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Module Form Five~Chapter1~Transport-Part 2 ..

Part 2 - The Human Heart.. Task 3: Draw and label a cross section of human heart 1. The heart is located inside the thoracic cavity. It is covered by a connective tissue called pericardium. The fluid between the heart and pericardium helps to reduce friction between the heart and organs adjacent to it. 2. The heart is made up of cardiac muscles and functions to pump and send blood to the whole body. (* Draw cardiac muscles)

3. Cardiac muscle is myogenic meaning it contracts and relaxes without the need to receive impulses from the nervous system.

4. The right pulmonary artery sends blood to the right lung whereas the left pulmonary artery sends blood to the left lung. 5. The oxygenated blood is forced to the lungs while the oxygenated blood is forced to the arteries of other parts of the body 6. The semilunar valves prevent back flow of blood into the ventricles 7. The bicuspid valve and tricuspid valve ensure that blood flows only in one direction thus, preventing back flow of blood from the ventricles into the atria. 8. The septum separates the right chambers from the left chambers from the left chambers. 9. The left ventricular wall is thicker as it generates greater pressure to pump blood to other parts of the body. The Heartbeat 1. The heartbeat produces blood pressure in the arteries which can be felt as pulse in the arteries which is closer to the surface of the skin. Both the systolic and diastolic stages form the heartbeat of the heart. 2. The rate of heartbeat increases when a person carry out vigorous activities. 3. The sino-atrial node ( SAN ) a. Located in the right atrial wall, near the entrance of the anterior vena cava b. Acts as a pacemaker which initiates the heartbeat. c. SAN generates a wave of excitatory impulses which spread to two atria, causing them to contract simultaneously. d. If the SAN fails to function , needs an artificial pacemaker which will generate electrical impulses which sent to the heart through wires.

4. The sequence of events which lead to the heartbeat : a. Sinoatrial node generates impulses. b. Impulses spread to the right and left atria. c. Both the atria contract simultaneously. d. Blood is forced from the atria into the ventricles.

e. The impulses stimulate the atrioventricular node. f. Impulses from the atrioventricular node ( AVN ) are conducted to the ventricular walls. g. Both the ventricles contract. h. Blood is pumped out of the heart. - Systole and diastole during the heartbeat 1. Systole is the contraction of the ventricles whereas diastole is the relaxation of the ventricles. 2. In a heartbeat, the systole gives a loud lub sound whereas the diastole gives a loud dub sound. The lub sound is caused by the closure of bicuspid and tricuspid valves whereas the dub sound is caused by the closure of semilunar valves. Task 4: Briefly explain the mechanism of systole and diastole of the heart - Blood pressure 1. Blood pressure is the force of the blood exerted on the walls of the arterial blood vessels. 2. Arterial blood pressure is highest during ventricular systole (120 mm Hg) and the lowest during ventricular diastole (80 mm Hg). Blood pressure should be lower than 140/90 mm Hg 3. The blood pressure is measured by sphygmomanometer Task 5: Use a schematic diagram to explain the regulatory mechanism of Blood pressure.

Circulatory system in fish, amphibians and humans 1. Circulatory system can be divided into two types : a) Single circulation - In this system, the blood flows through the heart only once in a complete blood circulation. b) Double circulation - In this system, the blood flows through the heart twice in a complete blood circulation 2. Table shows the Differences between circulatory system in fish, amphibians and humans (Essay paper 2)

Task 4: Draw schematic diagrams of the circulatory system of fish, amphibians and humans

2. Blood is confined to the heart and blood vessels in a closed circulatory system whereas vessels are absent in an opened circulatory system. Blood is pumped directly into the body cavity in the opened circulatory system. 3. Deoxygenated blood in the right ventricle of the human heart is pumped into the arteries of the lungs in the pulmonary circulatory system. 4. Oxygenated blood in the left ventricle is pumped into arteries of other parts of the body in the systemic circulatory system.

Task 5: By using a schematic Diagram schematic describe blood clotting mechanism. The mechanism of Blood Clotting(Paper 2) 1. Blood clotting is necessary to prevent excessive blood loss from a wound. It is also important to : a) Prevent excessive blood loss from the body. b) Maintain the blood pressure for proper blood circulation if not the blood pressure will reduce. c) Prevent micro-organisms and foreign substances from entering the blood. d) Promote wound healing

Discuss problems related to blood clotting. (Essay) 2. Haemophilia is a genetic disease which the patient bleeds profusely when injured as blood clotting mechanism is impaired. This is due to the absence of clotting factor VIII ( anti haemophilia ) 3. Thrombosis is the condition where there is a blockage of the artery which is caused by the local blood clot (thrombus) on the damaged rough inner wall of the artery. 4. When the thrombus dislodges and is carried away by blood circulation, it is known as

embolus. The embolus may be trapped in a small artery where it blocks the blood flow. This condition is called embolism. 5. The blocked coronary artery cuts off the oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscles, hence causes heart attack.

1.4 - The Lymphatic System 1. The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus gland, tonsils and spleen. 2. The lymphatic system is part of both the circulatory and the immune systems. Task 6: Draw Diagram to show the lymphatic system and its components. ~Formation of interstitial fluid and lymph 1. The liquid of the human body consists of blood plasma and lymph. Task 7: Draw a schematic diagram on the formation of interstitial fluid and lymph, ~Importance of the interstitial fluid 1. Plasma, interstitial fluid and lymph form the internal environment of the body. 2. Oxygen, amino acids and glucose from the blood diffuse through the interstitial fluid into the cells. Carbon dioxide and urea also diffuse through the interstitial fluid out of the cells into the blood. 3. The interstitial fluid and the lymph have no erythrocytes, platelets and large proteins as they cannot pass through the blood capillary walls. ~ The return of the lymph to the circulatory system 1. If excess interstitial fluid unable to return to the blood circulatory system, oedema (swelling of the tissues) occurs. 2. The lymph has to be returned to the blood circulatory system to maintain the volume of blood. 3. The movement of the lymph in the lymphatic system is caused by the difference of pressure mainly due to the contraction and relaxation of the muscles Task 8: By using a schematic Diagram, describe the relationship between the lymphatic system and circulatory system. ~ The function of the lymphatic system 1. The lymphatic system function : a) Destroy pathogens through i. Antibodies produced by lymphocytes in lymph nodes. Antitoxins produced by lymphocytes neutralise the toxins. Lymph nodes also filter out bacteria.

ii. Phagocytes produced in lymph nodes through phagocytosis. b) Absorbs fatty acids and glycerol through lacteals (as they are lymphatic capillaries) c) Returns the interstitial fluid to the blood circulatory system. 2. The similarity between blood and lymph is that they have glucose, hormones, minerals, amino acids, lipids, dissolved gases and wastes. The Table describes the differences between blood and lymph. (Essay)