Ashley Bunting1

Annotated Bibliography

Abusiveness: Is it genetic?

Ashley Bunting Professor Malcolm Campbell Tuesday-Thursday 9:30 October 12, 2012

Ashley Bunting2

Fox, Maggie. “Study finds genetic link to violence, delinquency”. Reutter’s (2008) Web. 14 October 2012 This academic article suggests that the particular type of a gene called MAOA could be responsible for some criminal and delinquent crime. While this study included only boys they were chosen because boys are more likely to commit crime. The study explored both the psychological and environmental aspects of boys with criminal records. Researchers claim that people with the variation of this gene, known as “2R”, were severely more prone to criminal activity. In the study they also determined if certain boys were more prone to a particular form of crime; crimes are separated into violent delinquency and nonviolent delinquency. Boys that have the 2R variation of MAOA had much higher likeliness to be violent. Now, researchers aren’t declaring MAOA form 2R the “criminal gene” but they are speculating such relations. Two other genes, DAT1 and DRD2 are also linked to boys’ failing grade, high stress levels and low popularity. Professor Guang Guo was leading researcher and claimed that it was too early to see if any drugs might assist at risk young men to avoid trouble; however, he suggested surrogates could be helpful for those children whose parents cannot be there for them. This article will be used as an argument that there is a medical gene that contributes to criminal activity. This will easily be used because it has medical and scientific proof that there truly may be a genetic issue and not solely psychological; this study also suggests environmental and

Ashley Bunting3 psychological aspects may contribute as well which is my hypothesis to begin with. Overall, this piece has shown me that there is not just one gene that might affect the behavior of criminals and that there is constant research taking place.

Beaver, Kevin M., Ferguson, Christopher J. Natural born killers: The genetic origins of extreme violence.” Aggression and Violent Behavior 14. (2009) 286-292 Web. October 13, 2012 In this academic article the authors first define several terms that are essential in understanding the psychology involved with violence. Amongst these terms there was an explanation of the word “aggression”. Aggression is a very diverse word but it’s actually defined as behavior produced to cause physical harm or humiliation to another person who wishes to avoid it, this piece shows the various dynamics of aggression; specifically the article claims that aggression carries a negative connotation that dooms the word use. The article further explains that aggression isn’t always bad but it is misconstrued to appear so very often. The authors also suggest that in specific dose sizes aggression can be beneficial; such as a small amount of pushiness that will help to motivate a person to get what needs to be done, done. The other circumstance is when the intensity doesn’t harm the organism or organisms involved. The article goes on to explain the definition of violence and extreme violence. Extreme violence is defined in which the risks heavily outweigh the possible benefits; those risks can be physical, emotional or social.

Ashley Bunting4 The article shows there are both arguments that violence is genetic and observed. The argument that is most beneficial of this article is the one of the American Psychological Association (APA). APA claims there is no possible way that there is a genetic violent gene and the violence is solely a learned behavior (APA, 1996). This article correspondingly mentions the same genes as another article that I will be utilizing. This article shows the multiple sides of violence as a whole and the several aspects of it, including aggressiveness. The most helpful use of the article is to strengthen either side of the argument because it supports both sides. Dawson, Jim. Sins of the Father. WebMD. (2000) Web. October 15, 2012 This article discusses the actions of a criminal whose father was also a violent criminal, but he was not raised near his father. The article follows the chronologies of Harold Atkins. Atkins was violent and made a career of being a criminal but during a five year prison stint he turned his life around, becoming an educated individual; he specialized in counseling and now serves as a counselor for young boys who have the same issues as he did in order to help them. While studying Atkins learned about the possibilities of him having genetic reasons for his actions and learned how he can control his actions to prevent himself from reacting and landing back in jail and going back to his old ways. The article also shadows the theory that children of violent men and women are at higher risk of becoming violent themselves, however, there is not yet any scientific proof that it is genetic. This article is going to be useful as a real life example of someone who has a violent personality and past but works past it to prove you can control the

Ashley Bunting5 violence.

Bernet, William MD, Farahany, JD MD, Montgomery, Stephen A. MD, Vnencak-Jones, Cindy L. MD. “Bad Nature, Bad Nurture, and Testimony regarding MAOA and SLC6A4 Genotyping at Murder Trials” 56. (2007) 2-10 Web. October 15, 2012. In the article authors research and explain how the courts view genetic deformities as acceptable and unacceptable defenses. They explore the circumstances, studies and validity of such information. Judges were more likely to listen to, consider and accept explanations that showed violence occurring within a family over an extended period of time; this meaning generations on and on. In cases of these theoretical cases judges and juries were much more likely to declare it unacceptable as a defense. This piece will be helpful in explaining the acceptance and lack thereof as defenses in not only the legal field, but also all over as people view it. The varying opinions of the public are detrimental in proving or killing such a proposed topic.

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