohesiveness and buying into the goal 4. Performing- group gets started on the task at hand; real work begins; goals finished 5. Adjourning- group disbands, group no longer necessary Group-think everyone begins to think the same way about things. Group members can influence the opinions of others in the group Social Loafing some people in groups are okay with sitting around and doing nothing while others in the group do all of the work