A2 MUSIC TECH REVISION CHECKLIST Electric Guitars & Amplification

how was the first pickup created in the 20s / why? how did the pickups work? what was the problem with acoustic and steel guitar pickups? what was the first solid body electric guitar? who favoured the electric guitars to begin with, and what style musician adopted them? what was the first successful electric bass? when did gibson/les paul release the p90 pickup and what is it now known as? what is the difference between single coil and humbucker pickups and what is the difference in sound? how did the les paul guitar change how guitars were made? how have guitars in general changed since hendrix and led zep? (look into electromagnetic coils and componants of a pickup and how they work with eachother/the amp.) what is the role of a guitar amp and how does it work? what was the first style of amp? (combo/head/cab) and who produced them? what was the first popular amp? what did marshall do to revolutionise amps? how are amps different to stereo hi fis? what are the different types of amp and how do they work? (solid state, valve, modeling) (look into what the valves are made from and how they are different) also have a look at stompboxes and guitar effects (pedals and rack mount)

A2 MUSIC TECH REVISION CHECKLIST Keyboard Instruments & Samplers
Keyboard  instruments
Telharmonium  -­‐  1898 ● Who  invented  the  Telharmonium? ● How  did  the  Telharmonium  work?  -­‐  What  equipment  did  it  use? ● Why  was  the  Telharmonium  abandoned? ● Monophonic  or  Polyphonic? Thérémin  -­‐  1920 ● Who  invented  the  Theremin? ● How  does  the  Theremin  work? ● How  is  the  Theremin  played? ● What  is  an  example  of  the  use  of  a  Theremin  in  a  song? ● Monophonic  or  Polyphonic? Ondes  Martenot  -­‐  1928 ● Who  invented  the  Ondes  Martenot? ● How  is  it  similar  to  the  Theremin? ● What  are  some  of  its  characteristics? ● Monophonic  or  Polyphonic? Hammond  Organ  -­‐  1933 ● What  was  the  main  characteristic  of  the  Hammond  Organ  that  was  different  to  the   Telharmonium,  Theremin  and  Ondes  Martenot? ● How  does  the  Hammond  Organ  work? ● What  are  some  songs  in  which  the  Hammond  Organ  was  used? Mellotron  -­‐  1963 ● What  kind  of  instrument  was  the  mellotron? ● What  did  the  mellotron  do  that  is  different  from  things  seen  before? ● What  is  an  example  of  its  use  in  1960?

Samplers
● What  is  a  sampler? ● What  is  a  sample?

A2 MUSIC TECH REVISION CHECKLIST
● ● ● ● How  does  the  sampler  work? How  many  snapshots  should  be  taken  per  second  to  get  a  faithful  impression  of  the  sound? What  is  sample  rate  and  how  does  it  affect  the  sample? What  is  bit  resolution  and  how  does  it  affect  the  sample?

Fairlight  CMI  -­‐  1979 ● What  is  the  sampler  capable  of? ● How  much  was  the  sampler?  (Series  1  and  Series  3) ● What  was  an  example  of  the  use  of  the  Fairlight  CMI  in  a  song?  What  part  of  the  song  was   this  used  on?  For  example,  the  cello,  the  bass,  the  drums  etc. Synclavier  -­‐  1980 ● Who  created  the  Synclavier? ● What  the  Synclavier’s  advantage  over  the  Fairlight  CMI? Emulator  sampler  -­‐    1981 ● How  much  was  the  emulator  sampler?  Why  was  this  beneficial? ● Who  bought  serial  number  001  because  they  were  so  impressed  with  it? ● What  equipment  did  the  emulator  sampler  have? AKAI  S900  -­‐  1986 ● What  was  superior  to  the  AKAI  S900  compared  to  already  existing  samplers? ● Name  one  famous  artist  who  used  the  AKAI  S900  in  their  career. ● What  type  of  display  does  the  AKAI  S900  have? ● What  was  introduced  to  the  sampler  world  that  featured  on  the  AKAI  S900?  Explain  how   this  worked. Software  Sampler ● How  did  the  software  sampler  work? ● What  equipment  was  needed  for  the  software  sampler  to  work? ● Why  did  this  make  editing  much  easier? Problems  that  occurred  with  samplers  -­‐  Copyright ● What  is  copyright? ● How  did  copyright  affect  the  use  of  samples  and  samplers? ● Name  one  example  where  copyright  has  affected  the  artist  and  their  song,  explain  what   happened.

A2 MUSIC TECH REVISION CHECKLIST Digital Audio
Analog-digital converters:
● ● ● What are they Where are they found Advantages and disadvantages

Sampling Rates:
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● measured in Also known as- Sampling Frequency, Sample Bandwidth what is a sample Industry standard rates/Red book standard other common rates Why have high sample rates storage problems Nyquist theory Aliasing Anti-aliasing filters Jitters

Bits/Bit rate:
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● what is a bit what is a bit rate industry standards/Red book standard possible values Quantisation Quantisation errors Recording at a low level Audio Dithering- digital interconnections, digital processors, Analog to digital converters

A2 MUSIC TECH REVISION CHECKLIST STUDIO EFFECTS
Reverb
Time and level Pre delay Spring reverb Plate reverb Absorption

Delay
Analogue delay Digital delay

Dynamics processors
Compression
Gain reduction Attack Release Knee Compressor threshold

Limiter
Gain reduction Output level Release

Noise gate
Threshold Attack Release Reduction

EQ
High shelf Low shelf Filters
Hi Pass Low pass High shelf Low shelf

Modulation effect
Chorus effects Flanger Phaser Vibrato Tremolo Pitch correction Vocoders

A2 MUSIC TECH REVISION CHECKLIST MIDI
What is in MIDI data? -Transmits commands, NOT audio signals -Provides information about events, such as: -Note on, note off, pitch bend, sustain pedal etc -Uses Binary data just like every computer -This means there are only 2 numerical values 1 and 0 (on and off)

Why was it created? -Created in 1983. -A large number of musical instrument manufacturers banded together for the first time -Was in answer to frustration of having more than one musical interface and format (made music creation, sharing and collaboration hard) -By 1985 almost every keyboard type instrument had a MIDI interface

What is a MIDI message? - A MIDI message is when bytes are combined together to create a command - There are two types of MIDI message, channel and system. - Channel messages are mostly related to performance of the MIDI information - System messages usually deal with the system itself. They aren't sent through channels.

A2 MUSIC TECH REVISION CHECKLIST SYNTHESIS
● ● ● What is the starting point of Synthesis?: Different waveforms used. Properties of these basic waveforms. What the next parts of synthesis do to the waveform.

What are the basic elements to synthesis? What are Oscillators?: What do they do? What is another name for Oscillators? And what it stands for or abbreviated to? Example of synths which replaced analogue waveforms for samples of basic waveforms. What is a filter? What is another name for a filter? And what it stands for or abbreviated to? What does a filter do to the waveform? What is the Envelope? What the envelope does? What are the different sections of a envelope and what are their definitions/jobs. What is another name for a envelope? And what it stands for or abbreviated to? What is a standard graph for the envelope? What is Modulation? What does modulation most commonly use? What does modulation do to the waveform? What parts of the synth can modulation effect? What happens when you modulate the: Oscillators Filter Envelope

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Video Explaining Subtractive Synthesis

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