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**Gears and mechanical transmissions Udvekslinger og mekaniske transmissioner
**

Machine Design Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Product design and development [Ch. 1] Steel design [Ch. 3, App. D] Gears and mechanical transmissions [Ch. 11, 12, App. C] Mechanism and dynamics [Ch. 3, notes] Shafts, keys, and couplings [Ch. 9, App. B, C] Shafts, keys, and couplings [Ch. 9, App. B, C] Tolerances [Notes] Fatigue I [Ch. 4, 5, App. E] Fatigue II [Ch. 5, 6, App. E] Fasteners – fatigue [Ch. 14]

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Case study

• Life saving system for beaches

– Mobility: terrain, offroad – Non buoyant – Load: 2 persons + rescue equipment

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Program

• Case study • Project management

– – – – Vision Mission Objective/goal Strategy

• • • • •

**Power considerations Discussion of Gears Gears Spur Gears Bevel gears
**

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

Gears

• Mechanical power transmission devices between two rotating shafts

Friction Gears Friction ensures contact. Since contact point velocity is constant

ω1R1 = ω 2 R2

ω1 R2 = ω 2 R1

Speed ratio

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

Gears

Spur Bevel

Helical

Worm

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Constant Speed Ratio
**

Two arbitrary profiles in contact.

ω2 ω1

O1

C

O2

Desired: We want the ratio of angular velocity to be constant as different points come in contact.

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Constant Speed Ratio
**

ω2 ω1

O1

C

O2

v1 = ω1O1C

v2 = ω1O1C

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Constant Speed Ratio
**

v2

θ2

θ1

v1

Note: The tangential components of the velocities O2 ω 2 need not be equal … they can slip relative to each other

ω1

O1

C

Key: The component of the velocities along the common normal must be equal … else the parts will lose contact or interfere

v1 cosθ1 = v2 cosθ 2 ω1O1C cos θ1 = ω2O2C cos θ 2

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Constant Speed Ratio
**

O1

θ1

D1 θ1

C

D2 θ2

θ2

From previous: ω1O1C cosθ1 = ω 2O2C cosθ 2 But

90 − θ1

O1C cosθ1 = O1D1

ω1O1D1 = ω 2O2 D2

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

ω1 O2 D2 = ω 2 O1D1

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**Gears: Constant Speed Ratio
**

D2 O1

P

D1

C

From previous:

By similarity triangles

ω1 O2 D2 = ω 2 O1D1

P: Pitch point.

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**ω1 O2 D2 O2 P = = ω 2 O1D1 O1P
**

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

**Gears: Constant Speed Ratio
**

P

ω2

ω1

O1

O2

P: Pitch point. Intersection of normal at contact and line joining centers. Law of conjugate action • The ratio of angular velocities remains constant only if the pitch point remains fixed!! • There are many ways to ensure conjugate action

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg 12

ω1 R2 = ω 2 R1

Spur gears

• Spur gears achieve constant speed ratio through involute teeth. See animation at: http://auto.howstuffworks.co m/gear7.html

Pressure angle also remains constant!

**• Pitch point does not move for two involute-profile teeth gears in contact
**

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

Spur Gears

rb

2πrb N= pb

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Spur Gears

Pressure angle governed by intended pitch circle

cos ϕ =

rpb rp

Gears behave like two friction gears in contact except high power transmission

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Spur Gears: Definitions
**

Involute for rack is a straight line! Tool Gear being manufactured

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Spur Gears: Definitions

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Spur Gears: Definitions

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Spur Gears: Meshing
**

• For two gears to mesh, they must have the same:

– Nominal pressure angle – Nominal circular pitch

**• But can have different
**

ω1 N 2 = ω 2 N1

**– Number of teeth – Pitch diameter dp, dg
**

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

Spur Gears

• Actual center distance determines

– – – – – – Actual pressure angle Actual circular pitch Actual tooth thickness Back-lash Interference Contact ratio

• Smaller = Pinion • Larger = Gear

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Spur Gears

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Gears: Forces

Two components of force: Ft: Useful tangential force Fr: Radial force

**Fr = Ft tan ϕ Torque = rFt Power = ωrFt
**

The tangential force is determined from the power being transmitted.

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg 22

Gears: Stresses

Contact Stresses Need to design gear against both types of stresses. Bending stresses

Fatigue stresses!

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

Gears: Bending Stress

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

Two approaches:

– Simplistic Lewis Equation – Modern AGMA method

• Lewis assumptions:

– Neglect radial force – Force acts at tip – Uniform force distribution – No stress concentration – No sliding force – Zero contact velocity

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

Mc σ (bending ) = I M = Ft h c =t/2 bt I= 12 6 Ft h σ= 2 bt

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg 26

3

**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

Ft σ= 2 = b bt 6 Ft h ⎛ 6h ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ ⎝t ⎠

Function of diametral pitch

Ft ⎛ P ⎞ σ= 2 = ⎜ ⎟ b ⎝Y ⎠ bt Y : Lewis Factor 6 Ft h

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

Example : Ft = 100lbf b = 0.1" ; P = 4; ϕ = 20; N = 28 Y = 0.35 Ft σ= b ⎛ P⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 11.45ksi ⎝Y ⎠

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

AGMA model: • Neglect radial force • Force acts at tip • No sliding force • Non-uniform force distribution • Stress concentration • Non-zero contact velocity

Ft ⎛ P ⎞ σ = ⎜ ⎟Kv Ko Km b ⎝J⎠ J : geometry factor K v : velocity factor K o : overload factor K m : mounting factor

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

Geometry factor J: allows for 2 different assumptions

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

Velocity factor Kv: also depends on how gear is manufactured

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stresses
**

• Overload factor Ko: depends on power source and driven machinery Table 15.1 • Light shock power and moderate shock machinery, Ko = 1.5 • Mounting factor Km: depends on accuracy of mounting and face width Table 15.2 very accurate and width of 4”, Km = 1.4

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg 32

**Gears: Bending Stress
**

σm σ

1 + = Sut S n n

σa

1 + = 2 Sut 2 S n n

S n = (Other factors) * CG C LCS 0.5Sut S n ≈ 0.4 Sut

σ

σ 0.4σ 1 + = 2S n 2S n n ...

1 = 1.4 S n n

σ

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stress
**

For the idler

σm

1 + = Sut S n n σ 1 = Sn n

σa

Include 1.4 for regular gears as a factor in Sn

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Stress
**

S n = kt k r k ms CG C LCS 0.5Sut kt : temperature factor k r : reliability factor 1 for idler k ms :} 1.4 for other

Conclusion

σ : AGMA

S n : From above 1 = Sn n or design ' b' for a given safety factor

σ

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Strength - Example
**

Problem info: • Pinion: 20 teeth, gear: 40 teeth • 20 degrees pressure angle; P = 8 • Accurate mounting • Material: Steel, heat treated to 350 Bhn. • Standard full depth teeth • Required life: 5 years, 60 hours/week, 50 week/year, 1100 rpm (pinion) • Find: max horsepower that can be transmitted with a safety factor of 1.5, and 99% reliability, based only on bending strength.

Assumptions: • AGMA method of analysis • Gear tooth loads transmitted at pitch point • No load sharing • Assume top quality hobbing operation

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg 36

**Gears: Bending Strength - Example
**

Ft ⎛ P ⎞ σ = ⎜ ⎟Kv Ko Km b ⎝J⎠ V : 720rpm(pitch line velocity) From Curve C (Fig.15.24) K v = 1.54 From Fig.15.23a J = 0.24 (pinion is weaker) K m = 1.6(assumption) K o = 1.0(assumption)

1 = Sn n

σ

σ = 82.1Ft

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Strength - Example
**

S n = kt k r k ms CG C LCS 0.5Sut kt : 1 k r : 0.814 k ms : 1.4 CG : 1; C L : 1.0; CS : 0.66 S n = 65812 psi

1 = Sn n

σ

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Bending Strength - Example
**

82.1Ft = 65812 / 1.5 Ft = 534lb HP = 11.7 hp

1 = Sn n

σ

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Hertzian Contact Stress
**

As before

Find : Eeq Req Area of contact Max stress... But also include the various factors

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Hertzian Contact Stress
**

Buckingham model

Ft σ H = Cp Kv Ko Km bd p I C p : E and ν dependent (Table 15.4) d p : Pinion pitch diameter I : Geometry factor (Eqn 15.23)

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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**Gears: Contact Strength
**

Recall contact stress problems have only finite life. Table 15.5 provides typical contact strength values Sfe for 107 cycles, 99 percent reliability and temp < 250 F To find strength at a different number of cycles and temperature use eqn. 15.25

S H = S feC Li C R

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Bevel Gears

Note: b: Face width L: Pitch cone length γ: Pitch cone angle d: pitch dia

**Bevel gears are not interchangeable!
**

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg 43

Gears: Forces

Fr

Ft Fa

Determined from power requirements

Fr = Ft tan ϕ cos γ Fa = Ft tan ϕ sin γ

Note: What is axial force for one bevel gear is radial force for the other.

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Both bending and contact stresses Bending stress and strength

Gears: Stresses

Ft σ= b

S n = kt k r k ms CG C LCS 0.5Sut

Factors similar or slightly different for Bevel gears Contact stress and strength

⎛ P⎞ ⎜ ⎟Kv Ko Km ⎝J⎠

Ft σ H = Cp Kv Ko Km bd p I

S H = S feC Li C R

**Factors similar or slightly different for Bevel gears
**

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg 45

Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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Machine Design Gears and mechanical transmissions Computational Mechanics, AAU, Esbjerg

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- 28
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- GAM DL-DW
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- Mock Final
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