The Ideological Significance of Afrocentricity in Intercultural Communication Author(s): Molefi Kete Asante Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Black

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THE IDEOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF AFROCENTRICITY IN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
MOLEFI KETE ASANTE
of State University New York

advanced the positionthat therewere threebroad views of Eurocentric,and Asiocentric cultural reality:Afrocentric, it (Asante,1980a). Although is possibleto makemoreprecise delineations,the basic tenets of my position have been enhancedby the work of Ruch and Anyanwu(1981). The that Afrocentricity philosopherAnyanwu argues correctly makes no sharp distinction betweenthe ego and the world, betweenthe self subjectand object. He says,"In the conflict and theworld,African culture of makestheselfthecenter the on world.Since the African worldis centered the self,every experienceand realityitselfis personal." Not only has my it beensubstantiated other by fields, has becomeeven position moreself-evident the culturaldifferences face in the that we are rootedin different viewsof reality. world to TheAfrican a world shares common approach phenomena.1 Even a term like "person" or "human" means something
JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES, Vol. 14 No. 1, September19833-19 ? 1983Sage Publications, Inc.

I on Communication At the BellagioConference African

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In different a Europeanand Asianthanitdoes to an African. to are this sense all definitions contextualand grow out of a For example,whilethe European people'sculturalheritage. seeksto conquernature, subdueit,theAsian fleesfrom to the illusions theworld,and theAfrican of findscoexistence with nature and a harmonious relationship withall oftheelements of theuniverse. Diop (1978) has understood thisas the Two of where Cradletheory humancivilization: Europeand Africa, of Asia becomesa combination thetwo cradles.Actuallyfor the Diop theAfrican Cradlepredates Europeanbutthespecial of characteristics theEuropean Cradle are associatedwiththe to glaciers, particularly they as relate fire ice,thedual gods and of Westerners. Iceman Inheritance In (1978) Bradleyextends that them Diop's position, contending Europeanscarry within the enduring mythof Ragnarok. There is a sense in which Europe is still trying resolve ice and fire accordingto to Bradley's thesis.Thereneeds to be further intensive workon and Europeanmythology psychology. in of Whatwe are witnessing thedevelopment intercultural as a field of inquiry is the creation of communication from the theoretical postures whichto survey wholeofhuman interaction betweencultures.What obtains in such circumstanceis how poweris defined and used, thatis, thequestion becomes focusoftheproblem. the How do Shona communicate withBritish? how does a Kikuyu communicate Or withan Arab? What descriptioncan we give to the intercultural communication All betweenYoruba and Portugese? of these level questionsof status questionsare at theirfundamental or power,perceived real.

POWER

I emphasizethatintercultural communication theinterat national or nationallevel is a matterof power.2The proper

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communication seemsto residein discussionof intercultural the examinationof power relationship betweenpeople. In societieswhere cultural differences existand are thebases for misunderstandings, controlproblemis an imbalance of the power. Ruling ideas do rest with rulingclasses; this is a historical fact. Where Africans haveinteracted Europeans with withdifficulty, difficulty been theresultof perceived that has power and status. Thus we cannot achieve intercultural communication whichis mature and effective untilwe address the materialconditionsof the people. Power relationships dictateso muchof whatis right, correct, logical,and reasonare able. The limits drawnby thosewho wieldtheeconomic, political, and cultural power. Consequently,my concern has turned more and more of and toward the ideological significance communication the Afrocentricity, logical philosophicalheir to Negritude. the Social science in the West is imperialistic, disciplinary for justification expansion. Richards (1980) is clear on this point. In her brilliantly provocativeessay on the European of domination she has exposed the European mythology obsession with fillingup space in the name of progress. Richardsis notalone inthisinterpretation theEuropeanuse of ofsocial science;indeedHerbert Marcuse(1968) and Michael of Bradley(1978) have providedample demonstration positivismas the pillar upon which operationalism manages to much is fieldof inquiry, expand. Communication a Western like other analytical forms,seeking to analyze audiences, about how humansare persuaded, examinedata, and theorize inorder aid thepersuaders, theaudience.In thisrespect, not to intothe as communication a sciencebecomes anotherthrust bellyof non-Westerners. in serves is how Afrocentricity My aim,therefore, to clarify for to an ideologicalfashion enhancetheopportunity effective The and non-Africans. assumpbetween Africans interaction communication intercultural tion I make is simple;effective

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of becausethe must basedupon theequality theinteractants be of of sharing meaningis the fundamental prerequisite comA of municative understanding. development theAfrocentric to for of viewwith regards objectiveconditions theliberation minds demands wholistic a Evenrhetorical African philosophy. in discourseamong Africans the Westernworldis polluted, distorted and dismembered the onslaughtof European by images symbols.3 and Sharing imagesis reasonable, of valuable, andpositive; is imagedomination, however, thesame as other colonial conquests,vile, repressive, and negative.Thus, my aim is to develop a metatheory out of which theorieswill emerge explainintercultural to interactions.

IDEOLOGY AND ECONOMICS The discussion of a comprehensive approach, including communication, the theoryof Africanliberation,both to continental diasporan,has been fraught and withhistorically divergent, partly and dissociated, politically conflicting, conceptuallyincongruent patternsamong our leading thinkers (DuBois, 1961; Garvey, 1969; Diop, 1978; Karenga, 1978; Cruse,1968;Cabral, 1973;Fanon, 1967;Nkrumah, 1970;and Nyerere, 1974).4 Theyhaveargueddifferent positions, debating from theirown ideologicalreference points,yettheyhave all to soughtto explaintheAfrican relationship theEuropean in historical and contemporary times.This analytical similarity, that is, as it refers the relationship Africanpeoples to to of Europeanpeoples,has notmeanta congruent approachto the natureof cultural liberation. Numerousvarieties existin our of political orientations well as in our understanding the as of objectiveconditions our lives. Perhapsit is thedifferences in perceived theobjective conditions thatgiveriseto thegreat in diversity ideologicalapproaches.One issueis settled among thesescholars:no one can define us howwe willbehavein for

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intercultural encounters. Theyrecognize needfora people the to define their own powervis-a-vis another. is Afrocentricity the ideological centerpieceof human regeneration, systematizing history our and experiencewith our ownculture thecore ofexistence at (Asante,1980a). In its it epistemic dimensions is also a methodology discovering for thetruth aboutintercultural communication. have needed We moreculturally for sensitive treatments our analysisofreality. Indeed the principaltheoretical analysesby Africansof the African political. economyon thecontinent wherever is and it substantialin the diaspora have often been enmeshedin reactionary thought.Those analyses which have not been rigidly reactionary have oftenturnedto Marxist referents. Althoughboth the capitalistand the Marxist positionsare from Europeanand consequently derive Europeanexeriences, thatis no reasonin and ofitself reject to themwholeheartedly. A more serious charge is that both theoreticalpositions and aspirationsof the masses of encapsulatethe interests interests thedominant to interests African Africans, subsuming of Europe (Rodney,1980; Marable, 1982). It is therefore in necessaryfor us to explore alternatives order at leastknowwhatis possiblefrom African to an cultural perspective. Wey and Osagie (1977) have proposed the intein gratisminherent all marketsas the basis for Nigerian an economic developmentand ultimately approach to all The principalfactorin Wey African economicdevelopment. of and Osagie's system theculturalheritage thepeople. The is and of modifying systematizing this culturalheritagealong more successfuleconomic lines becomes the major change I in element endingthecapitalist/ socialiststruggle. Although am notan apologistforthepast,I do believethatwe can build in entrenched our culture.The upon the foundations firmly mustbeginto exploreall economicanalysiswhich afrologist to But mustbe seen as contributing our symbolic system. the remains between relationship economicsand communication

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markets tendto be towardmore will ChangesintheWestern monopolistic verticalintegration whichallows transnational companies to own and control the sources of their raw materials. WalterRodney,in his awesomeworkHow Europe of showedthenegative character the Underdeveloped Africa, social, political, and economic consequences of European In of exploitation. Rodney'sviewtheviciousness thecolonial withrespectto Africansocial serviceswas stunning. system in Colonized Africanpopulations were severely maltreated health,education,and welfare.In fact,Rodney's thesison of colonizedpeople deepenedour understanding thebrutality ofrace exploitation underscored thefactthatthecolonists by owned and controlledthe raw materialswhich gave them enormoussurplusand allowed themto shipmassiveamounts to the various metropoles without to returning equal profits the Africanswho made it all possible. For example, John

servants.

of one of a definition power. The gates of world power are whoconference to kept guardians by amongthemselves secure oreconomic their placesand to thwart African communication on maturity, the continentand in the diaspora. A market correlates a which seeksprofits with viewofintercultural system whichseeksto use people. DeBeers Consolicommunication datedDiamondscontrols bulkofthediamondssold in the the a worldthrough distribution systemopen to 300 European dealers.Thus,through arrangement a select this diamond only This number gemdiamondsareplaced on theworldmarket. of area oftheworld whilethemajordiamondproducing happens on or remains Africa.In orderforan African thecontinent in the diaspora to participatein the process of securinggem diamonds,he or she must submitto the Europeans whose nativelands produce almost no gem diamonds. In no other continent amongno other and peopleshave outsideinfluences so thoroughly economiclife.Our battleis intense, dominated thestruggle wageforstatuspoweris seriousand we cannot we communicate equals whenour economicpositionis thatof as

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Cocoa Board and used this the chaired WestAfrican Cadbury positionto amass wealth and to exploit the Africancocoa chocolatemanufacturers one becoming oftherichest farmers, settlers colonyhad itswhite African every Almost intheworld. who controlledvast areas of the country's or businessmen were In naturalresources. too manyexamples,those settlers of supporters racismagainstAfricans. mostviolent the

POLITICS AND SYMBOLS

thatis, theendeavorto for Politicsis thestruggle symbols, to objective.Power is theabilility securesomepredetermined realized.On a and materialized theobjective seethosesymbols of basic leveltheforces SWAPO possess a visionforNamibia of the whichtheyintendto implement; implementation that a of visionwillbe an indication power.Theoretically, person assentto somephilosophical mayhavea visionabout securing to data, and arguments of The marshalling evidence, position. power. revealsintellectual obtainacceptanceof thattheory as communication a harmoniousendeavor Intercultural seeks to createthe sharingof power. In the exchange,the For understanding. the we interchange, find sourceofcreative and from audienceis African scholartheprincipal theAfrican audience. thataudienceone makescontactwiththeuniversal I am a Diopian in terms of philosophy and analysis, thatno methodis adequate ifit cannotexplain the believing law,communitopic,economics, Every of possibility harmony. must and literature, sociology history, religion, cation,science, eyes. When I met Cheikh be reviewedthroughAfrocentric of Anta Diop at IFAN, University Dakar, in December1980, he and spoke to himabout symbolsand culture, emphasized not of culture, theneed to expand theunderstanding African of scholarthefuture it. defend In themindofthisoutstanding Africanscholarshiprestedwith those scholars who would We exploreeverysubjectafrocentrically. mustexamine the

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on influences thecourt African invasionsof Europe, African from WhiteAges,and the the of systems Europe as itemerged of science.The afrocentric American African origin American analyticalmethod, line is not an easy line, it is a difficult and seductresses and detours, intellectual fraught pitfalls, with seducers. itis a worthwhile Yet method, perhapstheonlyvalid of for method, a properunderstanding our objectivereality. communication becomesa merepipe Otherwise intercultural dream unrealizedand unrealizablebecause Europeans and of Africanshave such limitedunderstanding each other's and essential mythologies motifs.

EUROCENTRIC AGGRESSION and McWorter (1980) has seenthatthemethods conclusions opposed to of afrocentric scholars are oftendiametrically factmeans and traditions thisobjective Europeanintellectual that manyscholarsof Africandescentare not publishedin eurocentric journals. The oppositionof the two worldviews derivesfromthe conceptof origin.Michael Bradley's(1978) thesis thattheriseofEuropeansmustbe seenin thecaves of is the Europe during timeoftheglaciers.Theiruse and worship offire arose in thesame period.This led to a fearofstrangers, behavior, fortheprotection all xenophobia,and an aggressive ofone'sfire. to the According Bradley, European'saggressiveness constitutesthe single most importantfactor in his the expansionthroughout world.It was not onlyspatial but As whatthey saw theyattempted intellectual. withgeography to fill,even thoughtherewereotherpeople or ideas in those of with Europeancolonization Africa the places. Concomitant It of aboutAfrica. was theEuropeancolonization information to or for theorist philosopher would be a mistake anyAfrican in the underestimate extentof whiteaggressiveness thecomis reasonfor munication process.Since aggression theprimary white expansion (Richards, 1980; Bradley, 1978) in other

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for sees the struggle spheres,Schiller (1976: 82) correctly a as dominationover communication essentially creationof societies. industrialized the capitalistethos of whitewestern is technology not Accordingto Schiller(1976: 55), "western system production of partof an exploitative onlyan integral My own view is but extendsand deepensthatexploitation." on also seeksto imposeitself Africa. thatMarxisttechnology fields, aimoftheeurocentric the as In communication, inother and of through subjection nature the is aggression to dominate this people. Ultimately, quest for dominationis a quest for of onlyintheacquisition more which Europeansfind salvation and more.The Hobbesian analysisofEuropean"man"thathe desiresand desiresand thereis no end to his desireseemsas Acquisition century. accuratenow as itwas in theseventeenth was oftenmade a realityby changingthe names of things, themas iftheyWere places and evenpeople and thentreating objects. whatEuropeanssaid theywere,in effect, and The Europeansimposedthemselves gave newnamesto mountains,rivers,and villages. Monopotapa existed long before there was anyRhodes or Rhodesia; VictoriaFalls is an impositionon the ancientwaterfallscalled Musi-wa-tunya, and New York and Baltimore are recent names to the America.In theworldofideas,Europeans of geography North new sciences,and newinterpretations imposednewhistories, which disregardedthe sacred historiesand sciences of the ancients.They were like childrenplayingin the garden of thrust of adults. Progressbecame a termfor an antihuman racial vanity.Bradley(1978) is perhapsone of thefewwhite for this understands penchant progress writers who correctly as a "symptomof undisplaced aggressionresultingfrom Caucasoid psychosexualmaladaptation."What otherraces have viewed as civilizationis puzzlingto whiteswho view as (Bradley,1978; Richards,1980). progress civilization Africanscholars can never hope to achieve intellectual, cultural,or political liberationby followingin eurocentric The truth history. foundations of this footsteps; is theexacting

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Neither makes Africans anti-African. of eurocentric thought if can we expect to communicate we refuseto use our own interaction with voice. Our ownvoice is thesourceofeffective history, economics and sociology, others. Whileanthropology, it the for existas reasonablecategories studying world, is inthe that of development, analysis,and criticism thosedisciplines We writers. should we willfind differences eurocentric our with not abandon theprincipal disciplines, mustwe relinquish nor and clarity, integrity, methodological excellence,intellectual to productivity. it should become necessary challengethe If do an we so-called Western disciplines, must so from afrocentric of which comprised an is integrity perspective usingintellectual of to And truth is absolutecommitment thediscovery truth. the never againstthepeople;itcan onlysupport besttraditions withnature.For example,if one is because it is in harmony one its to discussanthropology, mustunderstand racist asked done forracist of origin.Classification humanswas initially of and reasons:to try showwhitesupremacy theinferiority to everyotherpeople. Thus whenthewhitepersonspoke to the of or African Asian he or she spokewiththeperceptions white superiority.Many nonwhites,educated in white studies, of assumedtheirown inferiority acceptedthesuperiority and The culture promulgated white as studies. communicawhite by tion betweensuch a personand a whitepersonis superficial and often meaningless.

CRITICISM AND KNOWLEDGE

has The bulk of what Africans have written added to the Even our criticism has been body of European literature. criticism from Europeanposture, a thatis,whenwe havebeen criticalcategories. critical have used foreign we Our research on oftenbeginswitha reviewof the European literature our to the of Whatweneedis a method prevent invisibility subjects. The afrocentric our own scholars and history. approach to

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in research permits specific a and a generalsurvey searchfor Africanwriters who have studiedthe topic on them.This is and done to prevent provincialism racism.These twolevelsof who has understood or inquiry will alwaysrevealan African developeda perspective an issue. If you are talkingabout on systems theory, thenexplore the question fromthe specific surveylevel. How does systemtheorywork? What is its does it relationship society thelarge?What significance to in have to Africans? These questionsshouldgivethe researcher who has written the on enoughinformation findan African to subject. If not, then proceed to the next level, the general approachesto thistopic? survey. Whatarethemethodological What mythological culture? When the bases existin African answeris found we can say, perhaps,that Marcus Garvey ever advanced systems theorylong beforevon Bertanlanfy the dreamedof the concept.Garveydemonstrated wholistic Moreover,at nature,the unitary natureof the racistsystem. the general surveylevel one discovers that Ogotemmeli's exposition on Dogon philosophyand works in Zulu and of Yoruba philosophy showtheinterconnectedness theworld. Even in umbanda, myalism, voodoo, and Rasta one has to equations,entropy, understand elements input-output the of in and leadingforce.So ifwe are to be truly afrocentric our thatourworkmustadd to research willneedto understand we thebody of information relatedto our perspective; otherwise research.This is difficult we are Africans doing eurocentric because it causes us to thinksabout the topicswe tacklebut more importantly how we tackle them. It is too easy to researchof Africanscholars; disregardthe communication thatis whyit is necessary make a specialeffort. to meansthatwe have a commonvision Collectiveworldview must it forourresearch; does notmeanthatall ofourresearch need threeprofessional be on the same topics. Afrologists and of qualities: competence, clarity perspective, understanding method oftheresearch object(Asante,1980a).The afrocentric So makesafrological anysubjectand be study. one maystudy

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so an afrologist long as the subjectis studiedafrocentrically. is Everything in relation to Africa, not Africa in mere terms Africaas vision,ideal, and promontory. but geographic teach us that culturalpower is the Historyand tradition basis ofeconomicpower.JohnHenrikClarkeis fundamental correctto observe that a major clothingindustryamong AfricanAmericanscould have been created if Dr. Martin to LutherKing,Jr.,had refused wear any clothesbut those willnotbe replacedin manufactured Africans. Chopsticks by China by forksand spoons, not even in the Westernization period,becausewholevillagesare engagedin themanufacturing of chopsticks; they are cultural and economic. Our whatwe wearand whatwe buy economicsis a symbol system, to are symbols thosewho see us. theorists, createthefoundations can Afrologists, guiding as to foreconomicvictory, we haveto be willing proposebold but researchplans whichwill redoundto the image of a nation; Such an Ogunicthrust the into thisis trueimagination. indeed, future whatwe need to prepareourselvesand our children is for economic independence.This means that theylook to thantojoin with oppressor. the Architects should createrather build edifices which reflectAfrican values and symbols. Scientists should examinethe Africansecretsand mysteries mustdecipherthe Meroitic relatedto herbs. Linguisticians of histories the contexts.Historiansshould writeunifying white people,particularly tinent. Psychologists shouldexamine as such examination into racist behavior will make for injournals and their findings interracial understanding, report of Black Studies and African research. My point is that is the to actionand afrocentricity ideologyis essential cultural ideologicalposturewhichallows us to act creatively.

AFROCENTRIC COUNTERBALANCE

Afrocentricity provides us with a counterbalanceto the of Most ideologyin communication. penetration eurocentric

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doctrines communication of developedin theWestern world are meantto protect statusoftheexploiter, dominator the the or iftheywerenot so intended have becomethereality. Free flow of information, example, strengthens exploiter for the and keeps theweak nationsweak. As a concept,freeflowof information rises with American imperial expansion and globalhegemony. Freedom capitalexpansionwas therefore for appreciatedas freedomfor movementof information. My contention thatthisviewoftheworldhauntsourtheoretical is positions on intercultural communication. fact, what I In (1980b) have called temporary communication estrangement or TCE occursregularly the interactions Africans in of with Europeans. The receiver who fails to interrupt incorrect an viewinorder achievesomeother to purposecausesa communicationproblem.Thus,mostcreative solutionsto theinterculturalcommunication estrangement in our hands. are We are creatures our history, of and the brillianceof any liberation Whenwe paradigmmustbe foundin thathistory. the know,truly know,thattheIsongheeofZaire invented first mathematicalcalculator 8000 years ago or that DuBois's lists and books, or thatIfa withits bibliography 2377 articles 256 major odus coversmore ethicalmaterialthan either the Bible or Koran, or that Tubman was a socialist and a or were revolutionary nationalist, thatgeometrical principles used bytheAfricans theOlduvai Gorgea million of yearsago, I moreaccurately. do we can analyzecontemporary situations notmeanto makethistoo simplebyciting onlya fewexamples to because afrocentricity a difficult is theoretical philosophy correctphilosophyof perfect, it is the most historically yet scholar.Our history one is and scholarship lifefortheAfrican of struggle and victory;this knowledgeis necessaryas we to and attempt reconstruct mobilze.Thereare two important attributes theafrocentric of person:(1) African symbolization and (2) culturecreation.We have no way of livingbut in culture;ritualsand ceremoniesorganizeour culturefor us. Withoutritualsand ceremonieswe are a rudderless people is To in floating an abstractsea of materialism. symbolize to

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for find representatives our thoughts,ideas, values, and attitudesthat teach us how to create and to enhance our creativity. In the diaspora our cultural scientistsmust give more These rites, to like attention ritesofpassage forourchildren.5 all previousrites,mustgrow out of history. Karenga, more the has than any of our contemporary scientists, understood To value of culturalnationalism. the creativeand victorious degreethat Karenga has seen the need for us to have rites, thatreflect values,he has opened our and ceremonies, holidays of thepossibility culturalstaminain thetradition Garvey for the rite and Elija Muhammad.Kariamuhas created mfundalai for young children.In this rite there is the passing from childhoodto adulthood.Atthirteen yearsofage thegirlorthe boy mustlearnto recitefromTHE WAY, the book of Njia, in the interpret recitation, applyitto situations their and lives. of Thisrite heldinthepresence friends family is and wholisten to thechild'srecitation thedeeds,events, of and personalities If in ourhistory. thechildis notsuccessful, mustrepeatthe she riteat theage offourteen. sayrhythm theprimary of We is fact of life, participatein the rhythm the universeand sense our happiness.A discipline whichexpandsourrites, organizes sciences,and enhances our culturaldevelopment highly is desirable. Nuclearism,the highestformof the Vikingreligion, the as worshipofweapon as deity, becomethemainobsessionof Europeans. They even speak in apocalyptictermsabout the it and beautyoftheweapon,thesecurity provides, itsawesome power.Sincenuclearism becomethegod oftheEuropeans has and theyare poised fora violentRagnarok,it is very essential that our scholars, afrologists, not divorce ideology from science.We havebeencapturedtoo longbythenotionthatwe cannot make value judgmentsin criticism, history, ecoart, nomics, law, communication, anthropology, politicalscience, and psychology. Yet our own experiences have taughtus or should have taughtus that we must remainvigilantin our

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attack on dehumanization.Communication theoryderived from afrocentricity must be open to human development. Awareness, therefore, a relevant is issueincultural understandingand cultural nationalism. word"awareness" derived The is from twoaspects, namely, wariness illumination. must and We be waryof psychic numbness and assumea missionof rescue forAfrican culture notseparating by knowledge from feeling. All culturalresearch musthave dynamicsymbolism.6 The is afrologist engagedin an intense, and persistent, ideological to struggle see a visionof the worldrealized.Surroundedby hostileforces, the evenwithin race,we cannotwithdraw from creativetheory testedby practice.Whole courses should be taught afrocentricity, on of Kawaida, thetheories CheikhAnta Diop, DuBois, ancestralism, Karenga,King,and Garvey.Our literature politicaltheories richand varied.Afrologists and are mustviewAfrican who study communication Studieswholisand ticallywhereAfricansare joined politically, culturally, We mustread the worksof Soyinka,Guillen, economically. Obenga,Ravell,Nascimento, Roumain,Osagie,Diop, Aboaba, Wey, Anyanwu,Vandi, Ikpewho, Nhiwatiwaamong others fromthecontinent, South America,and the Caribbean.7We shall win thevictory, thatmuchis inexorableand so we call to upon the spiritof our childrenand theirchildren witness us whatwe have done and who we are,to learnstrength from and truth as we are notafraidand to from and be notafraid us for come forth you have been counted.It is done!

NOTES

1. This has been demonstrated the new researchcomingout of the Buffalo by School of AfricanCommunication.A whole list of scholars: Boadu, Harrison, Appiah, Abarry,Vandi, Aboaba, Nhiwatiwa,Hunter,Grant,and Holmes, have I of More explicitly,haveadvancedthepositionthat showntheunity African culture.

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and a ritualism, extendedkinship,rhythmic Africansare unitedby ancestralism, SupremeDeity.These conceptscrossmostboundariesof Africans. I communication. 2. There has not been a fullpower analysisof interpersonal studiesengagedin by traditional believethatthe statusstudiesand the hierarchical of skirtthe principalcontradiction power relationships whitecommunicationists amongpeople. in adopted thelanguageof the oppressor have frequently Americans 3. African thisbehaviorforall colonized orderto achieveliberation.Frantz Fanon predicted to people. It is necessary rejectsymbolsof victimagein orderto freeour minds. diaspora is in Leachim Semaj's work on race and identity childrenof the African Fall 1981). on important thispoint(see Studia Africana, 4. I see all discussionsof science as discussionsof human liberation.Thus in of I communication mustaddresstheissue oftheliberation speakingofintercultural in we otherwise participate the of themind,thefreeing thesoul, and thepersonality, research. worstkindof impractical of in 5. This is a concernofminethathas itsorigin thedoctrine Kawaida whichI of gift brilliant to mankind.A fullappreciation theAfrican as recognize a peculiarly in Europeans,especially themiddlepassageand so-called the contactwith marauding new world, remains to be done. Rites are necessarilythe results of historical experience. is in intelligently conversation to educate 6. To be able to employone's own myths of I boththosethathear and oneself. am convincedthatonlya practice thissortwill interactions. elevateour intercultural between Yoruba and Ibo, Kikuyu and Luo, communication 7. Intercultural and Ewe mustbe Ashanti, and Jamaican, American Mashona and Matebele,African relationsbegin with the based upon knowledgeand humility.All intercultural it perceptionof self and then extend outward; but to be meaningful must be knowledgeable.

REFERENCES

NY: The ASANTE, M. (1980a) Afrocentricity: Theoryof Social Change. Buffalo, Company. Publishing Amulefi into inquiry encounter," an communication: Afrocentric ---(1980b) "Intercultural Conferenceon Black in B. E. Williams and 0. L. Taylor (eds) International Foundation. Papers. New York: Rockefeller Working Communication: Toronto:Dorset Publishing. BRADLEY, M. (1978) Iceman Inheritance. ReviewPress. CABRAL, A. (1973) Returnto the Source. New York: Monthly CRUSE, H. (1968) Rebellionor Revolution.New York: WilliamMorrow. DIOP, C. A. (1978) CulturalUnityof Black Africa.Chicago: ThirdWorldPress. WorldLibrary. DUBOIS, W.E.B. (1961) The Souls ofBlack Folk. New York:Fawcett

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FANON, F. (1967) The Wretched the Earth.New York: GrovePress. of GARVEY, A. (1969) The Philosophyand Opinionsof Marcus Garvey.New York: Antheneum. KARENGA, M. (1978) Essaysin Struggle. San Diego: Kawaida Publications. Black America.Chicago: MARABLE, M. (1982) How CapitalismUnderdeveloped SouthendPress. MARCUSE, H. (1968) One DimensionalMan. Boston: Beacon Press. McWORTER, G. (1980) Guide to Black ScholarlyPublications.Urbana: University of IllinoisAfroAmerican ResearchInstitute. NKRUMAH, K. (1970) Class Struggle Africa. in New York:International Publishers. NYERERE, J. (1974) Freedom and Development.New York: Oxford University Press. RICHARDS, D. (1980) "European mythology: ideology of progress," M. the in in Asanteand A. Vandi(eds.) Contemporary BlackThought: Alternative Analyses the Social and BehavioralSciences.Beverly Hills,CA: Sage. RODNEY, W. (1980) How Europe UnderdevelopedAfrica. Washington,DC: Howard University Press. RUCH, E. A. and K. C. ANYANWU (1981) AfricanPhilosophy.Rome: Catholic Book Agency. SCHILLER H. (1976) Communication CulturalDomination.WhitePlains,NY: and Sharpe. WEY, S. 0. and E. OSAGIE (1977) An Ideology forSocial Development.Lagos: AcademyPress.

Molefi Kete Asante is Editor, Journal of Black Studies; Professor of Communication African-American and Studies, State University New York; of author of over 100 publicationsincludingtwenty books; and Co-Director, Center for Positive Thought.He has been a visiting professorat Howard University a Fulbright and Professor, ZimbabweInstitute Mass Communiof cation.

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