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Optimal Water Distribution System Management Using ESRI MapObjects Technology

By Werner de Schaetzen, Ph.D and Paul F. Boulos, Ph.D


MWH Soft, Inc.
300 North Lake Avenue, Suite 1200, Pasadena, CA 91101
www.mwhsoft.com

Abstract

Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is quickly becoming a critical


component to develop and sustain asset management for today's water utilities. Used as a
spatial database, GIS can greatly assist in various modeling applications through the
development of automated tools for constructing and maintaining reliable hydraulic
network models of water distribution systems. This paper presents a comprehensive GIS-
based decision support system, called H2OMAP Utility Suite, for use in the effective
planning and management of water distribution systems. It links an advanced hydraulic
network simulator with geospatial technology and optimization theory to address every
facet of network modeling and asset management. Built with ESRI MapObjects
technology, the resulting software will effortlessly read GIS data, extract necessary
modeling information, and automatically construct, skeletonize, load, calibrate, secure
and optimize a representative network model. It also makes it easy to run and simulate
various modeling conditions, identify optimal monitoring stations, locate system
deficiencies, and determine the most cost-effective improvements for optimum
performance. The optimization model uses an efficient variation of the genetic algorithm
for solving network model calibration, field sampling design, pump scheduling, and
network design and rehabilitation problems in an optimal fashion. The integrated
approach offers a virtual geospatial environment to assist water industry executives and
professionals in formulating, evaluating and prioritizing facility management and
infrastructure security strategies.

Introduction

Computer simulation models of water distribution systems represent the most effective
and viable means for evaluating system response to various management strategies. To be
effective, these models require extensive spatial and hydraulic infrastructure data readily
available from GIS. This information system format is unique in its ability to capture and
store facility data and spatial reference for asset management and eventual hydraulic
network model integration. It provides functions for development and preparation of
pertinent spatial information for input to network models as well as functions to facilitate
graphical output display for evaluating results. Added visualization tools can be applied
using spatial and aspatial queries of model results to help identify correlation between
input parameters and model results. Therefore, the integration of water distribution
network models with GIS is a natural development of hydraulic simulation tools
complemented with the evolution and maturation of relational database technology.

While many powerful water distribution modeling software exist, few are currently
integrated with a GIS platform. Engineers familiar with the (CAD) environment have
grown increasingly dependent on the hydraulic software's usability, interface, and CAD-
like features. Likewise, enterprise GIS software has not been tailored, both in terms of
price and functionality, to serve the requirements of water distribution planning and
analysis. As such, software for the analysis of water distribution systems was normally
created in the CAD environment to receive acceptance from an engineering community
already familiar with AutoCAD for other civil applications. No such software however,
has been developed to integrate the water distribution modeler's needs with the data and
spatial reference abilities of GIS.

This paper presents a new perspective to water distribution planning and management. It
is a unique network analysis platform that addresses the requirements of the modeling
engineer while providing the functionality of a GIS for consistent facility asset
management1-2. The graphical interface is developed using ESRI's MapObjects
geospatial technology and provides an informative structured framework for database
management and complete network model construction, analysis, and result presentation.

Water utility engineers are responsible for ensuring the safe and efficient supply of
drinking water. The role of a GIS in the analysis of a distribution system is to provide up-
to-date and accurate data to be used in the engineering analysis. For years, engineers have
exported data from GIS data sets to third party software for analysis and design of water
distribution systems. Applications and functionalities such as energy and fire flow
analysis with the ability to model different demand and operating scenarios were not fully
recognized in GIS software. Therefore, leaving the GIS environment was necessary to
use this data with other advanced modeling and planning tools. While efforts to date have
proven successful in allowing very basic engineering analysis from a GIS, engineers have
been reluctant to embrace and utilize this technology.

Part of the reason for this reluctance can be attributed to the way many GIS software treat
data elements. For example, a water distribution system that serves 150,000 people may
have a GIS that contains anywhere from 100,000 to 250,000 separate pipe segments.
From an engineering perspective, this many pipe segments are not feasible for an
accurate and manageable hydraulic model. Presuming that a GIS were able to
successfully model that many elements, engineers will not want the task of evaluating the
voluminous amount of data generated from such an extensive hydraulic simulation.
Another reason for the hesitation to use a GIS software for network analysis lies in the
difficult command structures of many GIS software packages. Engineers familiar with
CAD based solutions may not find a GIS network modeling package as intuitive, and
would thus resist a new format which may not appear to bring much additional
functionality. Still another reason for this reluctance may be the speed of the analysis
software. Engineers are used to working with time and budget constraints that will not
include extra time to run a lengthy and time-consuming hydraulic simulation. One final
and extremely practical reason for not choosing a GIS-hydraulic model package may be
the cost of many GIS modeling solutions. Spending upwards of $15,000 to create and run
a model that is less robust and has fewer features than a $6,000 solution may prove
difficult to justify, especially for most users who are tied to a fixed budget.
It is for these reasons that engineers have opted to export the necessary data from a GIS
into a third party software application designed specifically for the engineering analysis
of a water distribution system. Therefore, the GIS exporting process has become an
accepted task among engineers and has raised some common issues among practicing
modelers.

Duplication of Data

One potential problem with exporting data outside of a GIS and into a third party
software application for engineering analysis is the fact that a duplication of data may be
created. Once this occurs it becomes very difficult to ensure integrity between the two
data sets in the future (one data set being from the GIS, the other being from the
hydraulic model). This occurs because engineering models take on a life of their own
outside of a GIS3. Engineers spend hours tailoring the model to match existing field
conditions. Pumps, pressure reducing valves, storage reservoirs, wells, closed pipes, etc.
are all addressed by the engineer in the hydraulic modeling software that would otherwise
be disregarded by the GIS manager. The engineer also goes to great lengths to ensure data
integrity within the model for the purpose of running a hydraulic simulation. Pressure
zone boundaries are delineated, demand area polygons are created and point loads are
determined. All of these activities bring about the modification and adjustment of existing
facilities as well as the creation of new facilities, further complicating the task of taking
modeling data back to the GIS.

Finding Errors

While duplication of data is a potential risk when creating an engineering model from a
GIS, a recognized advantage is finding errors in GIS graphic and non-graphic data sets.
When GIS mapping began, the first step for a city/utility was to decide how to best go
about creating the data and which department would oversee and supervise this process.
Many cities had decided to outsource data creation and then assigned an internal
Information Systems (IS) division to review the contract scope and continue data
management upon project completion. Due to outsourcing, many cities received facility
data sets that were not thoroughly inspected for data accuracy. The engineering and
operations departments, not realizing the future impact of these outsourcing contracts,
were not included in the data creation process. Because of the combination of outsourcing
and IS oversight (not being aware of data needed by the engineer), preliminary data
integrity of a hydraulic system which is built directly from the GIS may be questionable.
While many cities believe they possess a highly accurate GIS, it is only until the
engineering department, in collaboration with the operations department, utilizes GIS
data for the sake of creating a water master plan that the GIS inaccuracies are discovered.
It is at the time of a model creation for a system-wide master plan that issues regarding
pipe diameters, materials, location, connectivity, etc. are thoroughly reviewed and
inspected. What many find is that the GIS data set consists of errors that require further
investigation and correction. Many master plans are delayed while GIS data discrepancies
are adjusted to match field conditions.
While these errors may be addressed and resolved in the hydraulic model, little is done to
ensure that all corrections are taken back to the GIS. In many instances, once a hydraulic
model is created for a master plan, the model becomes more accurate than the original
GIS data used in its creation. A solution to this problem can now be realized using an
integrated geospatial network modeling methodology.

A New Geospatial Solution

The proposed geospatial software, H2OMAP Utility Suite, approaches water modeling
from a GIS-centric point of view for spatial database management and analysis and
works to avoid the duplication effort involved in the creation of a hydraulic network
model. Built entirely with ESRI MapObjects technology, the software uses the Shapefile
(an industry standard GIS format) as its native data format. Therefore, as pipes and nodes
are created, these data elements are also stored externally to the program as Shapefiles,
ready to be viewed and edited by any third party GIS application. This integrated
approach introduces a completely new perspective to the application of GIS standards
with network modeling. It is further developed to host in a unifying framework the
variety of processes required for constructing, calibrating, and optimizing water
distribution network models. The integrated system combines the ability to accurately
build network topology, prepare requisite data, conceive and evaluate multiple scenarios,
execute optimization runs, and provide both hardcopy reporting and graphical output
display for evaluating and presenting results.

The ability to make maximum use of all available data, from any department or source,
allows the utility to manage their infrastructure systems more effectively. Since each
department in an organization can control its own data while giving other departments
easy access to its most current and accurate information, data is shared rather than
duplicated and thus, saving time and money across the organization. The following
example is provided to demonstrate the system's ability to reduce user errors and
facilitate network model creation.

Sample Project

A city has decided to undertake a water system master plan. Using the city GIS water
coverage, the GIS department assigns a unique value (or ID) to each water facility in the
GIS. The data is then saved as a Shapefile and imported into the software. The engineer
then works on the hydraulic model, assigning pump curves to pumps, settings to control
valves, etc. In the process, the engineer establishes connectivity and assigns facilities to
their appropriate pressure zone. The engineer proceeds to work on the hydraulic model,
rectifying problem areas during model construction. Since the data is automatically stored
as Shapefiles, the GIS manager views the modeling data in a GIS program to update
changes made by the engineer. This GIS update occurs directly without an importing
process, which would otherwise disrupt the modeler's task of building the hydraulic
model. The GIS manager may also opt to replace existing facilities data stored in the GIS
with those from the hydraulic model, as the model data is now more accurate and contain
additional data values not stored in the GIS.
Because data sets are stored as Shapefiles, anyone in the organization can view the
hydraulic model outside of the model. Pipes, valves, tanks, etc. can be added as views to
ArcView or as layers in AutoCAD or Microstation. Pressure contours from a hydraulic
analysis and annotation layers for labeling the hydraulic network are also stored as
Shapefiles and can be viewed at any time in any software package that supports the ESRI
Shapefile format. The functionality of the proposed software allows engineers to analyze
distribution systems and GIS departments to integrate model data in a smooth and
seamless fashion.

Advanced Functionality

The proposed integrated approach offers a full-featured hydraulic analysis software


solution for performing a wide range of essential modeling tasks. Water utilities can use it
for pump scheduling, developing various planning scenarios, analyzing system flows and
pressures, performing water quality analyses, assessing fire flow capabilities, planning
unidirectional flushing programs, creating pressure contours, and monitoring SCADA
operations. The graphical interface is built with object-component technology to provide
a powerful and practical GIS platform for water utility solutions. As a stand-alone
program, it combines spatial analysis tools and mapping functions with sophisticated and
accurate network analysis capabilities. GIS or CAD layers can be added to the program
as background reference. A small sample of files which can be directly imported include
ArcInfo coverages, Shapefiles, ArcSDE layers, Geodatabases, MIF/MID files, as well as
AutoCAD and Microstation drawings (DXF, DWG, and DGN).

The open-architecture framework allows fluent and flexible management and distribution
of geospatial data while facilitating the exchange of critical modeling information with
other applications and enterprise systems. Immediate data storage and access in the
Shapefile format puts the model at the center of all enterprise solutions. Water utilities
can develop informed GIS solutions to help them increase engineering productivity,
exceed drinking water quality standards, optimize system operations and capital
improvement programs, and improve community and client relations.

Multi-level Inheritance Scenario Management

A scenario manager allows modeling of multiple and varied demand loading and
operating conditions while benefiting from a multi-leveled inheritance among planning
scenarios. Every change made to a "parent" scenario can be reflected through the entire
set of "child" scenarios for automatic acceptance of particular data sets. With minimal
effort, the hydraulic modeler can simulate skeletonized systems, proposed facilities, and
operational schemes to evaluate base transmission pipe combinations, system behavior
under varying demands, and cost-saving operational procedures. Such capabilities allow
the modeler to alternate between scenarios, merge models of any size, and compare
results instantly to clearly illustrate optimal system performance under any given network
scenario and planning horizon.
Automated Network Model Reduction (Skeletonization)

Interfacing with GIS applications is a very reliable and efficient method of developing
hydraulic network models. However, because GIS facilities are typically created for
Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (AM/FM) applications (e.g., water
distribution system maintenance and management), this format is generally not suitable
for construction of hydraulic network models. Common data format problems
encountered by practicing modelers who import to the network model are the inclusion of
hydrants, line valves, tees or crosses from the GIS.

A geospatial approach greatly simplifies and reduces large GIS models to a manageable
size ready for hydraulic analysis. It expeditiously processes detailed GIS data, efficiently
constructs reliable water system network models using three automated data
segmentation applications: data reduction (Reduce), skeletonization (Skeletonize), and
trimming (Trim) applications (or RST applications), and re-allocate nodal demands.

Data reduction application is the ability to remove excessive pipe segmentation caused by
valves, fire hydrants or other data capture processes, by dissolving interior nodes on pipe
reaches and combining the associated pipe segments into single pipes. For example,
merging all series pipes of common diameter, material, roughness coefficient and age.
Data skeletonization application refers to the capability of removing all pipes with
diameters less than a specified value (e.g., removing all 8 in and smaller pipes). The data
trimming application is the ability to remove short pipe segments leading to dead ends
such as service laterals and hydrant leads.

These network segmentation capabilities can be used effectively to screen and accurately
convert GIS data into a more practical and manageable hydraulic model.

Demand Generation

Determining consumption and the spatial distribution of consumption throughout the


network model is a key element of modeling. Network models are loaded with existing
and future demands, depending on the type of analysis performed. All sources,
distribution pipelines and available storage within the system are supporting elements
that provide service to meet these system demands. The variation of demand during the
course of a day must also be accounted for during an extended period simulation (EPS).
For static analyses, total system demand for various modeling conditions, such as average
day, maximum day, peak hour, etc., is spatially distributed as a set of individual demand
values allocated to selected junction nodes. For extended time period (EPS) analyses
(e.g., water quality), additional temporal characteristics, typically represented by their
respective diurnal variations (hydrographs), are also required. Generally, the spatial
demand levels are first estimated for all junction nodes. The temporal effects are then
adjusted based on individual consumption categories.

Six accurate and fully automated methods can be used for processing geometric polygons
to accurately compute and load network models based on demand type, location, and
variation. These are:

1. Geocoded meter billing data (meter consumption database)


2. Shortest distance to junction
3. Shortest distance to pipe
4. Polygon Processing - spatial intersection of multiple polygon layers
5. Polygon Processing - spatial summation of consumption category area polygons
6. Large users as individual point loads

The first method makes use of GIS layers to automatically geocode consumption. The
demand at each junction node is determined by identifying and summing all the
customers/meters within its associated service area polygon. In the second method, each
meter is assigned to the nearest junction while the third method assigns each meter to the
nearest pipe. In the fourth method, demands are automatically calculated based upon a
direct spatial intersection between demand categorization polygons (e.g., land use
polygons, population polygons, pressure zone polygons, TAZ polygons, census tract
polygons, meter route polygons, and others) and the demand node area coverage
polygons (service area polygons). In the fifth method, nodal demands are calculated by
summing the individually assigned consumption category polygons. In the last method,
consumption levels for major users such as major industries, schools, parks, golf courses,
hospitals, etc. are identified directly from their billing records and their demands are
automatically assigned as individual point loads at their respective junction nodes.

These comprehensive capabilities will allow water engineers to effectively utilize their
engineering knowledge and experience and leverage existing GIS data investments to
strategically define/forecast their network demand distribution for various planning
horizons in their master planning effort.

Automated Network Model Calibration

After a network model is properly constructed, it must be calibrated to the physical


system so that model predictions can be interpreted with confidence5-6. Calibration
entails adjusting certain model parameters, usually the aggregate pipe roughness
coefficients, until the model results coincide with observed field conditions. The field
conditions most commonly used in network calibration correspond to the pressure
readings obtained from fire flow tests or from on-line SCADA systems. The price for
neglecting network calibration is basing decisions on a model that may be seriously in
error.

Typically, engineers will attempt to calibrate their network models using a tedious and
inexact trial-and-error process in which the model input parameters (typically pipe
roughness coefficients) are adjusted until computed and field observations are within
reasonable agreement. However, since there is a vast number of possible combinations of
parameter values that need to be considered, the trial-and-error evaluation of all options is
unlikely to be practically feasible or manageable, and even knowledgeable modelers
often fail to obtain good results. As a result, network model calibration has generally been
neglected or done haphazardly.

In order to improve the reliability of hydraulic network models as well as eliminate the
need for trial-and-error calibration methods, the network model calibration problem is
cast as an optimization problem. It is then solved using an improved variation of the
Genetic Algorithm optimization technology7-8 coupled with advanced elitist and global
search control strategies to significantly enhance accuracy and convergence. The
calibration model considers any combination of field pressure, tank level, flow and water
quality measurements, quickly determining pipe status and roughness coefficient, pump
and valve status, demand distribution and water quality parameters to best reflect what is
actually occurring in the system. It offers comprehensive micro-level water distribution
model calibration capabilities - considering any time frame of calibration condition (e.g.,
maximum hour), an unlimited number of calibration scenarios (e.g., time-disjoint fire
flow test conditions), and complete extended period simulation calibrations (e.g., on-line
SCADA readings). Calibration results are then stored in the database and accessed by the
software's object-oriented interface for graphical reporting and display.

Optimal Sampling Design

The credibility and efficacy of a calibrated network model can only be as good as the data
with which it was calibrated. While field sampling programs are essential for model
calibration, poorly defined sampling designs may lead to calibrated roughness
coefficients that are not reasonable. Since only a limited number of measurements are
normally available due to resource constraints, the number and location of calibration
tests must be chosen to provide maximum information on the condition of the system. If
these locations are less than optimal, the data collected may yield insufficient information
for an accurate calibration and, thus, would defeat the purpose of the calibration process.

Sampling design is currently performed by subjective judgement, thus depending heavily


on the experience of the modeler. In order to optimize the quality of sampling designs for
model calibration, the sampling design problem is formulated as a dual-level
combinatorial optimization problem and solved using Genetic Algorithms. The dual-
objective function is to determine the minimum number of sampling locations (junction
nodes) with pressures that are collectively the most sensitive to changes in pipe
roughness values and also provide the most topological coverage of the network. This
ensures identifying the minimum set of junction nodes which stresses the greatest
percentage of the system and that are the most uniformly spread so that pipe roughness
values can be accurately inferred.

Considerable flexibility is allowed when screening sampling location results. Because the
optimization algorithm searches the solution space from a population of points, and not
just from a single point, alternative sampling locations of the same quality, can be used
and compared if additional constraints are imposed, such as a location of an inaccessible
or leaking hydrant. The optimal sampling sites are then stored in the database and
conveyed back to the decision-support system interface for graphical query and display.
Network Design and Rehabilitation

Cost-effective design and rehabilitation of water supply and distribution systems is a


problem of great importance in engineering practice. Water utilities have been using
network models to assist them in planning their system rehabilitation and designing new
systems. New system design (or expansion to existing systems) is required to cope with
sustained growth while rehabilitation (or upgrading) of an existing system is required to
maintain adequate levels of service.

The network design and rehabilitation problem is cast as an optimization problem and
solved using Genetic Algorithms. It consists of determining the optimal rehabilitation
alternatives and pipe sizes for selected pipes in the network that produce the minimum
overall cost for a given set of demand loading and operating conditions while satisfying
the hydraulic operational requirements of the system. The decision variables include any
selected combination of rehabilitation and design options such as cleaning or cleaning
and lining of existing pipes, pipe expansion, and/or installing new pipes that can either
parallel or replace existing pipes. Cost data is specified for each option and for a range of
pipe sizes. This data will vary with pipe material and geographical location. System
operational constraints include minimum and maximum pressures at nodes, and
minimum and maximum velocity and hydraulic gradient requirements for pipes. The
results of an optimization run are then stored in the database and can be displayed in both
tabular and dynamic color graphic forms.

Water Security Planning and Vulnerability Assessment

Ensuring the provision of acceptable levels of reliability in water distribution systems and
reducing their vulnerability to natural disasters and emergencies is a problem of great
importance for water utilities worldwide.

In order to improve the safety and security of drinking water distribution systems, the
software delivers an array of cutting edge water security planning and vulnerability
assessment tools. It allows water utilities to model the propagation and concentration of
naturally disseminated, accidentally released, or intentionally introduced contaminants
and chemical constituents throughout water distribution systems; assess the effects of
water treatment on the contaminant; and evaluate the potential impact of unforeseen
facility breakdown (e.g., significant structural damage and/or operational disruption). It
enables users to locate all areas affected by contamination; calculate population at risk
and report customer notification information; and identify the appropriate valves to close
to isolate a contamination event. Finally, it helps water utilities track contaminants to the
originating source; compute required purging water volume; develop efficient flushing
strategies; determine the resulting impact on fire-fighting capabilities; and prepare data
for eventual prosecution.

These capabilities will greatly assist water utilities in reducing their infrastructure
vulnerability and enhancing their ability to prepare for and respond to natural disasters
and emergencies. The software can be effectively used to identify viable solutions before
an incident or disaster occurs, or to assist in responding should it occur9.
Pump Scheduling

Energy costs generally constitute the largest expenditure for nearly all water utilities
worldwide and can consume 65 percent of a water utility's annual operating budget. One
of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings is the scheduling of daily pump
operations.

Energy-saving measures in water supply and distribution systems can be realized in many
ways from field testing and proper maintenance of equipment to the use of optimal
computer control. Energy usage can be reduced by decreasing the volume of water pumps
(e.g., adjusting pressure zone boundaries), the head against which it is pumped (e.g.,
optimizing tank water level range), or the price of energy (e.g., avoid peak hour pumping
and make effective use of storage tanks such as filling them during off-peak periods and
draining them during peak periods), and increasing the efficiency of pumps (e.g.,
ensuring that pumps are operating near their best efficiency point). Water utilities can
further reduce energy costs by implementing on-line telemetry and control systems
(SCADA) and by managing their energy consumption more effectively using optimized
scheduling of daily pump operations.

The pump scheduling problem is cast as an optimization problem and solved using
Genetic Algorithms. The optimization problem consists of determining the least-cost
pump operation policy that will best meet target hydraulic performance requirements.
The operation policy for a pump station represents a set of temporal rules or guidelines
(pump operating times) that indicate when a particular pump or group of pumps should
be turned on and off over a specified period of time (typically 24 hours). Th optimal
operation policy is defined as that schedule of pump operations that will result in the
lowest total operating cost for a given set of boundary conditions and system constraints.
System constraints prescribe lower and upper limits on nodal pressures, pipe velocities,
and storage tank levels, and final tank volumes at the end of a specified time period
(normally 24 hours) to ensure hydraulic periodicity. The resulting optimal control rules
for each pump in the system are then stored in the database and passed back to the
decision-support system interface for graphical results presentation.

Results Presentation

The use of powerful GIS thematic mapping functionality makes it easy to turn dry
database information into stunningly colorful, fully dimensional visualizations and to
present analysis results in map form. Users can generate accurate, and smooth contours
for any variable including elevation, pressure, hydraulic grade line, demand, water age,
chlorine concentration, and more, directly on the map - even overlay multiple contours on
a single drawing. Draw on a range of other sophisticated graphical presentation tools,
including color-coded mapping, dynamic annotation/labeling, graphing, profiling,
customizable tabular reporting, and vivid VCR-style animation to produce truly
compelling results. These graphical capabilities are critical to better communicate and
understand problem areas and system deficiencies and to present remedial engineering
solutions at community information sessions or council meetings.

Conclusions

Water utility engineers are discovering a wide variety of uses for GIS technology. In
particular, GIS information is critical to water distribution system planning and analysis.
A new geospatial software, H2OMAP Utility Suite, has been presented as a decision
support system to provide a GIS-based solution for water distribution system modeling
and management. Built entirely with ESRI MapObjects technology, the software system
seamlessly integrates sophisticated GIS features and functionalities with a hydraulic
network simulator and optimization theory allowing accurate network model construction
and providing a reliable and effective means for decision makers to quickly assess and
address the implications of alternative design, rehabilitation and operational changes on
system performance. Through the exploitation of GIS graphical data visualization
capabilities, potential system deficiencies can be quickly identified where improvements
are required. The resulting GIS-based software allows a wide range of potential network
improvement and enhancement alternatives to be modeled, analyzed, contrasted, and
evaluated, providing water utility managers with the ability to readily optimize their
capital improvement programs. It also equips water utilities with expanded power and
flexibility in estimating the consequences of a terrorist attack or a crisis event on their
drinking water supply infrastructure, and in formulating and evaluating sound emergency
response, recovery, remediation and operations plans and security upgrades. Finally, the
software makes it easy for any utility to work seamlessly across platforms and to manage
water systems in a single environment.

References

• H2OMAP Water - Users Guide. MWH Soft, Inc. 300 North Lake Avenue, Suite
1200, Pasadena, CA 91101.
• H2OMAP Skeletonizer - Users Guide. MWH Soft, Inc, 300 North Lake Avenue,
Suite 1200, Pasadena, CA 91101.
• Miles, S.B and Ho, C.L. (1999). "Applications and issues of GIS as a tool for civil
engineering modeling." Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering ASCE, Vol.
13, No. 3, pp. 144-152.
• H2OMAP Demand Allocator - Users Guide. MWH Soft, Inc, 300 North Lake
Avenue, Suite 1200, Pasadena, CA 91101.
• Boulos, P.F. and Ormsbee, L.E. (1991). "Explicit network calibration for multiple
loading conditions." Journal of Civil Engineering Systems, Vol. 8, pp. 153-159.
• H2OMAP Calibrator - Users Guide. MWH Soft, Inc, 300 North Lake Avenue,
Suite 1200, Pasadena, CA 91101.
• Boulos, P.F. et al. (2001). "Using genetic algorithms for water distribution system
optimization." In Proceedings of the ASCE Environmental and Water Resources
Institute's (EWRI's) World Water & Environmental Resource Congress, May 20-
24, Orlando, FL.
• Boulos, P.F. et al. (2001). "Optimal operation of water distribution systems using
genetic algorithms." In Proceedings of the AWWA Distribution System
Symposium, September 23-26, San Diego, CA.
• H2OMAP Protector - Users Guide. MWH Soft, Inc, 300 North Lake Avenue, Suite
1200, Pasadena, CA 91101.

Figure 1 - Graphical Results Presentation Environment


Figure 2 - Graphical Results Analysis Capabilities

Figure 3 - Scenario Management


Figure 4 - On-line SCADA Interface
Figure 5 - Geospatial Demand Allocation

Figure 6 - Genetic Algorithm Hydraulic Model Calibration


Figure 7 - Genetic Algorithm Water Quality Calibration

Figure 8 - Water Security and Vulnerability Assessment Tool