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Salt 2: Incremental Extraction of Grammar


by Simplistic Rules

Yuri Tarnopolsky
2005

Abstract

This e-paper continues the examination of language as a quasi-molecular system


from the point of view of a chemist who happens to ask, “What if the words were
atoms?” Previously, a scheme of incremental language acquisition, based on very
few and simple chemistry-inspired principles, was described on the example of
Hungarian folktale A Só (Salt). In this e-paper, the principles are further applied
to a sequence of acquisition steps. The process does not include any numerical
calculations. The elementary acts of analysis and extraction are regarded as
binary encounters of quasi-molecules: small linear sequences of “atoms” of
language negotiate the outcome of the “collision.” A concept of natural
computing in language evolution and acquisition is discussed.

KEYWORDS: language acquisition, bootstrapping, pattern theory, chemistry, automatic


translation, Turing test, Hungarian language, speech generation, semantics, robot-child,
robot communication, incremental learning, grammar extraction, language acquisition
device.
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This e-paper is a further continuation of the examination of language as a quasi-


molecular system from the point of view of a chemist who happens to ask, “What if the
words were atoms?” For the explanatory and introductory material, as well as the text and
translation of the Hungarian tale Salt, see SALT [1], where more references could be
found. The overall intent can be formulated as application of chemical ideas to subjects
outside chemistry: mind, language, society, and technology. While physicists have been
doing that with physical ideas for over one hundred years, some chemists are only now
slowly and timidly coming to the realization that chemistry might carry its own extra-
chemical message.

The purpose of SALT 2 is to see if there is some bread to SALT [1]. The latter is
absolutely necessary for understanding SALT 2. In a preliminary fashion, I attempt to test
the outcome of SALT experiment for any, however early, promise to be used for
linearization of thought structure. The latter is understood in terms of Pattern Theory as a
configuration characterized by content, connector, and their quantitative measure [2].
One of the main stimuli of this embryonic work is to develop basic principles that
could represent the process of individual language acquisition by a robot-child, whether
realistic or not, in all concrete detail, without being overshadowed by mathematical
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equations, graphs, numbers, and collective behavior. This is a typically chemical manner
of investigation, embodied in the structural chemical equations. Ideally, they represent a
detailed sequence of all stable and ephemeral states of the reaction in terms of individual
atoms and bonds in participating molecules.

A possible application of this framework, if it turns out promising, is robotic


communication based on grammar and lexicon acquired with minimal assistance and in
conditions of poverty of stimulus. The robot-child, as the model can be called, has to
go from infancy to the beginning of maturity when speech is mastered and active
intentional learning becomes possible. Infants do not do that by reading The Wall Street
Journal. Although the term bootstrapping, used in various meanings, is vague, it seems
appropriate for the pre-learning mechanism. Its mechanistic and automatic nature
resonates well with the term Language Acquisition Device (Chomsky).
While loose ends and questions hanging in the air can be clearly seen in this
experiment, some excuse is that we all started with baby talk.
In SALT 2 I use larger fragments of input than in SALT , in order to faster
accumulate the representation of a larger text, but shorter ones work similarly.
The problems of semantics are considered here least if all, although some initial
idea will be put forward: semantics is possibly as presentable in triangles as syntax in
triplets, i.e., squashed triangles.
I perform some easy operations, like input rewriting and haplology elimination,
manually, while more cumbersome ones, like generating comprehensive tables of bonds
and categories (CATS), are done with MATLAB codes (can be sent on request).
No explicit numerical calculations are involved.

The MATLAB output needs some simple manipulations with MS Word in order
to convert it to tables in document format. Macros can be used.

The following six steps of acquisition are described with a diminishing degree of
detail. The stressed syllables are capitalized.
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STEP 1
INPUT 1
P1=char ( 'volt', 'EGY', 'szer', 'egy', 'Ö', 'reg', 'KI', 'rály', 'PAUSE', 'és', 'HÁ', 'rom', 'szép', 'LE', 'ány', 'a', ...
'STOP', 'az', 'Ö', 'reg', 'KI', 'rály', 'SZER','et','te','VOL','na','mind', 'a', 'HÁ','rom', 'LE', 'ány', 'át', 'FÉRJ', ...
'hez', 'AD', 'ni', 'STOP', 'ez', 'nem', 'is', 'lett', 'VOL', 'na', 'NE', 'héz', 'mert', 'HÁ', 'rom', 'OR', 'szág', 'a', ...
'volt', 'PAUSE', 'mind', 'a', 'HÁ', 'rom', 'LE', 'ány', 'á', 'ra', 'JUT', 'ott', 'EGY', 'egy', 'OR', 'szág', 'STOP');

'START' and 'END' are added to P1:


P1=char ('START', 'volt', 'EGY', ……….. ,'OR', 'szág', 'STOP', 'END');

output:

1. Generators and triplets

Command: ms, dsgn .

ms (mindset) compiles structure G in which every generator enters only once.


dsgn (display generators) displays the triplets.

GENERATOR SPACE 1

P =72, G =44 (72 partly repeating and 44 different generators in input ) .


The left and right neighbors are preceded by the number of their occurrences.
The occurrences of central generators are in Column 4.

G: GENERATOR SPACE 1
1 2 3 4 5
No. LEFT NEIGHBOR G No. of RIGHT NEIGHBOR
entries
1 START START 1 volt;
2 START; a; volt 2 EGY; PAUSE;
3 ott; volt; EGY 2 egy; szer;
4 EGY; szer 1 egy;
5 EGY; szer; egy 2 OR; Ö;
6 az; egy; Ö 2 2-reg;
7 2-Ö; reg 2 2-KI;
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8 2-reg; KI 2 2-rály;
9 2-KI; rály 2 1-PAUSE; SZER;
10 rály; volt; PAUSE 2 mind; és;
11 PAUSE; és 1 HÁ;
12 2-a; mert; és; HÁ 4 4-rom;
13 4-HÁ; rom 4 2-LE; OR; szép;
14 rom; szép 1 LE;
15 2-rom; szép; LE 3 3-ány;
16 3-LE; ány 3 a; á; át;
17 2-mind; szág; ány; a 4 2-HÁ; STOP; volt;
18 a; ni; szág; STOP 3 END; az; ez;
19 STOP; az 1 Ö;
20 rály; SZER 1 et;
21 SZER; et 1 te;
22 et; te 1 VOL;
23 lett; te; VOL 2 2-na;
24 2-VOL; na 2 NE; mind;
25 PAUSE; na; mind 2 2-a;
26 ány; át 1 FÉRJ;
27 át; FÉRJ 1 hez;
28 FÉRJ; hez 1 AD;
29 hez; AD 1 ni;
30 AD; ni 1 STOP;
31 STOP; ez 1 nem;
32 ez; nem 1 is;
33 nem; is 1 lett;
34 is; lett 1 VOL;
35 na; NE 1 héz;
36 NE; héz 1 mert;
37 héz; mert 1 HÁ;
38 egy; rom; OR 2 2-szág;
39 2-OR; szág 2 STOP; a;
40 ány; á 1 ra;
41 á; ra 1 JUT;
42 ra; JUT 1 ott;
43 JUT; ott 1 EGY;
44 STOP; END 1 END

Extraction of CATS and BONDS implements the following simplistic rules:

RULE 1: Adjacency A—B is registered as bond if {A—B } repeats two or


more times.
RULE 2: If {A—B, A—C } or {D—A , E—A }, A is a generator.
RULE 3. Haplology is eliminated.
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RULE 4. If {A—B, A—C }, then A is a RIGHT CAT with domain

{B,C}. If {B—A, C—A }, then A is a LEFT CAT with domain {B,C}.

EXAMPLES:
1. Bonds a—HÁ and mind—a contain generator a, which is

encountered also in doublets ány—a and a—volt. Therefore, they cannot be


qualified as very stable blocks, but could remain as background weak bonds.
Doublets a—HÁ and a—volt form right category (RIGHT CAT) a—
{ HÁ, volt} ; doublets mind—a and ány—a form left category (LEFT CAT)

{ mind, ány}—a .
2. In the following bond sequences the middle doublet is removed to eliminate
haplology:
{Ö—reg , reg—KI, KI—rály}  {Ö—reg , KI—rály}

{HÁ—rom , rom—LE , LE—ány}  {HÁ—rom, LE—ány}.

3. KI and rály in INPUT 1 occur twice and only as a doublet. This is why they

are qualified as a bond KI_rály , see below. The block further becomes a generator.

Under these circumstances RULE 2 means that CAT is a generator. The

difference is that RULE 2 is applicable to new input, in which only B and C are known,

while RULE 4 applies to known generators. More important, RULE 2 can be applied to

levels below syllables. This difference is subtle and both rules can be combined.

2. Bonds

command: cblr (cats, bonds, left, right) ; it extracts bonds and CATs (categories) .
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BONDS 1 output
6 7 1 Ö_reg BONDS 1 edited
7 8 2 reg_KI
Ö_reg
8 9 3 KI_rály
12 13 4 HÁ_rom KI_rály
13 15 5 rom_LE HÁ_rom
15 16 6 LE_ány
LE_ány
17 12 7 a_HÁ
23 24 8 VOL_na VOL_na
25 17 9 mind_a OR_szág
38 39 10 OR_szág

Haplology is eliminated. BONDS with PAUSE and STOP are ignored in this
experiment, although they can be meaningful.

3. CATS (CATs, categories)

LEFT CAT has its domain on the left, RIGHT CAT has its domain on the
right.

LEFT CATS 1 RIGHT CATS 1


domain CAT CAT domain
1 START, a volt 1 volt EGY, PAUSE
2 ott, volt EGY 2 EGY egy, szer
3 EGY, szer egy 3 egy OR, Ö
4 az, egy Ö 4 rály PAUSE, SZER
5 rály, volt PAUSE 5 PAUSE mind, és
6 a, mert, és HÁ 6 rom LE, OR, szép
7 rom, szép LE 7 ány a, á, át
8 mind, szág, ány a 8 a HÁ, STOP, volt
9 a, ni, szág STOP 9 STOP END, az, ez
10 lett, te VOL 10 na NE, mind
11 PAUSE, na mind 11 szág STOP, a
12 egy, rom OR
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CATS with “mute” generators START, END, and STOP (highlighted) are
erased in this experiment ) if there is only one more generator except the mute one; if
more (see line 8 in RIGHT CATS 1), the mute one is erased.

LEFT CATS 1 (edited) RIGHT CATS 1 (edited)


1 ott, volt EGY 1 EGY egy, szer
2 EGY, szer egy 2 egy OR, Ö
3 az, egy Ö 3 rom LE, OR, szép
4 a, mert, és HÁ 4 ány a, á, át
5 rom, szép LE 5 a HÁ, , volt
6 mind, szág, ány a 6 na NE, mind
7 lett, te VOL
8 egy, rom OR

This concludes the analysis of OUTPUT from INPUT P1.


To prepare OUTPUT 1, for the next input P2, P1 is rewritten (compacted) into
PP1 in accordance with the table of BONDS. The final 'END' is removed.

OUTPUT 1, compacted
PP1 = char('START', 'volt', 'EGY', 'szer', 'egy', 'Öreg', 'KIrály', 'PAUSE', 'és', 'HÁrom', 'szép', 'LEány', 'a', ...
'STOP', 'az', 'Öreg', 'KIrály', 'SZER', 'et', 'te', 'VOLna', 'mind', 'a', 'HÁrom', 'LEány', 'át', 'FÉRJ', ' hez', ...
'AD', 'ni', 'STOP', 'ez', 'nem', 'is', 'lett', 'VOLna', 'NE', 'héz', 'mert', 'HÁrom', 'ORszág', 'a', 'volt', 'PAUSE', ...
'mind', 'a', 'HÁrom', 'LEány', 'á', 'ra', 'JUT', 'ott', 'EGY', 'egy', 'ORszág', 'STOP' );

After any step of acquisition is completed, the subsequent input cannot be


perceived on the same terms as the previous one. If some stable BONDS were recorded,
the next input is perceived in terms of bonded doublets as generators. This seems to be
the major difference between the statistical analysis of a corpus and the autonomic
bootstrapping. In the eyes and ears of robot-child, the world gradually takes meaning
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through discovering its regularity. This process can be visualized as the moving
borderline between the old and the new, as in walking trough darkness with a flashlight.

Strictly speaking, all BONDS and CATS structures can be remembered, but for the purpose of
illustration only the edited ones will be kept in memory and transferred to the next STEP.
Note that addresses in G may change from step to step, but addresses in BONDS
and CATS always correspond to the current space G.

STEP 2

OUTPUT 1 changes the perception of the next INPUT 2 so that the bonded
syllables are combined into words, whether complete or incomplete. Haplology is
eliminated.

INPUT 2
P2=char( 'HA', 'nem', 'a', 'HOGY', 'an', 'nincs', 'HÁ', 'rom', 'EGY', 'for', 'ma', 'AL','ma', 'PAUSE', 'úgy', 'a', ...
'HÁ', 'rom', 'OR', 'szág', 'sem', 'volt', 'EGY', 'for', 'ma', 'STOP', 'azt', 'MOND', 'ta', 'EGY', 'szer', 'a', 'KI', ...
'rály', 'a', 'LE', 'ány', 'a', 'i', 'nak','hogy', 'AN', 'nak', 'AD', 'ja', 'a', 'LEG', 'szebb', 'OR', 'szág', 'át', 'PAUSE', ...
'A', 'mely', 'ik', 'õt', 'PAUSE', 'LEG', 'job', 'ban', 'SZER', 'e', 'ti', 'STOP');
Compacting the input along BONDS 1:
P2=char( 'HA', 'nem', 'a', 'HOGY', 'an', 'nincs', 'HÁ', 'rom', 'EGY', 'for', 'ma', 'AL', 'ma', 'PAUSE', 'úgy', 'a', ...
'HÁrom', 'ORszág', 'sem', 'volt', 'EGY', 'for', 'ma', 'STOP', 'azt', 'MOND', 'ta', 'EGY', 'szer', 'a', 'KIrály', 'a', ...
'LEány', 'a', 'i', 'nak', 'hogy', 'AN', 'nak', 'AD', 'ja', 'a', 'LEG', 'szebb', 'ORszág', 'át', 'PAUSE', ...
'A', 'mely', 'ik', 'õt', 'PAUSE', 'LEG', 'job', 'ban', 'SZER', 'e', 'ti', 'STOP');
Next, PP1 and P2 are concatenated: P=strvcat( PP1, P2, 'END');

output:
The complete G TABLE is omitted.
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1.Bonds 2
BONDS 2 add up to BONDS 1

BONDS 2 output BONDS 2 edited;


strong bonds in bold
1 volt_EGY
1 volt_EGY
2 EGY_for
2 EGY_szer
3 EGY_szer
4 Öreg_KIrály 3 Öreg_KIrály

5 HÁrom_LEány 4 HÁrom_LEány

6 HÁrom_ORszág 5 HÁrom_ORszág

7 LEány_a 6 LEány_a

8 a_HÁrom 7 a_HÁrom

9 STOP_END 8 mind_a

10 mind_a 9 EGY_for_ma
11 for_ma

BONDS 2 illustrate the fluid and provisional character of BONDS and the idea
of equilibrium.
BONDS 1 include Ö_reg and KI_rály. There is a persistent tendency for
their adjacency, so that until further solidification of bonds there is an equilibrium soup:

{Ö , reg , KI , rály , Ö_reg , KI_rály , Ö_reg_KI_rály }

The quantitative aspect is ignored here. The “weights” in the soup correspond to
concentrations in chemistry and probabilities in Pattern Theory [2]. The term “weight,”
an artifact of the first neural networks, seems very inappropriate because, unlike
concentration, probability, and even energy, it is not normalized. The comparison with
neural networks, however, is avoided here. The position of the equilibrium depends on
the topic, context, and previous history. We tend to speak in larger blocks when the
subject is familiar and frequent. We might stumble on an unfamiliar terrain.
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The concept of equilibrium cannot be applied to the mind as a whole, where


equilibrium is continuously shifting because of the aging of memory traces and the
influx of new traces. In physical sense, is never achieved in any living system.
Gradually the representation becomes more and more coarse as the bonds and
categories solidify and the atomic entries become tagged by their categories. This process
of tagging is nothing mysterious: a generator is in equilibrium with all its neighbors and a
category is the neighbor of its entire domain. Categories overlay star topology on tree
topology.
Distinctively, the perception also becomes coarser: from sounds to phonemes to
syllables to morphemes to words to expressions.

The idea of local equilibrium that I am trying to convey, not for the first time, but
still with a great difficulty, is very simple in chemistry. The best way is just to look into
the textbook of general chemistry, although the illustrative material is scattered all over
the course. A chemical substance is always in equilibrium with all its possible fragments,
down to the atoms, but the concentration of all or absolute majority of fragments or
transposition at certain conditions (regarded “normal” in chemistry, physics, and human
environment) is practically zero.

Example: Vinegar is acetic acid CH3COOH in water. It is in equilibrium with its two
fragments: CH3COOH  CH3COO¯ + H+ (it is H+ that tastes sour, whatever its
origin). Theoretically, there could be equilibriums along all bonds, for example,
CH3COOH  CH3CO+ + OH¯ , which at normal conditions is completely shifted to
the left.

Nevertheless, the chemical transformations run through such rare, unstable, and
improbable states. Otherwise, everything that could chemically happen with the atoms of
our body would happen in an instant.
In terms of practical computation, equilibrium means that most of the memory of
your personal computer is inaccessible at the moment, which only shows how unnatural
computers are in their accessibility. It is hard not to remark that in the digital age the
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structure of society becomes unnatural if your most intimate social identity tags become
accessible.
As a further illustration, recall how difficult it could be sometimes to retrieve a
name of a person or location. But if we remember its fragment or any link, for example,
that it is something related to horses, the name comes up: Mr. Rein? Mr. Spur? Mr. Bay?
Mr. Hay? Mr. Oats, of course! (the idea is borrowed from a short story by Chekhov). This
demonstrates the difference between the Hopfield network and human memories, although the former has
the ability of a retrieval by fragment.
The memory I have in mind does not have addresses in the sense ROM and RAM
have. The address of the natural memory cell is anything in equilibrium with the content
of the cell. This can be either less (first letter of the name Oats) or more (“horses”) than
the cell content. I believe neurophysiology has its own view of the problem, but in
psychology it has been known since long as association. Note that the behavior of the
acetic acid in the above example is called dissociation from left to right and association
from right to left.

Bonds HÁrom—LEány and HÁrom—ORszág dissociate and associate


in the same manner as acetic acid. Suppose robot-child with Salt as its only life
experience hears the word HÁrom (“three”). The words LEány (“girl”) and

ORszág (“land”) will immediately activate in its memory.

2. CATS 2

LEFT CATS 2 (edited) ORszág, ja, mind, nem,


1 a, sem volt szer, úgy
2 ott, rom, ta, volt EGY 9 KIrály, ban SZER
3 EGY, szer egy 10 lett, te VOLna
4 az, egy Öreg 11 LEány, ORszág át
5 a, Öreg KIrály 12 hez, nak AD
6 a, mert, és HÁrom 13 HA, ez nem
7 HÁrom, a, szép LEány 14 HÁrom, egy, szebb ORszág
8 KIrály, LEány, a 15 AL, for ma
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16 AN, i nak 9 a HOGY, HÁrom, KIrály, LEG


LEány , i, volt
11 SZER e, et
RIGH CATS 2 (edited)
12 VOLna NE, mind
2 EGY egy, for, szer
14 AD ja, ni
3 szer a, egy
15 nem a, is
4 egy ORszág, Öreg
16 ORszág , a, sem, át
5 KIrály SZER, a
17 nak AD, hogy
7 HÁrom LEány, ORszág, szép
18 LEG job, szebb
8 LEány a, á, át

The new CATS 2 are in bold type. The previous CATS 1 may still be in
memory.

OUTPUT 2 (compacted)
PP2=char('START', 'volt', 'EGYszer', 'egy', 'Öreg', 'KIrály', 'PAUSE', 'és', 'HÁrom', ...
'szép', 'LEány', 'a', 'STOP', 'az', 'Öreg', 'KIrály', 'SZER', 'et', 'te', 'VOLna', 'mind', ...
'a', 'HÁrom', 'LEány', 'át', 'FÉRJ', 'hez', 'AD', 'ni', 'STOP', 'ez', 'nem', 'is', 'lett', ...
'VOLna', 'NE', 'héz', 'mert', 'HÁrom', 'ORszág', 'a', 'volt', 'PAUSE', 'mind', 'a', ...
'HÁrom', 'LEány', 'á', 'ra', 'JUT', 'ott', 'EGY', 'egy', 'ORszág', 'STOP', 'END', 'HA', ...
'nem', 'a', 'HOGY', 'an', 'nincs', 'HÁ', 'rom', 'EGYforma', 'AL', 'ma', 'PAUSE', ...
'úgy', 'a', 'HÁrom', 'ORszág', 'sem', 'volt', 'EGYforma', 'STOP', 'azt', 'MOND', ...
'ta', 'EGYszer', 'a', 'KIrály', 'a', 'LEány', 'a', 'i', 'nak', 'hogy', 'AN', 'nak', 'AD', 'ja', ...
'a', 'LEG', 'szebb', 'ORszág', 'át', 'PAUSE', 'A', 'mely', 'ik', 'õt', 'PAUSE', ...
'LEG', 'job', 'ban', 'SZER', 'e', 'ti', 'STOP' );

GRAMMAR 2

Until now we were manipulating syllables in a formal manner, supposedly not


knowing what they meant, although I felt a constant pressure of meaning. Now we can
try to tentatively interpret what it all means. Translations are given for words and some
morphemes/lexemes.
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Left or right is indicated by letters L and R: EGY L means LEFT CAT ‘EGY’.

NOTE. This example reminds about the agglutination in Hungarian:


'LEány', 'a', 'i', 'nak' = “girl,” “his/her,” “Plural,” “Dative”;
'LEányainak' = [give] “to his/hers girls”

Most probably, each of the countless blocks of morphemes in such


languages as Hungarian, Finnish, Russian, and Turkish, are acquired by children
as a whole. As a speaker of Russian, however, I must note that sometimes the
trailing endings need some small but perceptible time to arrange in order before
saying. I would not be able to use the following word up to, probably, the age of 7
or 8, and even now I would avoid it by all means:
проигрывающиеся
pro-igr-yva-yu-shchi-e-sya (7 morphemes)
[those that] can be played (playable) [for example, on DVD player]
or: [those that] are being played now; igr is the stem (“play”)

Table GRAMMAR 2 is compiled manually from CATS 2.

GRAMMAR 2
LEFT CAT RIGHT INTERPRETATION LABEL
1 EGY R -egy , -szer Semantics EGY R
“one” EGYegy, “one” (“one”)
EGYszer “once”
2 -ott, -ta, volt EGY L Verb (Past) volt
Past , “was” “one”
3 az, egy Öreg Article egy
“old”
4 a, Öreg KIrály Adjective Öreg
“king”
5 egy ORszág, Noun Single ORszág
“a” “land” Indefinite
Öreg “old”
6 HÁrom, a, LEány Noun group szép
szép “girl” (Numeral,
“three”, “the”, Adjective)
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“beautiful”
7 HÁrom LEány, ORszág Numeral HÁrom
“three” szép
8 LEány -a, -á, -át Possessive -a
9 LEány, át Noun Possessive át
ORszág + Accusative.
1 -hez, -nak AD case endings -hez
0 “to”, Dative “give” Allative, Dative
1 AD -ja, 3rd Person, Verb AD R
1 -ni Infinitive

1 HÁrom, egy, ORszág Noun group ORszág


2 szebb “land”
“three”, “a”,
“best”
1 Alma (ma) (sound)
3 “apple,”
forma “form”
1 AN, -i- -nak Dative nak
4 ANnak “to that
one” -i- Plural
1 STOP az, azt, ez Article, Pronoun, STOP R
5 “the”, “this” (Sentence start)
1 SZER -e, -et See comments to SZER R
6 SZEReti “loves” STEP 4
SZERet “loved”
3rd Person
1 LEG -job, -szebb Superlative LEG
7 (LEGszebb
“best” )

IMPORTANT: Interpretation relates to the domain of CAT, not to the CAT itself.
I hope the GRAMMAR 2 table speaks for itself, very much like an infant, as it is
supposed to. What I see in it is the very beginning of crystallization of individual
grammar in the individual mind of the robot-child who has never heard anything but the
story of Salt. If Salt is its only experience, semantics is absent.
But how are categories labeled in the mind of an infant? Certainly not by terms of
grammar. Of course, the category is just a generator and it is labeled just by its
individuality of a set member. But some first words that enter CATS may contribute
themselves as internal labels for patterns of grammar. This is reasonable in case of
LEFT CATS, but for RIGHT CATS the name of the CAT can be taken as label. I wonder
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if this is because Hungarian is left-branching. Will that be different in Spanish? To speculate, the
first impressions of robot-child imprint large subsequent categories of whether
syntax or semantics (I begin to suspect that their opposition may be as useful but as artificial as the
concept of syllable). Could this work for a real child? It is quite probable that the first
impressions of the child imprint internal labels for large natural categories of light,
darkness, comfort, discomfort, hunger, satisfaction, fear, and joy, from which the tree of
knowledge grows. Ulf Grenander describes in Patterns of Thought [2] the outer branches
of the tree.

STEP 3

In subsequent STEPS only compacted new inputs will be shown.


INPUT 3
P3=char('FEL', 'elj', 'NEK', 'em', 'PAUSE', 'ÉD', 'es', 'LE', 'ány', 'om', 'PAUSE', 'hogy', 'SZER', 'etsz', ...
'EN', 'gem', 'PAUSE', 'KÉR', 'dez', 'te', 'a', 'LEG', 'i', 'dõ', 'sebb', 'ik', 'et', 'STOP', 'mint', 'a', 'GA', 'lamb', ...
'a', 'TISZ', 'ta', 'BÚZ', 'át', 'PAUSE', 'MOND', 'ta', 'a', 'LE', 'ány', 'STOP', 'hát', 'te', 'PAUSE', 'ÉD', 'es', ...
'LE', 'ány', 'om', 'PAUSE', 'KÉR', 'dez', 'te', 'a', 'KÖZ', 'ép', 'sõt', 'STOP', 'én', 'úgy', 'ÉD', ...
'es', 'AP', 'ám', 'PAUSE', 'mint', 'FOR', 'ró', 'NYÁR', 'ban', 'a', 'SZEL', 'lõt', 'STOP');
No compacting is needed
P =183 G =96

BONDS 3 and CATS 3 (Strong bonds are in bold type)

BONDS 3 edited a-LEány


Öreg-KIrály te-a
HÁrom-LEány mind-a
HÁrom-ORszág MOND-ta
LEány-a ÉD-es
LEány-om es-LEány
a-HÁrom KÉR-dez
a-LEG dez-te
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RIGHT CATS 3 LEFT CATS 3


volt EGYforma, EGYszer START, a, sem volt
PAUSE ta, volt EGYszer
EGYszer a, egy EGY, EGYszer egy
egy ORszág, Öreg az, egy Öreg
KIrály PAUSE, SZER, a a, Öreg KIrály
PAUSE A, KÉR, LEG, MOND KIrály, em, gem, ma, om PAUSE
hogy, mind, mint, ÉD, és, úgy te, volt, ám, át, õt
HÁrom EGYforma, LEány, a, mert, nincs, és HÁrom
ORszág, szép HÁrom, a, es, szép LEány
LEány STOP, a, om, á, át EGYszer, KIrály, LEány a
a GA, HOGY, HÁrom, KIrály ORszág,
KÖZ, LEG, LEány, ban, ja, lamb a
SZEL, TISZ mind, mint, nem, ta, te, úgy
a i, volt EGYforma, LEány, STOP
STOP END, FEL, HA, az, azt, ORszág, a, et, lõt, ni, sõt, ti
ez, hát, mint, én KIrály, ban, hogy SZER
SZER e, et, etsz SZER, ik et
et STOP, te dez, et, hát te
te PAUSE, VOLna, a lett, te VOLna
VOLna NE, mind PAUSE, VOLna mind
át FÉRJ, PAUSE BÚZ, LEány, ORszág át
AD ja, ni hez, nak AD
nem a, is HA, ez nem
ORszág STOP, a, sem, át HÁrom, egy, szebb ORszág
EGYforma AL, STOP HÁrom, volt EGYforma
úgy a, ÉD PAUSE, én úgy
ta BÚZ, EGYszer, a PAUSE, azt MOND
i dõ, nak MOND, TISZ ta
nak AD, hogy LEG, a i
hogy AN, SZER AN, i nak
LEG i, job, szebb PAUSE, nak hogy
ik et, õt PAUSE, a LEG
ban SZER, a mely, sebb ik
es AP, LEány NYÁR, job ban
mint FOR, a PAUSE, úgy ÉD
PAUSE, STOP mint

Some Hungarian morphemes, such as a and t, are used as markers in several roles
across various parts of speech. The red border in the CATS 3 tables encloses an example
of how this multifunction can be dealt with. The lines of CAT a, both LEFT and RIGHT,
are split depending on the stress of the syllables in the domain.
Note that in Hungarian the possessor is unmarked, while the possession is:
A KIrály ORszága , “The King land-his” , “The King’s land,”
18

In LEFT CATS, if a precedes a stressed syllable, a strong hypotheses of robot-

child is that a is the definite article. If the next after a syllable is unstressed or the word is

monosyllabic, it is a possession mark: ORszága volt , “his/her-land was.”

In RIGHT CATS, if a noun is followed by a, a somewhat weak hypothesis can be

formed that a marks a possession: LEánya , “his/her-girl.” Otherwise, it can be the


definite article.

BONDS 1-3, edited HÁrom_ORszág


BONDS 2 LEány_a
MOND_ta a_HÁrom
KÉR_dez mind_a
ÉD_es BONDS 1
BONDS 2 Ö_reg
EGY_for_ma KI_rály
EGY_szer HÁ_rom
volt_EGY LE_ány
Öreg_KIrály VOL_na
HÁrom_LEány
OR_szág

Blocks of words are not strong bonds. I left them in the BONDS 1-3 table to
illustrate the semantic and contextual significane of longer blocks: volt_EGYszer
“there was once,” Öreg—KIrály “old king,” HÁrom—LEány “three girls,”
HÁrom—ORszág “three lands.” The plural of the noun after a numeral is unmarked in
Hungarian.
19

LEFT CATS 3 (edited)


ta, volt EGYszer RIGHT CATS 3 (edited)
KIrály, em, gem, ma, PAUSE volt EGYforma, EGYszer

om
te, volt, ám, át, õt EGYszer a, egy

a, mert, nincs, és HÁrom egy ORszág, Öreg

HÁrom, a, es, szép LEány HÁrom EGYforma, LEány,

EGYszer, KIrály, LEány a ORszág, szép


ORszág, LEány -a, -om, -á, -át

ban, ja, lamb a a GA, HOGY, HÁrom, KIrály


KÖZ, LEG, LEány,
mind, mint, nem, ta, te,
SZEL, TISZ
úgy
a i, volt
KIrály, ban, hogy SZER
SZER e, et, etsz
SZER, ik et
dez, et, hát te ??? TE AD ja, ni
lett, te VOLna nem a, is
BÚZ, LEány, ORszág át ORszág a, sem, át
i dõ, nak
hez, nak AD
nak AD, hogy
HA, ez nem
LEG i, job, szebb
HÁrom, egy, szebb ORszág ik et, õt
HÁrom, volt EGYforma ban SZER, a
MOND, TISZ ta es AP, LEány
LEG, a i mint FOR, a
AN, i nak
mely, sebb ik
NYÁR, job ban
20

GRAMMAR 3
STEP 3 does not add much to the grammar. The following are some new or
expanded old categories:

LEFT CAT RIGHT INTERPRETATION Label


GRAMMAR 2 is here
18 -mely-, -sebb- ik Suffix of ik
(Amelyik “which,” “adjectivity,”
LEGsebbik “which working as an
is the most beautiful” ) object pronoun
19 HA, ez nem Semantics: nem
(HAnem “not, negativity
“however” no”
ez nem “this is
not”)
20 SZER e, et, etsz See comments to
STEP 4

COMMENTS to STEP 3:

1.Category { NYÁR, job } ban is a wrong hypotheses. NYÁRban means ”in


the summer” , but in the phonological LEG-job-ban “best of all” , the adverb
morpheme is an , not ban, “in”. Morphology requires LEG-jobb-an. The double b is
a stem variation.

NOTE. The struggle of morphology and phonetics raises a lot of dust over the
notion of syllable. This problem has been repeatedly addressed in the literature,
sometimes in strong words against phonology, but is too technical to discuss here.
Regarding Hungarian, I wish to refer to the ingenious solution found, as I suspect,
by people at least partly outside linguistics. Instead of syllables, “half-syllables”
were used as atoms of speech [3]. Examples: ta-, a-, te-, le-, ke- (first half-
syllable), -a, -e, -i, …. -ol, -el, -in, -ek (second half), etc. 326 half-syllables
21

describe 95% of general Hungarian texts. It is, essentially, uses haplology as the
means of “mutual recognition” of atoms of speech.

2. PAUSE in the left CAT 3 follows an unstressed syllable.


3. MONDta “said,” and TISZta “clean” are together for a wrong reason.

STEP 4
INPUT 4
P4=char('no', 'most', 'TÉ', 'ged', 'KÉRdez', 'lek', 'PAUSE', 'FOR', 'dult', 'a', 'LEG', 'kis', 'ebb', 'ik', 'hez', ...
'STOP', 'MOND', 'jad', 'hogy', 'SZER', 'etsz', 'STOP', 'úgy', 'ÉD', 'es', 'AP', 'ám', 'PAUSE', 'a', 'HOGY', ...
'az', 'EM', 'ber', 'ek', 'a', 'sót', 'PAUSE', 'FEL', 'el', 'te', 'a', 'KI', 'csi', 'KIrály', 'kis', 'asz', ...
'szony', 'STOP', 'mit', 'BE', 'szélsz', 'te', 'PAUSE', 'FÖR', 'medt', 'rá', 'a', 'KIrály', 'STOP', 'ki', 'az', ...
'UD', 'var', 'om', 'ból', 'de', 'még', 'az', 'ORszág', 'om', 'ból', 'is', 'PAUSE', 'STOP', 'ne', 'IS', 'lás', 'sa', 'lak', ...
'PAUSE', 'ha', 'csak', 'EN', 'nyi', 're', 'SZER', 'etsz', 'STOP');

P =264 G =136

BONDS 4 (unedited) 51 15 hogy_SZER


5 6 Öreg_KIrály 68 11 ÉDes_LEány “dear girl”
9 11 HÁrom_LEány
9 32 HÁrom_ORszág 69 7 om_PAUSE
11 12 LEány_a “his girl” 69 124 om_ból
11 69 LEány_om, “my girl” “out of my”
12 39 a_HOGY, “as” 70 13 etsz_STOP
73 17 KÉRdez_te
12 9 a_HÁrom “asked”
12 6 a_KIrály 87 88 AP_ám
12 54 a_LEG “my father”
12 11 a_LEány 88 7 ám_PAUSE
15 70 SZER_etsz “you (s.) love”
17 12 te_a
19 12 mind_a

The CATS are omitted at this step.


22

COMMENTS to STEP 4:

1. In STEP 4 BONDS and CATS add new words: APám , “my father,” suffix –

bol “out of,” and the personal suffix category of possession -om, “my.” Due to the
harmony of vowels, the marking morphemes belong to one of two phonetic series. The
other “my” morpheme is -am as in APám . This is where Rule 2 comes into play: –am

and –om form a phonetic category -m, “my,” which is not syllabic. Harmony of
vowels requires a separate non-morphemic and non-syllabic category of vowel type.

2. Line 20 in GRAMMAR 3 is an evidence of confusion that comes from the


fuzziness of syllable. I created the confusion by resisting the temptation to split
SZEReti into SZER-et-i, as the morphology required, because SZERet is the stem of
verb “to love”. There is no such word or stem as szer. There is not enough data for robot-
child at this step to form the bond SZER—et , for which the rest of the tale will give
enough evidence. The total count for the entire tale is 11:

1 SZER-et-te (he) loved 1 SZER-et-ik (he) loves


2 SZER-e-ti (he) loves 1 SZER-et-ték (they) loved
3 SZER-etsz (you) love 3 SZER-et-em (I) love

The syllabic division of SZER-e-ti and SZER-etsz conflict with morphology.


There is a good chance, however, that the initial hypotheses in STEPS 1 to 4 will be
replaced by better founded ones. The morpheme sz , which is not exactly syllabic, will be
differentiated phonetically.
Language acquisition certainly starts at phonemic level. I have already noted
elsewhere that optimality principle of Prince and Smolensky, first developed in phonetics,
is very chemically-friendly. Paradoxically, it might be easier to translate speech than text.
This is a very intriguing problem, which will be left until better times, however.
23

3. Note the crystallization (highlighted yellow) of the definite article a and nouns

a_HÁrom, “the three,” a_KIrály, “the king,” a_LEány, “the girl,” as well as the
standard block mind_a , “each/all” + article, which could well be written as one word.

Further, the verb forms become more solid: KÉRdez_te , “(he/she) asked.” This poses
a question: how much strength should we attribute to the bonds? The answer is: I have no
idea and this is exactly the point of the project. We should make a model and trust robot-
child to tackle the problem on its own. Until that, my attribution of bold type to strong
bonds is intuitive, which is not much better than arbitrary. Since I am familiar with the
meaning of the words, I must be excluded from decision making. I realize that this is a
truly heretic idea, but definitely not the only heretic idea in the realm of ideas, some of
them later accepted. To reformulate this idea: I am forbidden to be the homunculus for
robot-child because I have a mind of my own.
The last squeak of homunculus: “Should we cut robot-child into Rotchild? “

STEP 5
P5=char('HI', 'á', 'ba', 'sírt', 'a', 'KIrály', 'kis', 'asz', 'szony', 'PAUSE', 'HI', 'á', 'ba', 'MA', 'gyar', 'áz', ...
'ta', 'hogy', 'az', 'EM', 'ber', 'ek', 'SZER', 'et', 'ik', 'a', 'sót', 'PAUSE', 'VI', 'lág', 'gá', 'KEL', 'lett', ...
'hogy', 'MENJ', 'en', 'STOP', 'EL', 'in', 'dult', 'a', 'KI', 'csi', 'KIrály', 'kis', 'asz', 'szony', 'SÍR', ...
'va', 'PAUSE', 'és', 'BE', 'ért', 'egy', 'nagy', 'ER', 'dõ', 'be', 'STOP', 'ON', 'nan', 'nem', 'is', 'ment', ...
'TO', 'vább', 'PAUSE', 'ott', 'élt', 'egy', 'DA', 'rab', 'ig', 'EGY', 'ma', 'gá', 'ban', 'STOP');

BONDS 5 (unedited) 12 54 a_LEG


5 6 Öreg_KIrály 12 11 a_LEány
6 99 KIrály_kis 12 108 a_sót
7 73 PAUSE_KÉRdez 14 105 az_EM
7 68 PAUSE_ÉDes
7 8 PAUSE_és 15 16 SZER_et
9 11 HÁrom_LEány 15 70 SZER_etsz
17 7 te_PAUSE
9 32 HÁrom_ORszág
11 12 LEány_a 17 12 te_a
11 69 LEány_om 19 12 mind_a
20 7 át_PAUSE
12 39 a_HOGY 26 27 nem_is
12 9 a_HÁrom 33 136 á_ba
12 110 a_KI 51 15 hogy_SZER
12 6 a_KIrály 68 11 ÉDes_LEány
24

69 7 om_PAUSE 105 106 EM_ber


69 123 om_ból 106 107 ber_ek
70 13 etsz_STOP 108 7 sót_PAUSE
73 17 KÉRdez_te 110 111 KI_csi
87 7 APám_PAUSE 111 6 csi_KIrály
98 12 dult_a 112 113 asz_szony
99 112 kis_asz 135 33 HI_á

BONDS 5 KÉRdez_te
edited kis_asz
KIrály_kis EM_ber
az_EM ber_ek
SZER_et KI_csi
á_ba asz_szony

The reason why I show the numbers of generators in BONDS tables is to illustrate
the detection of haplology. The numbers follow without interruption:

14 105 az_EM
105 106 EM_ber
106 107 ber_ek

Next CATS will be shown selectively because their interpretation will involve too
much reference to their meaning. This will be difficult to follow without the knowledge
of the language.

RIGHT CATS 5 (illustrative selections)


RIGHT Domain Interpretation
CAT
HÁrom EGYforma_LEány_ORszág_szép Noun or Adjective
“three” “equal,” “girl,” “land,” “beautiful”
LEány _a_om_á_át Noun suffixes
a HÁrom, KIrály, LEány, “three,” Noun or numeral
“the” “king,” “girl” (Nominative)
sót ,”salt (Accusative)”
et ik, te Verb suffixes
AD ja, ni Verb suffixes
LEG- (i), job,kis, szebb Superlative
“the most” “good,” “little,” “beautiful”
ik a, et, hez, õt A very confused CAT
25

ÉDes _APám_LEány Noun


“dear, sweet” “my father,” “girl”
KÉRdez _lek_te Verb suffixes

LEFT CATS 5 (selectively)


Domain LEFT CAT Interpretation
MONDta, volt EGYszer Standard block
“said” “was” “once”
HÁrom, a, szép, ÉDes LEány Noun group
“three”, “the,” “beautiful,” “sweet” “girl”
LEány, ORszág, -var -om Personal Possession
“girl,” “land,” “court” (second syllable) “my”

Note the following CAT: a HÁrom, KIrály, LEány,


sót
in which sót is the Object Case (Accusative) of só “salt.” Should I have capitalized
monosyllabic nouns?
Anticipating the next shaky steps of the model, I hope that if só is going to be
mentioned in various cases, the problem will be solved somehow. These are some of the
later entries of só in the text: 'SÓtlan' , “saltless” ', 'SÓval' , “with salt,” as well as

just só. But how exactly it is going to be solved, I don’t know. Listening to the sound

track, I cannot decide whether it is really stressed, although it seems to be so in a sót ,

“the salt (object).” The article a places it in the category of nouns.


My Russian ear is not used to distinguish between a long and a stressed vowel,
which again brings us to the obvious idea that linguistics as exact natural science must
start with phonemes. Chemistry starts with elements.
BONDS 5 edited 99 112 kis_asz
6 99 KIrály_kis 105 106 EM_ber
14 105 az_EM 106 107 ber_ek
15 16 SZER_et 110 111 KI_csi
33 136 á_ba 112 113 asz_szony
73 17 KÉRdez_te

BONDS 5 add words: EM_ber_ek, “people,” KIrály_kis_ as_szony,


“princess” KÉRdez_te, “(he/she) asked.”
26

STEP 6
P6=char('EGYszer', 'MI', 'kor', 'már', 'egy', 'ESZT', 'en', 'dõ', 'is', 'el', 'telt', 'PAUSE', 'ar', 'ra', 'JÁR', 'ta', ...
'SZOM', 'széd', 'KIrály', 'fi', 'PAUSE', 'és', 'MEG', 'lát', 'ta', 'a', 'KIrálykisasszonyt','STOP', 'MEG', ...
'tet', 'szett', 'a', 'KIrály', 'fi', 'nak', 'a', 'KIrálykisasszony', 'PAUSE', 'mert', 'A', 'kár', 'mi', 'lyen', 'PISZ', ...
'kos', 'volt', 'a', 'RU', 'há', 'ja', 'PAUSE', 'szép', 'volt', 'KÜ', 'lön', 'ös', 'en', 'az', 'AR', 'ca', 'STOP', 'SZÉP', ...
'en', 'MEG', 'fog', 'ta', 'a', 'KEZ', 'ét', 'PAUSE', 'HA', 'za', 'vez', 'et', 'te', 'a', 'PA', 'lot', 'á', 'já', 'ba', 'PAUSE', ...
'és', 'két', 'HET', 'et', 'sem', 'várt', 'PAUSE', 'de', 'még', 'EGY', 'et', 'sem', 'de', 'TAL', 'án', 'még', 'egy', 'ÓR', ...
'át', 'sem', 'PAUSE', 'és' , 'MEG', 'es', 'küd', 'tek', 'STOP', 'END');
P =416 G =200

BONDS 6

BONDS 6 edited 12 110 a, sót


5 6 Öreg, KIrály 14 107 az, EM
6 164 KIrály-fi (prince) 16 12 te, a
8 165 és, MEG 18 12 mind, a
9 11 HÁrom, LEány 25 26 nem, is
9 31 HÁrom, ORszág 50 61 hogy, SZER
11 12 LEány-a (his girl) 61 70 SZER, etsz
11 69 LEány-om (my girl) 68 11 ÉDes, LEány
12 38 a, HOGY 69 123 om, ból
12 9 a, HÁrom 73 12 KÉRdezte, a
12 112 a, KIcsi 76 45 et, sem
12 6 a, KIrály 107 108 EM-ber (man)
12 113 a, KIrálykisasszony 107 108 109 EM-ber-ek (people)
12 53 a, LEG 112 113 KIcsi, KIrálykisasszony
12 11 a, LEány 124 125 de, még

We can see the development of an important generalization (highlighted yellow):


the patterns of the definite article a and the subsequent noun group. The bond, therefore,
can be completely described at the level of the interpreted CATS:

[Definite Article]—[Numeral, Adjective, or Noun]


or, to emphasize the higher level: Article—Noun

There are also case and possessive suffixes of a noun (highlighted green) and
some stable expressions mind a (“all of the…, each of the…” ) and nem is (“not so
[bad]”)

RIGHT CATS 6 edited; selectively Interpretation


volt EGYforma, EGYszer, KÜ, PAUSE, a
EGYszer MI, a, egy
egy DA, ESZT, ORszág, ÓR, Öreg
27

KIrály PAUSE, STOP, SZERet, a, fi


és HÁrom, MEG, két
HÁrom EGYforma, LEány, ORszág, szép
szép LEány, volt
LEány a, om, á, át Case and possession
markers of nouns
az AR, EM, ORszág, UD, Öreg Noun starting with
(“the”) vowel
SZERet ik, te Verb suffixes
AD ja, ni Verb suffixes
nem a, is Noun suffixes
ORszág a, om, (sem), át
sem (de), volt, várt Verb after negation
MONDta EGYszer, a
LEG ( I), job, kis, szebb Superlative
SZER e, etsz Verb person
FEL el, elj
ÉDes APám, LEány Noun in addressing
el te, telt
MEG (multi- es, fog, lát, tet Verb stem after prefix
functional prefix)

LEFT CATS 6 edited; selectively Interpretation


MONDta, volt EGYszer Verb (Past)
az, egy Öreg Articles
a, széd, Öreg KIrály
a, mert, nincs, és HÁrom Predecessors of noun group
HÁrom, a, szép, ÉDes LEány Noun group
EGYszer, KIrály, KÉRdezte, a Various words and endings
LEány, MONDta, ORszág, requiring definite article;
ban, dult, ek, ik, ja, nouns among them
lamb, mind, mint, nak, nem,
rá, szett, sírt, ta, te, volt, úgy
HOGY, en, hogy, ki, még az Same as previous
KIrály, -ek SZERet Noun
SZERet, el, et, hát, szélsz te Past tense
lett, te VOLna Verb
“would” Conditional
BÚZ, LEány, ORszág, ÓR át Object Case/Accusative
hez, nak AD Dative/Allative before a
verb
HÁrom, az, egy, szebb ORszág Noun group
HÁrom, volt EGYforma
28

SZERet, ebb, mely, sebb ik A mixed-up cat


LEány, ORszág, var om
JÁR, TISZ, fog, lát, áz ta Past Tense verb
(predominately)
KIcsi, a KIrálykisasszony

The first of the following two lines from LEFT CATS 6 contains HÁrom (“three”) as a
CAT, but the second has HÁrom in the domain

a, mert, nincs, és HÁrom Predecessors of noun group


HÁrom, a, szép, ÉDes LEány Noun group

Since LEány (“girl”) is a noun, another high level pattern solidifies:

Predecessor of noun group—Noun group—Noun—CASE/POSSESSION

______________

As far as the extracted GRAMMAR is concerned, it has no use until it comes to


speech generation, which could be the subject of the next part. Obviously, to be applied
to speech generation, each generator must be tagged by all CATS. This seems like an
extraordinary requirement to natural memory (computers will take anything). But in
chemistry, remarkably, it is not only natural but absolutely necessary for the chemists in
order to talk to each other about chemical matters.
Each chemical structure can be described as a list of all its “tags,” meaningful
fragments, individual atoms, and their connections in such a way that the entire structure
could be reconstructed from its linear description. The grammar of such linear
descriptions of non-linear 3D-structures is called chemical nomenclature, and it is indeed
a grammar of an artificial language used every day by chemists. More about it in any
textbook of organic chemistry and in [4].

EXAMPLE. The chemical name of common aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid, which


is a kind of old chemical slang, not quite grammatical. Nevertheless, it tags
aspirin as containing benzene ring, and tags it time and time again as an acid, as
29

an ester of acetic acid and a phenol, and as something containing two adjacent
appendages to the benzene ring. List only the tags—aspirin’s CATS—to a
chemist and the reply will be “aspirin.”

I do not believe that a simulation of robot-child on simplistic “chemical”


principles, using regular consecutive computers, is a gratifying occupation, although it is
possible. Nature is inherently parallel, but not in the sense of parallel computing as
simultaneous execution of multiple tasks within a single problem. Neither individuals nor
governments are good at that. I understand parallelism as translation of random or partially
ordered collisions into communication. I regard the elementary acts of analysis and
extraction as binary encounters of quasi-molecules: small linear sequences of sounds,
syllables, morphemes, words, and blocks recognize each other and negotiate the outcome
of the “collision:” deal or no deal. The outcome is recorded.
Figure 1 illustrates the formation of two-level CATS by copy eliminations.
Segments of different color correspond letters in the Rules of input processing. One of
two black segments is always eliminated. The other becomes a domain of a CAT. The
circles do not need to be either correct or even closed.

Figure 1: CATS formation in terms of linear segments

As a preview of the next phase of exploration, I will give here only one, rather
weak, illustration of a possible principle of speech generation. At this point it makes little
30

sense because utterance starts with thought, but we do not have any settled unified
approach to semantics.
Suppose we have the following content with atomic ideas:
{Király Öreg szeret só} = {king old love salt}

We do not know how the generators are connected in the thought. Regardless of
the probabilities of the generators and bonds between them (which we may never know),
let us retrieve all relevant lines from BONDS and CATS:

2-a;2-Öreg; KIrály PAUSE; STOP; SZERet; a;


“king”
az; egy; Öreg 2-KIrály;
“old”
EMberek; KIrály; SZERet ik; (3rd person plural definite)
“love” te; (2nd person singular definite)
2-a; sót 2-PAUSE;
“salt” (object)
Öreg_KIrály
“old king”
a_sót
“salt” “definite object”

Although we do not know what the thought is, we could develop a set of rules for
semantics. For example, old refers only to king and nothing else, but king, salt, and love
form a triangle: salt is the object of king’s desire.

Intuitively, I feel that the semantic relations can be represented by a kind of


triangulation in a way similar to the way speech is represented by the squashed triangles
of triplets, but I cannot substantiate this idea at this point. I hope to explore this central
problem elsewhere.

Figure 2 decorates the black semantic relations of the thought by red linear
“comments” of the grammar taken from the above lines.
31

1-az;1-egy Öreg KIrály

Öreg Király szeret

KIrály szeret -ik, -te

a- sót PAUSE

Figure 2. Comments of grammar (red) to semantic relations (black)

What follows from the comments (“catalysts,” as a chemist would say), is that the
degree of conformity with the grammar is the highest when Öreg (old), Király (king),
szeret (love), and –ik (Present Tense) or te (Past Tense) somehow line up in this order.
But a sót (salt, Object Case) has no definite place and can dangle anywhere. And why

not if Hungarian has no fixed word order! Of course, a sót wedging in between Öreg
and Király would create a tension in the rather strong bond. Otherwise, any position is
fine, but PAUSE makes the end position more probable in the context of Salt.
The choice between –te and –ik is not decisive because of the lack of data. With
a considerable stretch of rigor we can attribute the choice of –te to the absence of the
end -k in KIrály because the end -k is a practically universal marker of plural in both
nouns and—except 1st person—verbs.
EMberek; KIrály; SZERet ik; (3rd person plural present definite)
“people”, “king” “love” te; (2nd person singular past definite)

But the real solution must come from a unified approach to grammar and semantics.
With all the liberties taken, the final output is:
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Az Öreg Király szerette a sót , which seems to me grammatical enough.


The old king loved salt.

Note the locality of the mechanism by which I came to the above output. There
were never more than three generators in the focus of my attention.

Neither the last example, however, nor all the preceding tables and examples
prove anything but the need of something more convincing. They point to the role of
multiple repetitions of basic speech patterns during the acquisition. What can be more
convincing in our times than a solid computer simulation? The following sideshow
discussion addresses this problem.

DISCUSSION

It is already clear, in the very beginning of testing the concept of robot-child, that the
work is going to be very cumbersome. No wonder we have big brains. Formally, it may
involve the following computational steps:

1. Each syllable or word in the input is compared with the entire generator space
G and labeled as either old or new. If it is new, it is filed into G .

2. The memory content is re-analyzed in terms of BONDS and CATS (in


advanced stages of acquisition it concerns only a very small part of memory).

3. Generator space G, BONDS and CATS are updated, so that each generator is
re-tagged by all current BONDS and CATS it belongs to.

4. The entire memory is updated regarding the age of entries.


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5. The next input is rewritten (compacted from phonemes to morphemes) basing


on the entire stored grammar. This is the same as to say that the input is recognized.

Even this partial description looks like a description of a social system.

Next, how are we going to use that knowledge? Suppose, we want to express a
thought, which is a configuration represented by the list of generators (content) and
connections (connector graph) between them. Each entry in the content and connector
(comprised by a single matrix with a non-trivial diagonal), has a numerical or quasi-
numerical (in terms of partially ordered set) measure.
The thought can be a configuration of generators, sometimes incompatible, as in
“Is that person over there in a dark overcoat a man or a woman?” Or: ”Now you see it;
now you don’t.”
Each recognized generator retrieves its entire equilibrium cloud of associations
( I am calling psychology for help) from BONDS and CATS. In other words, the configuration
of the thought should be “decorated,” as in Figure 2, by multiple triplet quotations from
memory. In the mind of a child the quotations are certainly not in the vocabulary of the
English grammar.

NOTE: My insistence on the size of linear neighborhood equal to a triplet is just


for the sake of simplicity. In fact, the interactions between generators can be felt
at a larger distance, which, by the way, is also a fact of chemistry.

The crucial computation stage is to find the linear arrangement of generators that
which has the highest probability, i.e. lowest overall energy/lowest stress/lowest
deviation from the grammar. By grammar I mean nothing but the state of the evolving
mind of the robot-child, with all its CATS and BONDS (I almost said DOGS: an illustration to
the concept of equilibrium).

Omitting the subtleties, all this promises a large volume of boring programming
and computation. As a champion of simplicity, I am the least suitable man for this hard
34

labor of bug squashing, number crunching, and computer whipping. If molecules and our
brains do it well enough on their own, let us better do it their way.
It is not clear about the brains, but how do the molecules do it?
There is an extremely hard (i.e., time-consuming) computational task known as
the protein folding problem [5], in which, theoretically, each bead on a string must be
tested in a certain way regarding its interaction with all the other beads. The solution is
the configuration in 3-D with minimal overall energy. This task is so unpleasant (the so
called NP-problem) because the computation is consecutive while real folding is to a
significant degree parallel (sounds almost like Malthus). In other words, folding is natural and
fast and our computation is unnatural and takes enormous time.
We are not as fast as molecules, so how can we speak and think at all? My answer
is that this is possible because our thoughts are small, our attention span is short, our
memory is a far cry from a hard drive, and our knowledge is limited. We can do it
because we are imperfect. In fact, protein folding problem becomes solvable if the
proteins are short. But the language is so big! Right, but the protolanguage was not. The
children do not speak as layers write and even presidents can speak as children.

Let us take a break, anyway.


As a non-linguist, I can afford some unwarranted leaps of imagination. Thus,
knowing nothing about the topic, I can derive the peculiar Hungarian possession marker
from some ancient form with two articles (or, more probably, none at all), a király a
ország, “the king the land.” The second article moves to the end: a király országa .

Further, I can derive the Hebrew possessive form from the same ancient pattern:

‫ סוס האיש‬, sus ha-ish , horse the man, man’s horse. The first article drops off.
I can also throw in the English variation on the theme: the king cobra and all the
other noun modifiers, although it is not a possessive form.
A more corpulent form remains in German: Das Pferd des Mannes, The horse
of-the man-his, or the horse the man-his, the horse of the man.
But Hungarian catches up and even overtakes in another, reversed-German style,
formal possessive construct:
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Az embernek a lova , the man-him the horse-his , the man’s horse.


This is, probably, too much and modern Hungarian requires only whichever one
article: Peter Peter lova (Peter’s horse) or az ember lova (the man’s horse)
There is no article in Russian, but the marker is in place and you can have it both
ways:
Лошадь Пети , horse Pete-his.
Or: Петина лошадь, Pete-his horse, Pete’s horse (note different word order)

Furthermore, I can fantasize that the fixed stress in Hungarian compensates for
the wide use of the scarce possession and tense marking morphemes. The trade-off is the
free word order.
In English, the marker morphemes are very scarce and the word order is not free.
In Russian, with a wide variety of markers, both the word order and the stress are free.
But the simple fact that Polish, very similar to Russian and with an equally
rich choice of markers, has a fixed word order, wakes me up from my sweet dreams.

This awakening gives me an opportunity to explain once more my position. I am


definitely not a linguist. I present neither a theory nor a working model. It is just an
abstract idea, not yet completely clear to myself, a concept that should be tested by
professionals, although it originates outside linguistics from a higher abstract ground of
Pattern Theory. As a chemist, however, I feel a certain hopelessness about the current
algorithmic and numerical methods of computational linguistics. They take a lot of work
but prove anything but the intelligence and inventiveness of the authors. The computer
models do not converge to a consensus unless you can test them as if they were weather
forecasts or at least neural networks.
I suspect that the failure or, let us hope, a long delay in developing automatic
translation follows from the very idea of algorithm, The bootstrapping mind of an infant,
unlike the mind of an adult, does not use anything like either statistical inference or
algorithms, although results could be the same.
I acknowledge that I am not familiar with the theories of computability and
complexity. But I am aware that the tacit prerequisite of computer science is that almost
36

anything of practical importance can be computed within the current symbolic-


consecutive paradigm, the success of which is tremendous and proven. But is the success
absolute? And is it a success when it takes a lot of time and comes too late? It seems to
me that the problems of automatic translation or robotic communication could be the true
test for some new concepts of intelligence, all the more, they are pretty closely related to
the Turing test of intelligence based on verbal communication. This cannot be said
about playing chess. To pass the strong Turing test, the computer must express itself
without help.
Trying to formulate my idea in the most succinct way, I present it like this: we
could possibly create realistic models of language evolution and language acquisition if
we were daring enough to change horses in the middle of the stream and switch to a new
type of natural computers working on ordered chaos, homeostasis, and competition for
energy. I presented some vague and possibly not new ideas about such pattern computers
in [5]. Automatic translation with acquired grammar and lexicon could be a possible
application and a stimulus for acquiring (what’s the heck), chemical and pattern-
theoretical idea by young linguists.
I can reformulate the concept in the form of an answer to the question “what is
natural?” Natural is what has infancy.
Being unable to calculate 2 x 2, such computers could be capable of computing
the behavior and communication between children of pre-school age, who would be
ready to start learning math and physics (not sure about chemistry), foreign languages,
use algorithms, and operate PC.
I am glad I will not live in such a world, but evolution does not ask for anybody’s
consent. Probably we already have no choice.
37

MINIMAL REFERENCES
spirospero.net

1 Yuri Tarnopolsky. 2005. Salt: The Incremental Chemistry of Language Acquisition


http://spirospero.neti/Salt.pdf
See also: http://spirospero.net/complexity.htm
TIKKI TIKKI TEMBO: The Chemistry of Protolanguage.
http://spirospero.neti/Nean.pdf
Pattern Theory and “Poverty of Stimulus” Argument in Linguistics.
http://spirospero.net/Poverty of stimulus.pdf
The Three Little Pigs : Chemistry of Language Acquisition.
http://spirospero.net/3LP.pdf
2. Grenander, Ulf. 1995. Elements of Pattern Theory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Press.
———. 1993. General Pattern Theory. A Mathematical Study of Regular Structures,
Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. (Advanced work)
———. Patterns of Thought. www.dam.brown.edu/ptg/REPORTS/mind.pdf
(watch for updates; see also: www.dam.brown.edu/ptg/publications.shtml )
3. Vicsi, Klara, et al. 2004. Hungarian Speech Databases, BABEL — Multi–Language
Database, Project No. 1304, http://alpha.ttt.bme.hu/speech/hdbbabel.php
4. Yuri Tarnopolsky. 2003. Molecules and Thoughts: Pattern Complexity and Evolution
in Chemical Systems and the Mind , 2003.
http://www.dam.brown.edu/ptg/REPORTS/MINDSCALE.pdf
or: http://spirospero.net/MINDSCALE.pdf

5. ———. 2005. Molecular computation: a chemist’s view.


http://users.ids.net/~yuri/PTutor.pdf

EMAIL: http://spirospero.net/email.html Last updated March 22, 2009

What if the words were atoms?