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1. Distance between two points P and Q = P ( x1 , y1 ) and Q ( x2 , y2 ) 2. The coordinate of the point R ( x, y ) which divides the straight line joining two given points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) internally in a given ratio m1 : m2 is

⎛ m1 x2 + m2 x1 m1 y2 + m2 y1 ⎞ , ⎜ ⎟ m1 + m2 ⎠ ⎝ m1 + m2

( x2 − x1 ) 2 + ( y2 − y1 ) 2

3. Mid-point formula: The coordinates of the middle points R ( x, y ) of the line joining the two given points P ( x1 , y1 ) and Q ( x2 , y2 ) is

⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎞ , ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2

4. Area of a triangle whose vertices are ( x1 , y1 ), ( x2 , y2 ) and ( x3 , y3 ) is

=

1 [ ( x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) + ( x3 y2 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 )] 2

⎛ x1 ⎜ 1 ⎜ x2 = 2 ⎜ x3 ⎜ ⎝ x1

y1 ⎞ ⎟ y2 ⎟ y3 ⎟ ⎟ y1 ⎠

5. The equation of the straight line parallel to y axis and at a distance ' a ' form it is x=a 6. Slope or gradient of a line, m = tan θ 7. Slopes of parallel liens are equal, that is m1 = m2 8. The product of the slopes of two perpendicular lines is -1 that is m1 × m2 = −1

9. Equation of a line passing through the origin making angle with the positive direction of x -axis is y = mx 10. The equation of a straight line passing through a point ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x, y ) and having slope m is

y − y1 = m( x − x1 )

11. The equation of a straight line passing through a point ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) is

y − y1 =

y2 − y1 ( x − x1 ) x2 − x1

12. The equation of a straight line which cuts off intercepts a and b on the x and x y y axis respectively is + = 1 a b 13. General equation of a circle is x 2 + y 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0 . Its centre is ( − g , − f ) and radius is

g2 + f 2 − c

14. Equation of a circle whose centre is C ( h, k ) and radius

r is

( x − h) + ( y − k ) = r

2 2

2

15. The equation of a circle whose centre is the origin is x 2 + y 2 = r 2

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