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AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

The reformer tubes, which are usually design tohir limit creep-rupture life to 100,000hours, operate under severe conditions of an oxidizing environment. These processing conditions include a very hot atmosphere containing corrosive oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and particulates. The tube material is also under strain of carburization and metal dusting, and is subjected to extensive cyclic thermal and pressure shock loadings. Thus, the tube construction materials must have proven mechanical strength, high-temperature corrosion resistance and amenability to casting and welding. Moreover, they must be easily available at affordable costs. The new alloys, such as HK 40 and a wide variety of modern super alloys, are possible construction materials for furnace tubes. Cast alloys are the prime choice, they tolerate significantly higher concentrations of carbon, silicon, tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which are added to enhance mechanical properties and increase corrosion resistance. Within the modern ammonia processing, the metal working of the cast tubes has become more difficult. i. Answer these questions 1. The reformer tubes are usually design to: a. Have much life b. Create much life c. Get less life d. No one 2. The underline word dusting mean a. Dry dirty in the form of powder
b. The sot in the environment

c. Something is to prepare d. The metal cover 3. The main idea about the text is about: a. How the alloys are better to make limited creep-rupture life of tubes b. using alloys for better conditions of the tubes

c. having a better resistance of the tubes. d. No one. ii. Put (F) false or (T) true for these sentences.
1. You use wide variety of modern super alloys (

2. The mechanical properties and increase corrosion resistant are the characteristic of the alloys.( )

C.Fill the gaps with the correct passive using negative,modals and the verbs in the box. Describe, know expose,

1. Few students _______ ________ ________ to the story of the


early universe.

2. Cosmological densities __________ also ________ ___________


in terms of orders of magnitude. communities of our university

3. The chemists research _________ ___________by all

B. Fill the gaps with a correct modal negative, and the verbs in the box and Shall, (no),shoul can Be, maintain

affirmative, bond,

1. If the hydrogen partial pressure ______ _____ ______, the recycle gas _______ _____ bled 2. The abrasive sheet _______ ________ ________tightly to the drum using three evenly spaced double-faced pressure sensitive adhesive tapes. I. TRANSLATION Translate this paragraph

Hydrogen using processes that require high pressures and high purity, including hydrocracking , use hydrogen above the 100 kg/ cm2(15oo pisg) level. When a recycle gas system is used, the higher pressures are needed to maintain hydrogen partial pressure at the desired level as methane concentration in the hydrogen feed to hydrocracker increases. Sufficient hydrogen partial pressure promotes the intended reactions without producing undesirable coke

ii.

Choose the most suitable phrasal verbs in the box, using the correct tense and voice

Turn down, after, go up

give up,

keep on,

take

1. I _________ their offer of a job.

2. We _________ working through our lunch break 3. Robert _________ playing football years ago. 4. People say that I ____________ my father. 5. Unemployment _________________by 10% since last year. ii. Choose the most suitable passive according to the sentence 1. Credit ____________ where credit is due to the scientist research. a) Is given b) gives c) will be given 2. An earned doctorate from a reputable university_____________ ordinarily _____________to be acceptable training for research since 1950s. a) Has considered b) is considered c) will be considered 3. In the moderate cost fixed-tubes heat exchanges straight tubes ____________ at both ends in tube-Sheets welded to the shell in the last working. a) Are secured b) have secured c) were secured 4. The fig. 14 curves for sieve and valve trays ___________ on 20 trays being purchased in the last graph. a) Were based b) are based c) have based 5. The cases _____________ in a special course developed to scientific ethics. a) Can be used b) is used c) ought to be used Vocabulary Fill the gaps with the vocabulary in the box.

feasible, struggles, molds, gather

yeast,

1. The Arabians presidents leading petrochemical companies Will _______ in Colombia for the Second Forum of the World Chemical Industry.
2. The bakers make bread using butter,

salt. Flour and

________ . 3. Pickling provides a hostile environment for most microorganisms. However, some _________ may grow at these low pH values. 4. However, with ever-increasing computing power, these simulations are not only __________ .
5. A second meaning of ethics is ethical theory, a well

established branch of philosophy that studies the sources of human values and standards, and_________ to locate them within theories of the human individual and social condition,

READ THIS TEXT AND ANSWER THE QUESTION BELLOW.


Transgenic cottonwood plants expressing MerB (right) grow roots readily on concentrations of phenylmercury acetate that severely inhibit wild-type root growth (left) and MerA. The result of Melnick and Parkin helpsuch efforts by providing atomic-level insight into the basic mechanisms of carbon-mercury bond cleavage by thiols. In a highly innovative approach, Meagher and co-workers have engineered MerA MerB into plants to remediate methylmercury contamination. Remediation using plants is potentially more robust than bacterial remediation, because plants use solar energy, have roots that penetrate contaminated sediments, and accumulate a large aboveground biomass; furthermore, a few well-characterized plan species may be use to clean up contaminated wetland ecosystems. When they modified plants such a cottonwood trees and tobacco to express either MerB and MerA, the plants converted methylmercury to ionic mercury or elemental mercury, respectively. However, the elemental mercury was realizes into the atmosphere, where it may still pose a risk. Future studies must also evaluate the risks and benefits of introducing

genetically modified MerB-expressing plants with respect to the dangers associated with methylmercury contamination. Considerable work remains to be done to increase the efficiency and safety of current bioremediation systems for methylmercury involving MerB. Atomic level knowledge of the carbon-mercury bond cleavage, such as the results of Melnick and Parkin, is essen tial to efforts to reengineer MerB to improve its catalytic efficiency for the bioremediation of methylmercury. 1. The word MerB refers to a. Methylmercury b. Methylmercury-contaminated environment c. Methylmercury enzyme d. Metalmercury-degradingenzym
2. In the sentence: remediation using plants is potentially

more robust than bacterial the underline word is: a. Adjective b. Noun c. Verb in infinitive d. Gerund 3. The main idea of the text is: a. For bioremediation of methylmercury is essential to effort to reengineer MerB. b. It is essential to effors to reengineer MerB to improve its catalytic efficiency for bioremediation of methylmercury c. Remediate methylmercurycontamination 4. Melnick and Parking research: a. Help to solve the concentration of phenylmercury acetate that several inhibit wild type root growth b. Provide atomic-level insight into the basic mechanism of carbon mercury bond cleavage by thios c. Use plants because they use solar energy

d. Is

based in different studies of bioremediation of methylmercury efforing the reengineering MerB to improve its catalytic efficiency.

5. The elemental mercury was realized: a. Into the atmosphere b. By transgenic transformation c. In the laboratory d. By the energy solar. Answer the question usin True ( T ) or False ( F ) Srivastava and Joseph/1984) applied orthogonal collocation to a simplified form of the differential contactor model to determine the steady state and dynamic behavior of a packed distillation column. Using the simplifying assumptions of constant liquid and vapor flow rates, linear equilibrium relationships, and saturated liquid and vapor streams , they model the steady state behavior of the system consisting of water and ethanol. Their work showed that a fourth-order polynomial could give the same accuracy as a finiote difference technique with 25 grid points. However, as a finite difference method, orthogonal collocation can became computationally intensive as the polynomial order is increased. For example, when tow collation points were added to increase the polynomial to six order , the solution time nearly doubled. One way of keeping the polynomial order law is to use finite elements combined with some form of collocation. Recently Ally et. Al.(1990a, b) used the finite elements method together with the Galerkin method to solve the differential contactor model. The Galerkin method is more difficult to implement then the orthogonal collocation techniques as it involves solution of integral equations as opposed to solution of algebraic equations. The specific example system studied consisted of cyclohexane and toluene and the result indicated that the finite element gave the same solution as the finite difference approach. The finite difference method was found to be slower in convergence than the finite element method. In addition, they found that in going from four to six elements, the time to determine the solution doubled, whilw in going from four to eight, the solution time tripled. 1. The finite difference polynomial ( ) method showed a fourth order

2. The polynomial order is to use elements combined with form of collocation ( ) 3. The orthogonalcollocation technique is given by Aly ( ) 4. The Galarkin method with the finite element method solve the differential contactor model.( ) 5. Orthogonal collocation techniques is easier to implement for solving solution of integral equation ( ) I. Grammar 1. Use the relative word to complete the sentences a. Thats the church _____________ ken and Ann were married b. Whats the name of the restaurant ____________ you had lunch c. I dont understand the reason ____________ my mother doesn t want me to go the party. d. Do you remember the time __________you have your appointment. e. She is the woman ___________ ( Her husband) teaches at university.
2. Replace the words in italics with one of the phrasal verbs. a. An employment has increased by 20 % since last year.

__________________________________________
b. Mr. and Mrs. May never recover from the tragic death of

their son. __________________________________________________


c. My grandfather never broke a promise.

________________________________________________
d. Jane

inherited a grandmother died.

great

deal

of

money

when

her

_________________________________________________
e. Weve examined the problem very carefully

_________________________________________________

READ THIS TEXT AND ANSWER THE QUESTION BELLOW. USE TRU (T) OR FALSE TO ( F) THE ANSWER.
Transgenic cottonwood plants expressing MerB (right) grow roots readily on concentrations of phenylmercury acetate that severely inhibit wild-type root growth (left) and MerA. The result of Melnick and Parkin helpsuch efforts by providing atomic-level insight into the basic mechanisms of carbon-mercury bond cleavage by thiols. In a highly innovative approach, Meagher and co-workers have engineered MerA MerB into plants to remediate methylmercury contamination. Remediation using plants is potentially more robust than bacterial remediation, because plants use solar energy, have roots that penetrate contaminated sediments, and accumulate a large aboveground biomass; furthermore, a few well-characterized plan species may be use to clean up contaminated wetland ecosystems. When they modified plants such a cottonwood trees and tobacco to express either MerB and MerA, the plants converted methylmercury to ionic mercury or elemental mercury, respectively. However, the elemental mercury was realizes into the atmosphere, where it may still pose a risk. Future studies must also evaluate the risks and benefits of introducing genetically modified MerB-expressing plants with respect to the dangers associated with methylmercury contamination. Considerable work remains to be done to increase the efficiency and safety of current bioremediation systems for methylmercury involving MerB. Atomic level knowledge of the carbon-mercury bond cleavage, such as the results of Melnick and Parkin, is essen tial to efforts to reengineer MerB to improve its catalytic efficiency for the bioremediation of methylmercury.

6. The word MerB refers to methyl mercury ( ) 7. Melnick and Parkin studied the thiol into the plants ( ) 8. To remediate methylmercury contamination, Meager and coworkrt have engineered MerA and Mer B into the plants ( ) 9. The bacterial remediation is higher than using plants.( ) 10. Using general plants is possible to clean up wefland ecosystem ( )

Read the text and answer the questions bellow

We are having problems in introductory science educations. Weve have them for decades, even with all the proposed reforms; interest in science is waning. The proposed reforms are different versions of the same process that led to this decline. We teach science in this country using texts, dogmas, definitions, and tests, answering questions never asked. Theory isnt the way The call for more labs and demonstration is tokenism. Give the demo, and then fill the board with an explanation? Thats not science! Okay, give the definition, and then the lab to confirm it, .Thats not science either. The bottom line seems to be a chance to present the latest theory an early on, not later. We teach this theory as if the students were clamoring for it. They couldnt care less. But we love it, and the students soon learn to hate science because they perceive science is really all about theory. If so, Why study science? Ideally, a science teacher is there to present the phenomena and allow the students to explore, without interference. If this were the case, many teachers argue, you would never get into all the details of the latest theories. After all, what experiences are going to prompt high school students to ask about atoms and orbitals, much less quarks and leptons? We have so much to communicate. We must saturate the students, as the textbooks do. We do not have the discipline to hold back.
1. In the first line of the text the underline word them, refers to:

a. Science educations b. Students c. Problems d. Theories 2. The underline word waning is a/an:
a. Verb in gerund

b. Noun c. Adjective d. Verb in continuous 3. The main idea about the text is: a. Teaching science through history b. Teaching science through textbooks c. Teaching science is a tokenism
d. We do not have a discipline for teaching science

4. What title could you give to this paragraph a. Theory is not the way b. Science through dogmas c. Teaching science through theory d. Prompt high school students with the science 5. The author has tried to say with this expression We teach this theory as if the students were clamoring for it a. The students want to know theory b. The teachers need to transmit the latest theory c. The theory is very important for the students d. The theory is the latest source for learning science

I. GRAMMAR i. . Complete the sentences using the passive perfect


1. Why is all this rubbish still here?

It ought to ___________ (throw way) yesterday. 2. You shouldnt have left all that money in your hotel room. It could __________ (steal) 3. It was lucky that you didnt fall off the ladder. You might _________ (kill) 4. The sweater I wanted to buy isnt in the shop window any more. It must _________Sell)

5. Someone should tell Sally what happened. Probably she might ____________(Hear)
ii.

Replace the words in italics with one of the phrasal verbs in the box using the correct tenses
Takes after, down (2) hold up, turn down, break

1. I refuse their offer of a job.

_______________________
2. Our flight was delayed by bad weather

__________________________________________________
3. Mr. Mrs. James have never left to cry from the tragic death of

their son _________________________________________________________


4. People say I am like my father

_________________________________
5. The banks computer has stopped working six times this week

already! ____________________________________________________________ iii. There are mistakes in some of these sentences . Find the mistake and correct them (Relative clauses)

1. Ive lost the key you gave me. ___________________________________________ 2. They are the couple my parents went on holiday with. ___________________________________________ 3. Johns father gave me the taxi fare, what was very nice of him. _________________________________________________________________

4. Where is the newspaper who I bought it this morning. _________________________________________________________________ 5. Is that the man sold you the car? _________________________________________________________________

iv.

Vocabulary Fill the gaps with the vocabulary in the box.

Bargain, struggles, molds, gadgets

yeast,

6. The civil engineer need _____________for repairing the roads for our natural disaster. 7. The bakers make bread using butter, salt. Flour and ________ 8. Pickling provides a hostile environment for most microorganisms. However, some _________ may grow at these low pH values. 9. An external __________ that members of the profession make with themselves and external ___________ that the profession make with society. 10. A second meaning of ethics is ethical theory, a well established branch of philosophy that studies the sources of human values and standards, and _________ to locate them within theories of the human individual and social condition,

Text N2
If we cant provide the experiences needed to prompt scientific inquiry, perhaps we could start with the experience the students already have the technology of their daily experience. This technology (most of which preceded science or does not depend of scientific theory is real, and can be seen not only in our present context, but in historical context. The historical context puts science in its place, puts the student into a real word of metallurgy, baking, fermentation, steam engines, international combustion engines, photography, dyes and

pigments, refrigerators, batteries, generators, electric motors, lights, telephones, radios, and TV, to mention only a few topics. (Just think how much science students would learn if they tried to understand these wonders. And not an atom or quark will be needed perhaps only an electron.) None of these depend on scientific theory. More often, they inspire theoreticians. 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d. 5. a. b. c. d. The everyday experiences are necessary for: prompting scientific inquiry Historical contest Learning more about the science Giving a support to scientific theory Scientific theory depends of : Studying atom or quark A historical technology A historical context. No one. The underline phrase these wonders means: These marvelous These magnificence These important No one The main idea about the text is: To introduce to the students to technology Use their experiences to teach science To use their technology experiences for teaching science Puts science in historical context. The title of this paragraph could be: The scientific theory The science and the history Real world of the science The everyday experiences. II. GRAMMAR i. Complete the sentences. Use will or going to and the verbs in the box. Teach lend live buy meet rain bite take look have

1. Would you like to come to the cinema with us? All right. I__________ at seven. 2. Look at those black clouds. It _________. 3. Have you seen my tennis racket? No. I havent. Just a minute. I _______ in the cupboard.

ii.

Fill the gaps with present continuous or going to.

1. It _________ (rain) tomorrow. 2. Be careful! You __________ (break) those glasses

ii.
1. 2. 3.

Use the correct conditionals, filling the gaps of these sentences.

If you _________(ask) me, I would have helped you. If you had gone out without a coat., you _______________ (catch) a cold. He always _________ __________(get) angry if you talk to him aout politics. 4. I _________ _________(not leave ) my last job if the wages had been better 5. If we mix yellow and blue, we __________(obtain) green.

b) Were based b) are based c) have based 6. The cases _____________ in a special course developed to scientific ethics. b) Can be used b) is used c) ought to be used i. Fill the gaps with the correct passive using negative, modals and the verbs in the box.

Describe, know

expose,

4. Few students _______ ________ ________ to the story of the

early universe. 5. Cosmological densities __________ also ________ ___________ in terms of orders of magnitude. 6. The chemists research _________ ___________by all communities of our university

ii.

Complete the sentences using the passive perfect.


It ought to ___________ (throw way) yesterday. You shouldnt have left all that money in your hotel room. It could __________ (steal)

6. Why is all this rubbish still here? 7.

8. It was lucky that you didnt fall off the ladder. You might _________ (kill) 9. The sweater I wanted to buy isnt in the shop window any more. It must _________(Sell) 10. Someone should tell Sally what happened. Probably she might ____________(Hear)

iii.

Choose the most suitable phrasal verbs in the box, using the correct tense and voice

Turn down, after, go up

give up,

keep on,

take

6. I _________ their offer of a job.

7. We _________ working through our lunch break 8. Robert _________ playing football years ago. 9. People say that I ____________ my father. 10. Unemployment _________________by 10% since last year.

Text N 2
The history of technology and its influence on society (and science) has to be more relevant than plunging students into the morass of strange symbols and equations. Science as we teach it today from todays text books, cannot taught like literature or history. Students can interpret literature and history (if properly taught) but science is dogma pure and simple. A history of science, on the other hand, can be open to interpretation, and helpful in pointing out how science and technology could and should develop. A science text does not allow for controversy. A history of science does. Why not let kids see the technicians at work: the metallurgists, the makers of clocks and pumps, , the bakers, the wine makers, olive processors (how they figure out how to neutralize the horrible acid of the raw olive?), soap makers, glass blowers, and the 19th century inventors who saw the potential in electrical discoveries as they were made. 1. The main idea about the text is: a. The history of technology b. How to teach technology c. How science and technology could and should develop

d. Introduce to students to history of science and technology 2. The title could be: a. How to teach science and technology to the students. b. The advantages and disadvantages the history of science c To introduce the kids to the technicians d theory is the best way. 3. The history of science serves to students: a. to observe how science and technology develop b. to observe how science and technology develop and can be opened to interpret c. Can be open to have an experimentation d. To give information about every day experiences 4. The underline word in the sentence the history of technology and its influence on society has to be more relevant is: a. Possessive pronoun b. Object pronoun c. Adjective d. Reflexive pronoun 5. In the sentence and helpful in pointing out how science and the underline word is: a. Gerung verb b. Infinitive verb c. A noun d. An adjective i. Complete the sentences with be going to or will.
1. Would you like a drink? Oh, yes, _______ a coke. Thank

you. a. Ill have b. Im going to have

2. Dont go out without a coat on. _________ a cold.


a. Youll catch

b. You are going to catch

I. READING Read the text and answer the questions bellow.


The dynamic nature of batch distillation introduces several key simulation issues which do not arise in the continuous case. First dynamic models must be distributed in time and at least the axial direction (Aly et al. , 1990a. Secondly, an efficient solution technique must be employed for the large systems of equations which typically arise. Conventional simulation packages are unable to solve the differential contactor model equations which represent batch

distillation simultaneously for all variables over the time span of interest without using an equation tearing algorithm to migrate numerical difficulties (Hitch and Rosseau, 1988). This results in iterative approach that requires the respective solution of the system of model equations until convergence is obtained. Efficiency in the execution in the models also becomes critical when such model are used to determine optimal operation policies in real time. While in the domain of staged models, short-cut methods are fairly established for reducing computational time (Diwekar and Madhavan, 1991; Sundaram and Evans, 1993), the corresponding continuous models have received little attention in the literature. 1. The dynamic nature of batch distillation does not arise in the continuous case because of: a. Several key simulation issues b. Dynamic models c. Large system of equation d. No one. 2. Conventional simulation packages: a. Can solve the different contactor model b. Can not solve the different contactor model equations c. Can not represent batch distillation. d. Organized batch distillation 3. In the underline sentence which is about: a. Personal noun b. Relative pronoun of defining relative clause c. Relative pronoun of no- defining relative clause. d. Object pronoun. 4. When models are used to determine optimal operation policies in real time, the efficiency in the execution of model became a. Optimal b. Less sure

c. crical d. a bit sure. 5. The summary about the text could be: a. Batch distillation in package has been recognize as an effective model as an effective method for carrying out separation of fine chemicals. b. Batch distillation in package has been recognize as an effective model as an effective method for carrying out separation of fine chemicals and is flexible and cheaper than a stage column

c. The batch distillation have received little attention in the literature d. Numerical solution approaches to multicomponent batch distillation in packed bed. II. GRAMMAR i. There are mistakes in all of these sentences. Find the mistake and correct them 1. Have you seen the book which it was on my desk? ________________________________________ 2. They are the couple my parents went on holiday with ___________________________________________

3. The girl which she answered the phone said you weren t at home.

4. Where is the newspaper who I bought it this morning. _____________________________________________________ 5. Johns father gave the taxi fare, what was very nice of him ________________________________________________ ii. Join each idea in A with the most suitable idea in B using which A B

1.

she lend me the money( generous of her

a. This was very b. this made drive

2. They had to wait for over dangerous An hour. ( ) 3. There was a delicious very Smell coming front the Kitchen ( ) 4. I new you didnt want to go very hungry To the concert ( ) 5. There was a lot of snow on dangerous. The roads ( )

c. This annoyed them much

d. It made us all feel

e. this made driving

III.

VOCABULARY

Match the column A with column B to get the meaning of the words

1. Iterative ( sure 2. Accuracy ( repetitive

) ) ) ) )

a. to be b. c. d. only c.

3. Solely ( represented 4. Depicted ( 5. span ( increase

D.Passive

Fill the gaps with the correct passive using negative,modals and the verbs in the box. Describe, expose, use, supply know,

1. Few students _______ ________ ________ to the story of the


early universe.

2. Cosmological densities _________ also ________ ___________


in terms of orders of magnitude. communities of our university. annually in the United States.

3. The chemists research _________ ___________by all 4. Five million of tons of pesticides __________ ________ 5. Our vegetables and meat _____ _____________ by farmers. A. Vocabulary Fill the gaps using the words in the box Wan, led. Prompt, gadgets, insights,
1. Many scientists will not ignore Mendeleevs _____________ into

the real properties of the elements. 2. The interest of the science _____________in the third world because they are interested in other things. 3. The U.S.A. _________ the Irak war. 4. The scientist teacher ________ the teaching into the theory. 5. After all, What experiences are going to _________ high school students to ask about atoms and orbitals, much less quarks and leptons?

II. READING

Read this paragraph and answer the question bellow.

Mans knowledge of chemistry is growing at an ever-increasing rate, and his understanding of the laws governing the behavior of atoms and aggregates of atoms is undergoing constant review and modification as new facts are discovered. Most of the laws and principles of chemistry which we regard as useful today have been formulated during the past 150 years by physicists and chemists engage in pure or academic research. In the nineteenth century these workers often carried out their investigation in their own private laboratories; in this century, however research has become both more organized and more expensive, and fundamental research is most commonly pursued in universities and research institutes. Parallel to this development of our understanding of the fundamentals of chemistry, there has been accumulated a vast body of knowledge loosely termed applied chemistry, which is concerned with those chemicals and chemical reactions which are of economic importance. 1. The main idea of the text is: a. The laws and the knowledge about the atoms. b. The constant review and modification of atoms laws. c. The research in the last century. d. The development of our fundamentals of chemistry understanding of the

2. The laws governing the behavior of atoms and aggregates of atoms are undergoing constant review and modification due to: a. The new discovered b. The constant research by the physicists and chemists c. The investigation in the last century d. The mans knowledge 3. The applied chemistry appeared due to:

a. A vast body of knowledge b. A vast body accumulated knowledge c. Those chemicals and chemical reactions which are of economic importance d. No one. 4. The underline word Knowledge is: a. A verb b. A noun c. A direct object d. And adverb 5. The laws and principles of chemistry that are useful today: a. Have been formulated one hundred fifty years ago b. During one hundred and fifty years c. Last century d. Are formulated by the workers. iii.
6. 7. 8.

Use the correct conditionals, filling the gaps of these sentences.

If you _________(ask) me, I would have helped you. If you had gone out without a coat., you _______________ (catch) a cold. He always _________ __________(get) angry if you talk to him aout politics. 9. I _________ _________(not leave ) my last job if the wages had been better 10. If we mix yellow and blue, we __________(obtain) green.

c) Were based b) are based c) have based 7. The cases _____________ in a special course developed to scientific ethics. c) Can be used b) is used c) ought to be used

Read this text and answer the questions bellow


We are having problems in introductory science educations. Weve have them for decades, even with all the proposed reforms; interest in science is waning. The proposed reforms are different versions of the same process that led to this decline. We teach science in this country

using texts, dogmas, definitions, and tests, answering questions never asked. Theory isnt the way The call for more labs and demonstration is tokenism. Give the demo, and then fill the board with an explanation? Thats not science! Okay, give the definition, and then the lab to confirm it, .Thats not science either. The bottom line seems to be a chance to present the latest theory an early on, not later. We teach this theory as if the students were clamoring for it. They couldnt care less. But we love it, and the students soon learn to hate science because they perceive science is really all about theory. If so, Why study science? Ideally, a science teacher is there to present the phenomena and allow the students to explore, without interference. If this were the case, many teachers argue, you would never get into all the details of the latest theories. After all, what experiences are going to prompt high school students to ask about atoms and orbitals, much less quarks and leptons? We have so much to communicate. We must saturate the students, as the textbooks do. We do not have the discipline to hold back.
6. In the first line of the text the underline word them, refers to:

e. Science educations f. Students g. Problems h. Theories


7. The underline word waning is : e. A verb in gerund f. A noun g. An adjective

h. A verb in continuous 8. The main idea about the text is: e. Teaching science through history f. Teaching science through textbooks

g. Teaching science is a tokenism


h. We do not have a discipline for teaching science

9. What title could you give to this paragraph e. Theory is not the way f. Science through dogmas g. Teaching science through theory h. Prompt high school students with the science 10. The author has tried to say with this expression We teach this theory as if the students were clamoring for it e. The students want to know theory f. The teachers need to transmit the latest theory g. The theory is very important for the students h. The theory is the latest source for learning science Read the text and answer the question bellow. Methylmercury toxicity was first observed on a large scale in Japan in the 1950s due to the consumption of contaminated fish from Minamata Bay. The contamination was caused by a nearby chemical factory discharging high concentrations of ionic mercury, which was converted to methylmercury and bioaccummulated in the fish. Select strains of bacteria are resistant to mercury compounds through the acquisition of a transferable genetic element known as the mer operon. The mer operon is a dedicated set of mercury-resistant genes that are self-regulated by the DNA-binding protein MerR. Bacteria resistant to both ionic mercury and methylmercury code for proteins that regulate mercury transport (MerA, MerP, MerT)and mercury degradation (Mer A and MerB). Mercury compounds are toxic because they bind very strongly to thiol groups in proteins. The mer system exploits this property by binding to mercury compounds with high affinity through thiol-containing cysteine residues. 1. The methylmercury toxicity in Japan is due: a. The contamination by nearby chemical factory and consumption of contaminated fish

b. The body reaction from the contaminated fish. c. The discharging of ionic mercury d. No one. 2. The underline phrase dedicated set means: a. An applied group b. Detected group c. Known group
d. Permanent gens

3. The main idea about the text is: a. How does not contaminate the water b. The methylmercury toxicity c. Some select strains is resistant to a mer operon d. Bacteria resistant to ion mercury. 4. Mercury compounds are toxit due to: a. To untie very strongly to thiol groups in proteins. b. They link very strongly to thiol groups in proteins. c. To join to thiol groups. d. No one 5. The thiol- containing cysteine residues is critical because of: a. The direct transfer of ionic mercury between members of the mer system. b. Only for the enzymatic reactions by MerA and MerB. c. The enzymatic reactions by MerA and MerB d. A and c.

Text N 4 The dream of cleaner energy will never be realized as long as the balance is tilted toward dirty technologies. For a start, governments

must scrap perverse subsidies that actually encourage the consumption of fossil fuels. Some of these, such as cash given by Spain and Germany to the coal industry, are blatantly wrong-headed. Others are less obvious, but no less damaging. A clause in Americans clean air acts, exempt old coal plants from complying with current emission rules, so much of Americas electricity is now produced by coal plants that are over 30 years old. Rather than closing this loophole, the Bush administration has announced measures that will give those dirty old clunkers a new lease on life. Nor are poor countries blameless: many subsidize electricity heavily in the name of helping poor people, but rich farmers and urban elites then get to guzzle cheap (mostly coalfired) power. 1. The title of the text is : a. Dirty technologies b. Americas electricity c. Fossil fuels d. The dream of cleaner energy 2. The meaning of the underline word scrap in line 2 means: Deposit Charge Throw out Increase The underline word these in line three refers to: Fossil fuels The consumption of fossil fuels The governments The fuels The word clunkers is: a. An adjective b. A noun c. A verb a d. A adverb 5. Get to guzzle cheap (mostly coal-fired) power, refers to: a. Cheap energy b. Cheap power is a tricky help c. Reach people and poor people is using subsidize energy. d. Reach people and poor people squander subsidize energy.

a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4.

GRAMMAR v. . Complete the sentences using the passive perfect

11. Why is all this rubbish still here?

It ought to ___________ (throw way) yesterday. 12. You shouldnt have left all that money in your hotel room. It could __________ (steal)

13. It was lucky that you didnt fall off the ladder. You might _________ (kill) 14. The sweater I wanted to buy isnt in the shop window any more. It must _________Sell) 15. Someone should tell Sally what happened. Probably she might ____________(Hear)