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Kinds of angles 1. Acute Angle: An angle whose degree measure is greater than zero degree but less than 90o is called an acute angle. An acute angle is shown in figure 3-17.
2. Right Angle: An angle whose degree measure is 90o is called a right angle. A right angle is shown in figure 3-18
3. Obtuse Angle: An angle whose degree measure is greater than 90o but less than 180o is called an obtuse angle. Figure 3-19 shows an obtuse angle.
4. Straight Angle: An angle whose degree measure is 180o is called a straight angle. Figure 3-20 shows a straight angle.
5. Reflex Angle: An angle whose degree measure is greater than 180o but less than 360o is called a reflex angle. Figure 3-21 shows a reflex angle.
6. Complete Angle: An angle whose degree measure is 360o is called a complete angle. Figure 3-22 shows a complete angle.
Angles at a point We can form a number of angles at a point. The sum of angles formed in this manner is always 360o .
∠1 + ∠2 + ∠3 + ∠4 + ∠5 = 180o
∠a + ∠b + ∠c + ∠d + ∠e + ∠f + ∠g + ∠h + ∠i = 360o Pairs of Angles In the study of geometry, five pairs of angles are of vital importance. These are mentioned and explained below: 1. Complementary Angles: If the sum of two angles is 90o , they are called complementary angles. Each one of them is called the complement of the other. Figure 3-25 shows complementary angles
2. Supplementary Angles: When the sum of the measure of a pair of angle is 180o . The angles are called supplementary angles. Each one of them is called the supplement of the other. Figure 3-26 shows a pair of supplementary angles.
3. Adjacent Angles: Two angles are said to be adjacent angles to each other if (a) they have a common vertex, (b) they have a common arm and (c) their other two arms are on the opposite sides of the common arm. In the following figure 3-27, we find that
1. Both the angles, ∠POQ and ∠QOR , have the same vertex O in common; 2. Both the angles have a common arm OQ; 3. Both the angles, ∠POQ and ∠QOR are on the opposite of the common arm OQ. A pair of angles that satisfies the above three conditions is called a pair of adjacent angles. 4. Linear Pair: If two adjacent angles have one arm common and other two arms are opposite rays, then both of them taken together are said to form a linear pair.
In figure 3-28, angles ∠POQ and ∠QOR are adjacent angles as they have a uuu r common vertex O and OQ is the common arm. The other two arms, OP and uuu r OR are opposite rays. This type of a pair of angles is called a linear pair.
It should be noted that the angles forming a linear pair are adjacent angles. But adjacent angles may not form a linear pair. In figure 3-29 ∠POQ and ∠QOR are uuu r uuu r adjacent angles but they do not form a linear pair because OP and OR are not opposite rays
We know that opposite rays form a straight angle. The measure of a straight angle is 180o . But supplementary angles may not form a linear pair. In figure 3-30 ∠ABC + ∠DEF = 100 + 80 = 180
o o o
These angles are supplementary. But ∠ABC and ∠DEF are not adjacent because they do not have a common arm. Therefore, they do not form a linear pair.
suu r 5. Vertically opposite angles: In figure 3-31, two straight lines AB and suu r PQ intersect each other and form four angles ∠1, ∠2, ∠3and ∠4 . The pair of angles ( ∠1, ∠3 ) and ( ∠2, ∠4 ) which lie on the opposite sides of the point of intersection
O are called vertically opposite angles. It should be noted that vertically opposite angles are always equal. Hence ∠1 = ∠3 and ∠2 = ∠4 . Moreover, the adjacent angles of vertically opposite angles form a linear pairs. Thus ∠1and ∠2 form a linear pair, ∠2 and ∠3 form a linear pair etc