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Nanotechnology is being harbingered as the next enabling technology that will redesign the future of several technologies, products and markets. The nanotechnology industry is heralding a new world order. Nations are focusing on this emerging technology in particular and serious researches as well as industry efforts are being made. It is described as an enabling technology that will pave the way for novelty in every stream of technology. The number of sectors that are involved are many, due to the multi-disciplinary nature of the technology, offering scope for numerous opportunities. In this paper we are going to discuss about nano technology, why there is so much interest in such technology, approaches in nano technology, road map of nano technology, and 13 developments of nano technology such as nano d-ram chips, nano dot storage, nano technology in sports, smallest nano tube transistor, nano to speed up the internet, storage punch card, applications and future of this tiny technology which commands the future era.
WHAT IS NANO TECHNOLOGY? The “nano” in nanotechnology comes from the Greek word nanos, which means dwarf. Scientists use this prefix to indicate 10-9 or one-billionth. Thus a nanosecond is one-billionth of one second; a nanometer is one-billionth of one meter, etc. Objects that can be classified as having something to do with nanotechnology are larger than atoms but much smaller than we can perceive directly with our senses. One way to look at this size scale is that one nanometer (nm) is about 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a single human hair. The following figure may also help to put this size scale in context. Why a particular size scale should be the basis for so much federal funding, research activity and media attention will become apparent soon.
Fig: objects of approximate size from 103 m to 10-9 m HISTORY OF NANO TECHNOLOGY It all began on 29 December, 1959 when the American Physicist and later on Nobel Prize Winner, Richard P. Feynman, spoke at the American Physical Society. In his presentation ‘There is plenty of room at the bottom’, he described a vision, the production of the tiniest systems ever, using techniques in the nano cosmos, on a scale within millionth’s of a millimeter. Today’s advances in research and development indicate that nanotechnology will form the future of technological quantum leaps – from material sciences to electronics, from analytics to biosciences. Why is there so much interest in nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is not new – nano products are already in the marketplace, such as stain resistant and wrinkle-free textiles. Given its fuzzy definition, there is also an element of traditional products under the nanotechnology banner. However, because nanotechnology is
ubiquitous but also far-reaching, it has real potential to transform the way we live. There are very significant economic, social and environmental implications from this technology. To quote The Economist (January 2005): ‘Nanotechnology will indeed affect every industry through improvements to existing materials and products, as well as allowing the creation of entirely new materials’ [and] ‘produce important advances biomedicine’. Developments of this nature will undoubtedly bring significant risks and rewards, as well as raise social and ethical issues. For these reasons, the current level of interest surrounding nanotechnology would seem to be warranted. APPROACHES IN NANO TECHNOLOGY There are 2 principal approaches within nanotechnology ‘top down’ in physics and ‘bottom up’ in both physics and chemistry. The top down approach focuses on the miniaturization of structures and micro technological processes. Examples here include semiconductor electronics.90 % of these elements contain nanostructures. A model example for the bottom up approach is the use of molecular modeling to design and produce liquid crystals. Using these methods, liquid crystals in nano dimensions with unique optical characteristics can be realized. ROADMAP OF NANO TECHNOLOGY: in areas such as electronics, energy and
Fig: Nano technology road map The Roadmap extends from 1980 to 2020 and represents the evolution of nanotechnology in three stages. The first stage, extending from 1980 to 2000, recognizes the emergence of a mature and largely consolidated nano tools sector and the existence of a nascent nano materials sector. The second stage, extending from 1990 to 2010, reflects the emergence of a mature and largely consolidated nano materials sector and the marketing of a growing number of nano tools and nano materials enabled products and processes. The third stage, extending from 2000 to 2020, foresees the use of nano tools and nano materials becoming widespread in many sectors, leading to the commercialization of new and improved products and processes enabled by the incorporation of nano devices and nano systems. IS THIS JUST A FANTASY? Does cryonics actually preserve life or identity? Cellular life, yes, without a doubt. Skin, corneas and human embryos and routinely frozen in LN_2, thawed and transplanted. More other individual tissues can be treated this way, resulting in viable cells. But today’s resuscitation methods are not yet entirely successful on whole organs or animals. However, since the frozen individuals are not changing further, they can afford
to wait until better thawing procedures and cell repair treatments (through nanotechnology) are available in the future. Two major questions exist: Do today’s cryonic suspension procedures reliably preserve memories and the identity of the frozen individual? If so, will the repair capability of nanotechnology be up to the task of reviving these patients? Unfortunately, current science lacks the knowledge to answer these questions with certainty. Neuroscience cannot yet show us what specific structures in the brain encode memory or identity (or even provide us with a decent working definition of identity), so we can’t examine brain tissue to look for the presence of those structures. And the basic principles of nanotechnology are still so new that we don’t have a firm understanding of its technical and practical limitations.
DEVELOPMENTS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY:Now-a-days there is a large development of nanotechnology in various fields, such as: 1. SMALLEST NANOTUBE TRANSISTOR: Researchers at Infineon Technologies have made the world’s smallest nano tube transistor. With a channel length of only 18 nm, the new transistor is only one – fourth the size of the most advanced transistors currently in production. It can deliver currents in excess of 15 micro amperes at a supply voltage of only 0.4 V as against the current norm of 0.7 V. 2. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN SPORTS:Nanotechnology is finding its way into sports as well. A company called Nano Dynamics has come up with a golf ball that can correct its own flight path, so it can fly straighter than conventional balls. The ball won’t shift 45 degrees in mid air, but the design of the ball – and the materials it’s made of – serves to better channel the energy received from the club head and thus correct a wobble or slight drift. Expected to hit the market this year, the ball would cost Rs 320 to Rs 366 ($7 to $8) a piece. Another company called Easton Sports is developing bike components made from carbon nano
tubes that would be stronger and lighter than conventional parts. Some companies have developed nano tennis balls that doesn’t lose air and golf shafts constructed with nano materials. Pennsylvania’s Nano – Horizons has developed socks containing silver and gold nano particles that kill foot odour and bacteria. 3. NANODOT STORAGE:Ashutosh Tiwari and Jagdish Narayan at North Carolina State University have created 5nm diameter nickel nano dots that could be used to store terabytes (TB) of data in a computer chip. A nano dot is a discrete ball of several hundred nickel atoms that can have one or two magnetic states, which allows it to hold a single bit of information as a ‘1’ or ‘0’. Nano dots allow bits to be packed densely as dots and are discrete units. They can arrange themselves at a density that would, theoretically, allow about five terabytes of data to be packed into a computer drive roughly the size of a postage stamp. On the other hand, in conventional computer hard drives, information is stored on a disk coated with a magnetic material, and bits must be far enough apart not to interfere with each other. 4. NANO DRAM CHIPS:Samsung Electronics has begun mass producing memory chips based on the 90nanotechnology. The nanotechnology enables churning out of 512 MB double data – rate dynamic random access memory productivity up to 40 %. 5. NANO TO SPEED UP THE INTERNET:Nanotechnology can pave the way to super – fast Internet based entirely on light according to researchers at the University of Toronto. chemistry professor Wayne Wang and colleague Connie Kuang at the Carleton University have designed a material by combining nanometer sized spherical particles known as ‘buckyballs’ (molecules of carbon atoms resembling soccer balls ) with a design class of polymer. The polymer and buckyball combination created a clear, smooth film designed to make light particles pick up each other’s patterns. The new hybrid material can carry information across a set of ( DDR DRAM ) chips more quickly, improving the
wavelengths used for communications. According to researchers, future fiber optic communication systems using this material could relay signals with picoseconds switching times, resulting in 100 times faster Internet. 6. NANO BREAKTHROUGH SHRINKS CELLPHONES:IBM researchers have developed a tiny computer memory device by combining the ability of molecules to arrange themselves into tiny particles, called self – assembly, with standard making tools. The device functions just like a flash memory, retaining recent information when the electronic gadget is switched off. This nanotechnology advancement would allow manufacture of smaller, better – performing microchips for cell phones, computers and other electronic gadgets. 7. 65 nm SRAM CHIPS:Intel has built fully – functional Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) chips using 65 nm technologies – its next generation high volume semiconductor manufacturing process. The 65 nm semiconductor devices were manufactured at Intel’s 300 mm development fab (called DID) in Hillsboro, Oregon. the 65 nm process combines higher performance but less power consuming transistors, a second – generation version of Intel’s strained silicon, high – speed copper interconnects and a low – K dielectric material. Building chips using this process will allow Intel to double the number of transistors it can build on a single chip today. Transistors could be made as small as 35 nm in gate length. 8. NANOPARTICLES TO BOOST SOLAR POWER:Imagine your shirt recharges your cell phone, your camera takes pictures in the dark and your rooftop shingles power your home. This can be made possible by nano particles developed by Professor Ted Sargent and his team at University of Toronto which will make it easy, and cheap, to see in the dark. The particles can detect infrared light, unseen by humans because of its long wavelengths. And like a solar panel, they can channel the energy to beneficial purposes.
9. STORAGE ‘PUNCH CARD’:IBM has developed a storage chip that holds up to a trillion bits of information or about 25 million textbook pages in a postage stamp-size area. The prototype, part of an ongoing nanotechnology – research project codenamed Millipede, contains more than 1000 heated spikes that can make, or read, tiny indentations in a polymer film. It is 20 times more densely packed with information than current hard drives. With this, cell phones could hold up to 10 GB of data. 10. NANO BOOSTS DVD STORAGE: The US patent and Trademark office (USPTO) has issued two patents to Iomega for its work on nanotechnology and optical data storage, and external storage media. The first patent covers a novel technology of encoding data on the surface of a DVD by using reflective nanostructures. This technology, termed articulated optical – digital versatile disk (AO – DVD), allows more data to be stored on a DVD and could allow future optical disks to hold 40 to 100 times more information with data transfer rates 5 to 30 times faster than today’s DVDs, and that too at low costs. 11. ODOUR – FIGHTING NANO PARTICLES:Nano Horizons, based in Pennsylvania, hopes to use nano particles to create less – stinky socks. It has come up with metallic nano particles that are compatible with polymer manufacturing process. This means silver, gold and other metals that kill bacteria and odour – causing microbes can be incorporated into shoes, athletic equipment and other plastic or nylon products. 12. SELF – CORRECTING GOLF BALLS:Nano Dynamics has made a golf ball that can correct its own flight path so it flies straighter than conventional balls. The design of the ball and the nano materials it’s made of serve to better channel the energy received from the stroke and thus corrects a wobble or slight drift. 13. CHIP IMPLANTS TO READ MIND:-
Some day, we may have a chip implanted in our head to help us remember where we put the car keys or some other object. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Germany have devised a specially designed chip that can stimulate or monitor brain tissue when placed under it. A synapse fires, and a corresponding spike in voltage occurs in the adjacent chip. Alternatively, electricity courses through the chip, and chemical synapses fire in the brain tissue. The technology creates the possibility that the movements of mind can be mapped (or guided) by computers.
Fig: developments of nano technology APPLICATIONS:
CONCLUSION: The nanotechnology industry is heralding a new world order. The number of sectors that are involved are many, due to the multi-disciplinary nature of the technology, offering scope for numerous opportunities. Nanotechnology is heavily intertwined with biotechnology and information technology, making its scope very wide. Generous funding from governments and venture funds is helping initiate new ventures. Looking at worldwide developments in recent years, it is time India forges a nanotechnology policy in tune with the specific needs of the country and its existing strengths. It is in our hands to make the best utilization of nano technology in the present and upcoming days.
REFERENCES: 1 ELECRONICS FOR YOU 2 ELECTRONICS TODAY MAGAZINE 3 WORLDS BEST NETWORK-- INTERNET