CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

The periodic table has only 118 or so elements, there are obviously more substances in nature than 118 pure elements. This is because atoms can react with one another to form new substances called compounds. When two or more atoms chemically combine together, the resulting compound is unique both chemically and physically from its parent atoms.

For example: When sodium and chlorine chemically bonded together, these two dangerous substances form the compound Sodium chloride, and this is so safe that we eat it every day - common table salt Sodium metal + Chlorine gas (Poisonous Gas) → Sodium Chloride (Table Salt)

(Silvered colored metal)

The existence of large number of molecules or compounds raises many questions: 1. Why do certain atoms combine to form molecules? 2. What is the nature of the forces, which binds the atoms together in the molecules?

CHEMICAL BOND: It is the force of attraction, which binds the constituents (atoms, ions, or molecules) in a chemical species, is called chemical bond. The tendency of the elements to combine with one another depends on the valency or the valence electrons of the element. Valency depends upon the electronic configuration of the atoms.

Cause of chemical combination:
1. Tendency to attain inert (noble) gas configuration - Those atoms which have less than 8 electrons in there outer most shell will undergo chemical combination. Noble gas configuration i.e.ns2p6 is the stable configuration

because their combining capacity is zero and has 8 electrons in the outer most shell. The principle of attaining maximum of 8 electrons in the valence shell of atoms is called octet rule. 2. Tendency to acquire minimum energy: - State of minimum energy is related to the state of maximum stability

For example: a) Water always flows down the hill b) Hot bodies radiate energy to cool down Isolated atoms, which have high potential energy, combine to form molecules with lower potential energy. So every system in this universe has a tendency to acquire a state of minimum energy to attain stability.

Types of chemical bond:
Basically there are two types of bonds.

IONIC BOND AND COVALENT BOND

1) Ionic bond: The bonds in which electrons are completely transferred from
one atom to another. In this process, either losing or gaining of negatively charged electrons from the reacting atoms form ions. The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces, which are the basis of the ionic bond.

For example: During the reaction of sodium with chlorine, Sodium (on the left) loses its one valence electron to Chlorine (on the right), a positively charged sodium ion (left) and a negatively charged chlorine ion(right).

So sodium ion and chloride ion ( +ve and –ve ions resp.) attract each other and form an ionic bond. Some other examples of ionic bonding: Magnesium Oxide:

Again, noble gas structures are formed, and the magnesium oxide is held together by very strong attractions between the ions. The ionic bonding is stronger than in sodium chloride because this time you have 2+ ions attracting 2-ions.

The greater the charge, the greater the attraction. The formula of magnesium oxide is MgO. Calcium Chloride:

Now two chlorines are required to use up the two outer electrons in the calcium. The formula of calcium chloride is therefore CaCl2. Potassium Oxide:

Again, noble gas structures are formed. It takes two potassium atoms to supply the electrons the oxygen needs. The formula of potassium oxide is K2O. Similarly AlF3 is formed by the transfer of 3 electrons from aluminium to each of fluorine atom because the electronic configuration of Al is 2,8,8,3 and that of F is 2, 7. Fluorine atom will take one electron to complete its octet i.e. to have 8 electrons in outer most shell .Since there are three electrons in the outer most shell of aluminium

atom, three fluorine atoms are required to take three electrons from aluminium atom. So the formula of aluminium fluoride is AlF3 . In general ionic bond formation depends on the difference in the electronegativity of the two atoms higher the electronegativity higher will be the ionic character. LEWIS CONCEPT OF IONIC BOND: Lewis concept of ionic bond means to represent the formation of ionic bonds in terms of Lewis symbols or electron dot symbols. It is written as: 1) Write the symbols of the elements (which represent the whole of the atom except the valence electrons) 2) Write the number of valence electrons around the symbol in the form of dot (•) or crosses (Х). For example: Lewis Symbols

Ionic Bond in the form of Lewis symbols:

Significance of LEWIS symbols: 1) Lewis symbols indicate the number of electrons in the valence shell. 2) These symbols help in predicting the common Valency of the element. (e.g. Beryllium has 2 electrons in the valence shell and these electrons are involved in chemical combination process and therefore Be is divalent) 3) Common Valency of an element is either equal to the number of dots(●) or crosses(Х) in the Lewis symbol or it is equal to 8 minus number of dots (if dots are 4 or >4 ) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

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