Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality

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Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality
Paper Presentation

Name:L.Srikanth Reddy Address: III B.Tech II Sem, CSE, CJITS,Jangaon,Warangal. Email: srikantharc@yahoo.co.in Name: G .Srinath Address: III B.Tech II Sem, CSE, CJITS,Jangaon,Warangal. Email:srinath_0209@yahoo.co.in

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Virtual Reality

INDEX:
 Abstract  What is VR?  Terms of VR  Definition

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4 4 5 5

 Terminology 5  Different Kinds of VE Technologies 5 1.Subjective Immersion 2.Spatial Immersion  Styles of Interactions to VE 6 1.Desktop VR 6 2.Projected VR 6 3.Immersive VR 6 4.Cave 6 5.Telepresence 7 6.Augmented 7 7.Non-Immersive VR 7  Evolution of Technologies to Achieve VR 7 1.Immersive VR 7 i.Head-Mounted Display 8 ii.Boom 8 iii.Cave 9 iv.Characteristics of Immersive VR 9 2.Non-Immersive VR 10 i.VRML 10  Applications 11 1.Architecture,Design and Prototype 11 2.Educational and Conferencing 11 3.Training 12 4.Medical 12 5.Bussiness Visualization 12 6.Scientific Visualization 12 7.Art and Leisure 12  Challenges 13 1.Technologies 13 2.Building worlds 13 3.User Interface Design

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Virtual Reality
13 13  Conclusion  Final Thoughts  Biblography 14 14 14 4.Distributed Virtual Environments

Abstract: Virtual reality as of recent, while still extremely new, has become the topic of many opposing viewpoints. It has caught the eye of the general public for several reasons. Perhaps, this is mainly because of all the possibilities which virtual reality creates. Note that the possibilities are not pre-determined as either good or bad, mainly because there are many different opinions to the future of this developing technology. However, despite the controversy this new technology has aroused, society should not remain skeptical. Virtual reality has the potential, if used correctly, to become a great technological advancement that will aid society in many ways. In the past, virtual reality has been nothing more than a small step beyond video games. However, it is now apparent that this technology can be used for more practical purposes. These purposes include national defense, surgical procedures and various other applications. Society has not fully acknowledged the benefits of virtual reality as of yet because it is still under development. The reason for virtual reality remaining in its development for so long is mainly due to its complexity. The hardware that has developed so far is unable to make the large calculations required by a virtual reality based machine. However, as apparent in recent years, technology is advancing at an extreme rate It is clearly apparent that because this technology is so new society is unsure how it will fit in. This is also a good example of why people's opinions are so varied. Some people see virtual reality as just another tool which will aid society in several ways. Others see it as dominating society all together and affecting everyone's lives everyday. It obviously has the potential to be both and

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Virtual Reality
it is easy to see why people are so hesitant to decide. Perhaps another reason for society's lack of optimism is their fear that they will somehow be removed from actual reality. Although quite ironic, for a long time society has had a fear that technology will someday take control of their lives. Perhaps the idea of technology becoming so advanced that people will no longer be able to tell whether they are in virtual or actual reality. It is clear that technology has definitely affected society in recent years. However, it is quite difficult to predict the role of technology in the future. Although society knows a lot about virtual reality there is still so much that it doesn't know. Perhaps in the coming years, new technology will come out and people will learn more about this virtual world. However, until that time, the questions will remain numerous and doubtful yet the possibilities are unlimited. What is VR? Virtual reality's new technology and theory makes it somewhat expensive and puzzling to practitioners. Effectively using its inherent characteristics requires understanding VR's terms and its variations. Terms of VR "Virtual" refers to its computer-generated existence; some prefer the term "cyber" to reinforce the point. "Reality" is the more controversial term. Realism debates whirl around what levels of realistic detail are needed and affordable. Practitioners can choose types and amounts of reality varying from "objective" to "novel" and from specific to variable, or nonspecific. Definition "Virtual Reality: A computer system used to create an artificial world in which the user has the impression of being in that world and with the ability to navigate through the world and manipulate objects in the world."

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Virtual Reality
Terminology The term 'Virtual Reality' (VR) was initially coined by Jaron Lanier, founder of VPL Research (1989). Other related terms include 'Artificial Reality' (Myron Krueger, 1970s), 'Cyberspace' (William Gibson, 1984), and, more recently, 'Virtual Worlds' and 'Virtual Environments' (1990s). Today, 'Virtual Reality' is used in a variety of ways and often in a confusing and misleading manner. Originally, the term referred to 'Immersive Virtual Reality.' In immersive VR, the user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer.

Different kinds of VE technology support different modes of interaction.

One kind of VE technology employs subjective immersion, in which the user interacts as if using an ordinary desktop computer system. The user views the system from the usual close but remote position and interacts through standard or specialpurpose input or control devices such as keyboards, mouse controls, trackballs, joysticks, or force balls. Three dimensions are represented on 3D displays through the use of simulation software employing perspective, object rotation, object interposition, relative size, shading, etc. The other kind of VE technology uses spatial immersion. The user is required to get inside the virtual space by wearing special equipment, typically at least a helmet mounted display that bears sensors to determine precise helmet position within the VE system's range, in order to interact with the simulated environment. The user is thus immersed in a quasi-3D virtual space in which objects of interest appear to exist and events occur above, below, and around in all directions toward which the user turns his or her head.

Styles Of Interactions To VE

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Virtual Reality
The different styles of interaction depend upon the way the virtual environment is represented. We can identify at least six interaction styles that refer to the way the simulated/virtual environment is represented: desktop, projected, immersive, Cave, telepresence, augmented. 1) Desktop VR The most popular type and is based upon the concept that the potential user interacts with the computer screen without being fully immersed and surrounded by the computer-generated environment. The feeling of subjective immersion can be improved through stereoscopic vision (i.e., CrystalEyes) and operative action with interface can be guaranteed via pointing devices (mouse, joystick) or typical VR peripherals such as Data glove. Desktop VR is used mainly in games but professional applications are currently widely diffused. Example of professional application domains comes from general industrial design, engineering, architecture and the visualization of data streams. The main benefit of desktop VR is its limited cost and less involving use of interacting technology, as a matter of fact according to different scenarios of use it might be more appropriate a less "invasive" device such as a CRT monitor than a wired HMD. It seems that desktop VR is particularly successful with the inspection of sample objects as opposed to immersed VR where the best exploitation is with the exploration of spaces. Up to date CAD/CAM systems slowly shifted in their performance towards the quality of VR interaction when they allowed the user to manipulate 3-d objects as if they were real. 2) Projected VR This is technological solution often seen in VR-Art shows and in VR leisure applications. It is based upon the overlapping of the image of the real user on the computer generated world. That is to say that the user can see his image overlaid the simulated environment. A special movement tracking device can capture the movements of the user and insert them so that they can cause actions and re-actions in the virtual world. 3) Immersive VR

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Virtual Reality
With this type of solution the user appears to be fully inserted in the computer generated environment. This illusion is rendered by providing HMD, with 3-D viewing and a system of head tracking to guarantee the exact correspondence and co-ordination of user's movements with the fee-back of the environment. 4) CAVE Cave is a small room where a computer generated world is projected on the walls. The projection is made on both front and side walls. This solution is particularly suitable for collective VR experience because it allows different people to share the same experience at the same time. It seems that this technological solution is particularly appropriate for cockpit simulations as it allows the views from different sides of a imaginary vehicle. 5) Telepresence Users can influence and operate in a world that is real but in a different location. The users can observe the current situation with remote cameras and achieve actions via robotic and electronic arms. Telepresence is used for remote surgical operations and for the exploration/manipulation of hazardous environments (i.e., space, underwater, radioactive. Virtual Reality is the product of a trick. The VR system tricks the user into believing that the Virtual Environment by which he feels himself surrounded is the actual, real environment. This is made possible by several different devices, each with its own technology, which produce each a specific aspect of the VE, relevant for a specific sense. We will discuss hardware relevant for the three senses which are to be immersed in the VE: sight, touch and hearing. 6) Augmented This VR solution is an invasive strategy towards reality. As a matter of fact user's view of the world is supplemented with virtual objects and items whose meaning is aimed at enriching the information content of the real environment. In military applications for instance vision performance is

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Virtual Reality
enhanced by providing the pictograms that anticipate the presence of other entities out of sight. 7) Non-Immersive VR Today, the term 'Virtual Reality' is also used for applications that are not fully immersive. The boundaries are becoming blurred, but all variations of VR will be important in the future. This includes mouse-controlled navigation through a three-dimensional environment on a graphics monitor, stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses, stereo projection systems, and others. Apple's QuickTime VR, for example, uses photographs for the modeling of three-dimensional worlds and provides pseudo look-around and walk-trough capabilities on a graphics monitor. Evolution of Technologies To Achieve VR Today two prominent types to achieve virtual reality. They are Immersive VR and Non-Immersive VR 1. Immersive VR: In immersive VR, the user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer.

i.Head-Mounted Display (HMD) The head-mounted display (HMD) was the first device providing its wearer with an immersive experience. Evans and Sutherland demonstrated a head-mounted stereo display already in 1965. It took more then 20 years before VPL Research introduced a commercially available HMD, the famous "Eye Phone" system (1989). A head-mounted display (HMD):

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Virtual Reality

Web size (83 K)

A typical HMD houses two miniature display screens and an optical system that channels the images from the screens to the eyes, thereby, presenting a stereo view of a virtual world. A motion tracker continuously measures the position and orientation of the user's head and allows the image generating computer to adjust the scene representation to the current view. As a result, the viewer can look around and walk through the surrounding virtual environment. To overcome the often uncomfortable intrusiveness of a head-mounted display, alternative concepts (e.g., BOOM and CAVE) for immersive viewing of virtual environments were developed. ii.Boom The BOOM (Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor) from Fake space is a head-coupled stereoscopic display device. Screens and optical system are housed in a box that is attached to a multi-link arm. The user looks into the box through two holes, sees the virtual world, and can guide the box to any position within the operational volume of the device. Head tracking is accomplished via sensors in the links of the arm that holds the box. The BOOM, a head-coupled display device:

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Screen size (170K) - Max size (100K)

iii.Cave The CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) was developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago and provides the illusion of immersion by projecting stereo images on the walls and floor of a room-sized cube. Several persons wearing lightweight stereo glasses can enter and walk freely inside the CAVE. Head tracking systems continuously adjust the stereo projection to the current position of the leading viewer. CAVE system (schematic principle):

Web size (29K)

Input Devices and other Sensual Technologies A variety of input devices like data gloves, joysticks, and hand-held wands allow the user to navigate through a virtual environment and to interact with virtual objects. Directional sound, tactile and force feedback devices, voice recognition and other technologies are being employed to enrich the immersive experience and to create more

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"sensualized" interfaces. A data glove allows for interactions with the virtual world:

Moving the steering wheel
Web (120K) - Screen (307K) - Max (428K)

iv.Characteristics of Immersive VR The unique characteristics of immersive virtual reality can be summarized as follows:

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Head-referenced viewing provides a natural interface for the navigation in three-dimensional space and allows for look-around, walk-around, and fly-through capabilities in virtual environments. Stereoscopic viewing enhances the perception of depth and the sense of space. The virtual world is presented in full scale and relates properly to the human size. Realistic interactions with virtual objects via data glove and similar devices allow for manipulation, operation, and control of virtual worlds. The convincing illusion of being fully immersed in an artificial world can be enhanced by auditory, hap tic, and other non-visual technologies. Networked applications allow for shared virtual environments (see below).

2.Non-immersive VR Today, the term 'Virtual Reality' is also used for applications that are not fully immersive. The boundaries

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Virtual Reality
are becoming blurred, but all variations of VR will be important in the future. This includes mouse-controlled navigation through a three-dimensional environment on a graphics monitor, stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses, stereo projection systems, and others. i.VRML Most exciting is the ongoing development of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) on the World Wide Web. In addition to HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), that has become a standard authoring tool for the creation of home pages, VRML provides three-dimensional worlds with integrated hyperlinks on the Web. Home pages become home spaces. The viewing of VRML models via a VRML plug-in for Web browsers is usually done on a graphics monitor under mouse-control and, therefore, not fully immersive. However, the syntax and data structure of VRML provide an excellent tool for the modeling of threedimensional worlds that are functional and interactive and that can, ultimately, be transferred into fully immersive viewing systems. The current version VRML 2.0 has become an international ISO/IEC standard under the name VRML97. To view and interact with the following VRML example (Escher's Penrose Staircase), we recommend to install the Cosmo Player plug-in for Netscape or Explorer Web browsers. Rendering of Escher's Penrose Staircase (modeled by Diganta Saha):

Web size (97K) - Screen size (427K) - Max size (688K)

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APPLICATIONS i. • • • • • • Architecture, design and prototyping Architecture Walkthroughs to evaluate design decisions and/or present designs to customers Demonstrate how a planned construction fits into the environment in which it is intended to be built Design and prototyping Use to create rapid prototypes rather than make clay models or full-scale mock-ups [ Image ] Simulate assembly lines. For example, to evaluate the risk of interference or collision between robots, cars, and car parts Education and conferencing Education Visualize concepts [ Image ] Visualize the past ('Virtual Heritage') Conferencing and Virtual Classrooms Conferencing Collaborative work over the Internet Virtual work groups Virtual lectures and conferences Training Civilian and military training simulators Driving simulators Flight simulators Ship simulators Tank simulators Train for hazardous or difficult operations Nuclear plant maintenance [ Image ] Learn to move in zero gravity practice locating and fixing faults in equipment [ Image ] Medical Surgery Practice performing surgery Perform surgery on a remote patient Rehabilitation Phobia therapy 14

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Virtual Reality
• • v. Use VR input devices and telepresence to enable handicapped people to do things that would otherwise be impossible for them to do Enable handicapped people to visit/see places that they would be otherwise unable to experience Business and visualization Business 3D visualization of complex financial information Demonstrate customizable products to customers (cars, kitchens,...) [ Image ]

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Scientific visualization • View complex data sets to gain greater insight and understanding of structure • View complex molecular structures • View geological structures • Visualizing Cyberspace • 3D navigational interfaces to the Net vii. Art and leisure • Art • Virtual galleries and museums • Virtual theatres • As a new visual/sensory medium • Leisure • Games • Sport simulators CHALLENGES i. Technologies • Hardware technology • More realistic graphics and audio (this is also a software problem) • Greater processor power • Less obstructive input/output devices ii. Building worlds • Creating models takes a long time and is a skill that needs to be acquired • We need better software tools to create objects, add behavior to objects, and to handle interaction (especially for working with VRML)

vi.

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• • Optimizing models takes time and synchronizing modifications can be difficult (CAD tools to/from VR environment builder) Making accurate models of the physical world is difficult. Devices such as laser scanners are making this easier, but human intervention is still a necessary and time consuming part of the modeling process Can we build knowledge-based systems to help us capture the physical world?

iii.User interface design • The user interface for a virtual environment needs to be carefully designed to take into account the functional requirements of the application and the limitations of current technology How should the user interact with the virtual environment? How should the computer provide feedback? What symbols and metaphors can be used to improve the user interface? What is the most meaningful way to visualize an abstract object/process/structure? How do we improve navigational and spatial awareness?

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iv. Distributed virtual environments • • • • • • How should users communicate? Etiquette in distributed VR? How do I know you are real and not an agent? How do I know you are really there? Maybe you've gone off to make a cup of coffee while I was talking to you! Social effects of distributed VR? Technological: Lag, large numbers of users simultaneously, etc

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CONCLUSION • • • • • • • VR is a powerful user interface technology Information is important, as is choosing the best way to visualize it VR enables the user to interact directly with information VR can enable the user to see/experience things in new ways Full 'presence' is not provided by current technology A number of potentially serious physiological problems remain unsolved VR does not have to be immersive to be useful

FINAL THOUGHTS • • How real is reality? What is reality?

BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • • www-vrl.umich.edu www.osc.edu web.mit.edu www.cs.jhu.edu www.ia.hiof.no www.opm.ctw.utwente.nl

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