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Section 1 – Application of computer and their social and economic implications

Introduction:
The aim of this section of the syllabus is to cover as broad a range of computer applications as possible. So as to provide an understanding of the power
and versatility of the computer and the benefits of its use, and also of its limitations and the problems and potential disadvantage of this use.

Exam Question in Exam Question


Item Topic Description
Paper 1 in Paper 2
1.1 The range scope of computer
application.
Candidates should be able to
Comment sensibly on any
suggested application and make
use of specific relevant example
for illustration.

- General Application Areas The range of computer application is vast. An


awareness of this range and of the nature of variety
of applications areas is best achieved through a
general study of a number of applications of
different kinds. The relevant aspects of any
applications include the following:
1. The purpose of the application.
2. The required outcome.
3. The overall system design, including both the
computerised and the non-computerised parts
of the application.
4. The necessary inputs to the system and the
means by which any data is captured.
5. The Overall organisation of the major software
and hardware component of the system.
6. The use and organisation of the major software
and hardware components of the system.
7. The need for recovery in the event of a system
failure
8. The interface between the system and its users.
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9. The effectiveness of the system in practice.
10. The effect of the application on individual and
organisations.

Example could be selected from electronic mail,


fax, electronic/video conferencing, digital Q 1 (b) video-conferencing.
telephone facilities, information retrieval and
Communication and database system, office automation and library Q15 (a) (b)
information systems, online systems, multimedia systems, ecommerce, wireless
services and remote database technology. Effect of using broadband rather dial
up. Use of virtual reality in applications such as
viewing inside of the houses, kitchen design, etc.

Commercial and general data Examples could be selected from banking systems, Q 1. (e)Batch processing
processing hospital administration, systems for personnel
records, stock control and order processing.

Industrial, technical and Examples could be selected from weather Q 1 (d) simulation.
scientific uses forecasting, computer aided design and
manufacture, image processing, simulation and Q 13 (a) (b) (c) (d) What is
modelling, use of virtual reality in designing meant by virtual reality?
chemical and nuclear plants, training of airlines examples, advantages and
pilots. application

Monitoring and control systems Examples could be selected from monitoring of


hospital patients, chemical process control, nuclear
power station operation and traffic survey and
control.

Automation and robotics Examples could be selected from domestic


equipment (e.g. intelligent cookers which read bar
codes on food packaging and automatically set
cooking time and temperature); automatic
navigation systems (e.g. satellite navigation);
embedded interconnected processors in cars and
industrial robots; use of computer controlled TV
(CCTV) cameras in surveillance.
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Expert systems Example could be selected from mineral
prospecting, medical diagnosis and car engine Q 7 (a) (b)
diagnostics.

Miscellaneous areas such as Examples could be selected from computer-based


education and training, learning, computer aided instruction, applications Q 5. State 2 examples of the
entertainment in music (e.g. production and generation of music), use of computer software
computer graphic and animation for television and when making films for TV and
film, arcade and adventure games, use of virtual cinema.
reality in training (e.g. when paying by credit card),
people’s fear of using internet.

Use of the internet Design of internet sites, website features for online
ordering and other applications (such as banking Q 4. State three effects on
and ecommerce), use of internet search engines, society due to the increase of
protection built into secure internet sites (e.g. when businesses using e-commerce.
playing

The social and economic


1.2 implication of the use computers

Candidates should be able to


demonstrate a broad knowledge
of the economic reasons for
using computers and the effects
of their use across a range of
application areas

And to show their critical


abilities in balancing the
advantages and disadvantages
of a computerised system

Social and economic effects on The social and economic effects


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people and organisations
associated directly with the
application, on other individuals
and organisations, and on
society in general

Economic reasons for he use of


computers

Change to existing methods,


products and services

Change in the working


environment

Changes in employment, Candidates may see the need for constant retraining
retraining of staff as existing packages are upgraded and new
ones published. Candidates may appreciate the use
of individualised training packages that use CD-
ROM, DVD and multimedia

Privacy and integrity of data


Data protection legislation
Security and reliability The requirements for security and reliability vary
Consequences of system failure considerably depending on the nature of the
application for example, a failure during a batch
update of sequential master file is irritating and will
cause delay, whereas a failure in an air traffic
control system could well have catastrophic result.

Hacking and other computer Computer crime includes activities such as the
crime cracking of ineffective security systems so as to
gain unauthorised access to commercially sensitive Q 3 (a) Give two examples of
or confidential personal files, and fraud through the computer crime.
improper transfer of funds from one account to (b)Describe two methods
another. Computer criminals may work within used to prevent computer
organisation suffering the crime or may be crime.
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outsiders . measures taken to combat computer
crime include physical security, development of
complex security codes and systems, encryption of
sensitive data, and monitoring of all attempt to
access the system, whether successful or not.

Computer viruses Sensible precautions should be identified.