Cybernetics and Cryptography

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Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika
[[File:File:Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika & his two kids.jpg||alt=]] Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika with Laquit(son) and Danisha(daughter) Born Residence Nationality Ethnicity Citizenship Education Alma mater Azad Bin Rajib HazarikaJuly 2, 1970Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Nagaon, Assam, India Indian AssameseMuslim India PhD, PDF, FRAS University of Jodhpur Jai Narayan Vyas University [1] Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology [2] Kendriya Vidyalaya [3] Poona College of Arts, Science &Commerce Assistant Professor(Lecturer), Diphu Govt. College , Diphu,Assam,India 2004- onwards Diphu Government College Government of Assam,Assam Education Service Lecturer ,Assistant Professor,Mathematician,Academician,Fusion,Astronomy Nagaon, Assam, India Rs 40000 per month 6 feet and 2 inches 100 kg Doctorate, Dr., FRAS (London), Assam Education Service, AES Member of Scientific and Technical committee & Editorial review board of Natuaral and Applied sciences World Academy of [4] Science ,Engineering & Technology Sunni Islam, Helmin Begum Hazarika Laquit Ali Hazarika(son), Danisha Begum Hazarika(daughter) Rosmat Ali Hazarika@Rostam Ali Hazarika@Roufat Ali Hazarika and Anjena Begum Hazarika Drabrh or Raja Website [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

Occupation Years active Employer

Known for Home town Salary Height Weight Title Board member of Religion Spouse Children Parents Call-sign

Royal Society. Focus Fusion Society. 1970. Assam academy of mathematics. [23] .London . Jammu and Kashmir. [17] . Early life Dr.B.A. Plasma Science Society of India. in Jammu. member of World Academy of Science. Assam Science Society.B.B. the thesis was awarded “best thesis” by Association of Indian Universities in 1998 and the Post-Doctoral Fellow Program from Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology [13] in Guwahati Assam in 1998 as Research Associate in Plasma Physics Division in theory group studying the Sheath phenomenon.International Biographical Centre. member of Plasma science Society of India [22] . Member of Assam Academy of Mathematics [27] .Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. He is eldest of two childrens of his parents younger one is a Shamim Ara Rahman(nee Hazarika)daughter . Government of Assam [10] . Assam before joining the present position in Diphu Government College . [11] .A. Karbi Anglong.International Atomic Energy Agency. As a Part-time Lecturer in Nowgong college. Early career Dr. He is Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society[18] .Engineering & Technology [20] .Diphu in Karbi Anglong district .B.Advisory Committee of Mathematical Education. a prominent family belonging to Dhing's wealthy Muslim Assamese community of Nagaon district. World Academy of Science .Indian Science Congress Association.Rajib Hazarika completed his PhD degree in Mathematics from J N Vyas University of Jodhpur in 1995 with specialization in Plasma instability. Member of Assam Science Society [26] .member of Dense Plasma Focus [25] .A.German Academy of Mathematics and Mechanics.Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics.Rajib Hazarika was born into the famous Hazarika family.member of International Association Mathematical Physics[19] .Rajib Hazarika with Laquit (son) and Danisha(daughter) Dr.Indian National Science Academy.[15] He is a member of the wikipedia[16] . Dense Plasma Focus.Diphu in Karbi Anglong district[14] .Engineering & Technology. India) is Assistant Professor(Lecturer) Diphu Government College . He was born to Anjena Begum Hazarika and Rusmat Ali Hazarika. He is also the Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society[12] .User:Rajah2770 2 Dr.Rajib Hazarika (born July 02.Fusion Science & Technology Society.member of Focus Fusion Society forum [24] .Member of International Association of Mathematical Physics.Assam's largest conglomerate by Government of Assam .[21] .A.

Later on in May 1995 got Senior Research Fellowship(UGC.646 Personal life Dr.User:Rajah2770 He joined the Diphu Government College in July2004 as Lecturer in Mathematics (Gazetted officer). He has written six books entitled Inventions of Dr.University Grants Commission. [30] now redesignated as Assistant Professor. for plasma instability with the title of thesis as “Some Problems of instabilities in partially ionized and fully ionized plasmas” which later on in 1998 was assessed as best thesis of the year by Association of Indian Universities in New Delhi.A. [48] . Quotes • • • • • • "Fakir(saint) and lakir(line) stops at nothing but at destination" "Expert criticizes the wrong but demonstrates the right thing" “Intellectuals are measured by their brain not by their age and experience” “Two type of persons are happy in life one who knows everything another who doesn’t know anything” “Implosion in device to prove every notion wrong for fusion” “Meditation gives fakir(saint) long life and fusion devices the long lasting confinement” .Rajib Hazarika was awarded Junior Research Fellowship.B.Application of Dr.B.A.VASIMR DANISHA:A Hall Thruster Space Odyssey .Astrophysics.[47] .NET) in Department of Mathematics and Statistics of J N Vyas University in Jodhpur.B.From 1993 onwards taught in Kamala Nehru College for women.A. Green tecnology for next genration . July joined the present position of Lecturer in Diphu Government College which is redesignated as Assistant Professor.A. Research During PhD [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] The research was based on Astronomy.He is married to Helmin Begum Hazarika and have two chidrens Laquit(son) and Danisha(daughter). He is known for Bhatia-Hazarika limitResearch at Diphu Govt.NET) and continued research for completion of PhD on 27th Dec 1995 . 3 Career In May 1993.B. Jodhpur and in Faculty of Science in J N Vyas University in Jodhpur up to the completion of PhD .A. National Eligibility Test and eligibility for Lecturership .Rajib Hazarika's conceptual devices . of India and worked as JRF(UGC.A. [49] He has derived a formula Hazarika's constant for VASIMR DANISHA as Hazarika constant Ch=1+4sin3φ sin θ-2sin φ-2sin θ the value is 2.Rajib Hazarika on future devices and Dr.Rajib Hazarika's devices .Rajib Hazarika's Pattern recognition on fusion . College [37] . [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] Applied for patent in US patent and trademarks office [45] [46] Research guidance is given to students in Mathematics for MPhil.B. Dr. Invention of Dr. through Assam Public Service commission [28] in Assam Education Service [29] . AES-I.Rajib Hazarika has a metallic Scarlet red Tata Indigo CS of Tata motors make and loves to drive himself.B. Geophysics .In 1998 May joined Plasma Physics Division of Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology in Guwahati as Research Associate for PDF in theory group to study the sheath phenomena of National Fusion Programme [31] of Govt.Govt. Then joined Nowgong College as a part-time Lecturer after which in 2004. of India .

nic. org. in/ member/ 982004 [28] http:/ / apsc.Government of India Senior Research Fellowship.A. org/ NaturalandAppliedSciences. org. [19] http:/ / www. pdf [20] http:/ / www. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_bayer_rti. karbianglong. org/ wiki/ Wikitionary%3ASandbox [36] http:/ / adsabs. pdf [38] http:/ / en. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrhiterparabolic2007. org/ member [27] http:/ / www. pdf [39] http:/ / en. wiktionary. org/ index. res. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Special:Contributions/ Drabrh [8] http:/ / www.Government of India Research AssociateshipDSTGovernment of India Fellowof Royal Astronomical Society [50] Member of Advisory committee of Mathematical Education Royal Society London Member of Scientific and Technical committee & editorial review board on Natural and applied sciences of World Academy of Science . / Education%20Department/ The%20Assam%20Education%20Service%20Rules%201982.User:Rajah2770 4 Awards and recognition Dr. wikipedia. linkedin. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_mctc_feedbackloop. nic. org. iasst. diphugovtcollege. wikipedia. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Special:Contributions/ Drabrh/ File:Drabrhdouble_trios_saiph_star01. nic. in/ diphugovtcollege. pdf . wikipedia. waset. html [11] http:/ / www. uk/ member?recid==5531 [13] http:/ / www. iop. iopscience. . pdf [42] http:/ / en. asp [35] http:/ / en. wikipedia. . com/ pub/ dr-a-b-rajib-hazarika/ 25/ 506/ 549 [7] http:/ / en. niscair. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_double_trios. . org/ index. assamsciencesociety. php/ forums/ member/ 4165 [25] http:/ / www. kvafsdigaru. iamp. edu/ abs/ 1996PhyS. . wikipedia.Rajib Hazarika got Junior Research Fellowship. org/ wiki/ User:Drabrh [17] http:/ / en. ipr. in/ sciencecommunication/ abstractingjournals/ isa_1jul08. 578 [37] http:/ / en. res. com/ Drabrajib http:/ / in. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_tasso_07. nic. akipoonacollege. diphugovtcollege. wikipedia. in/ diphugovtcollege/ teaching. ras. in/ ~pssi/ member/ pssidir_new-04. denseplasmafocus. [34] http:/ / www. org/ 1402-4896/ 53/ 1/ 011/ pdf/ 1402-4896_53_1_011. pdf [43] http:/ / en. pdf [40] http:/ / en. waset. org/ wiki/ File:Columb_drabrh. php?page=45 [21] http:/ / www. wikipedia. in [32] http:/ / www. pssi. pdf. pdf) [31] http:/ / nfp. com http:/ / www. org/ DGC prospests 08-09. org/ DGC%20prospectus%2008-09. aam. org/ teaching. org/ wiki/ Special:Contributions/ Drabrh [18] http:/ / www. iop. waset. php?page=45 http:/ / www. org [9] http:/ / www. in [29] http:/ / aasc. org/ NaturalandAppliedSciences. diphugovtcollege. iasst. ras. pdf [41] http:/ / en. ernet. wikipedia. org/ Search. harvard. plasma. org/ 1402-4896/ 51/ 6/ 012/ pdf/ physcr_51_6_012. . karbianglong. html [16] http:/ / en. org/ bulletins/ old-bulletins/ 201001. facebook. in/ ~pssi/ member/ pssi_new04. doc [23] http:/ / www. focusfusion.Engineering &Technology [51] Leading professional of the world-2010 as noted and eminent professional from International Biographical Centre Cambridge References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. in [14] {{cite web|url=http:/ / www. html [10] http:/ / www. php?page=68& search= [22] http:/ / www. 53. pdf [30] (http:/ / www. iopsciences. php/ forum/ member/ 4165 [26] http:/ / www. in/ . nic. pdf [12] http:/ / www. uk/ member?recid=5531. pdf [33] http:/ / www. pdf [15] http:/ / karbianglong. in http:/ / www. diphugovtcollege. doc [24] http:/ / www. org/ DGC%20prospectus%2008-09.B. in/ diphugovtcollege/ teaching. org http:/ / www.

org/ NaturalandAppliedSciences.B.User:Rajah2770 [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] http:/ / en. org/ wikipedia/ en/ c/ c4/ • 506/549=) • (http://www.A. org/ wiki/ File:Abstracts. Both in its origins and in its evolution in the second-half of the 20th century. uk/ members?recid=5531 http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / www. evolutionary biology. pdf?page=2 http:/ / upload. wikimedia. anthropology. com http:/ / i-proclaimbookstore. org:8080/ view/ creators/ Hazarika=3ADr=2EA=2EB=2ERajib=3A=3A. electrical network theory. wikimedia. mechanical engineering. neuroscience. On the one hand a company is approached as a system in with applications of electrical an environment. html http:/ / www. SD models solve the problem of simultaneity (mutual causation) by updating all variables in small time increments with positive and negative feedbacks and time delays structuring the interactions and control. System Dynamics. The best known SD model is probably the 1972 The Limits to Growth. engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s. pdf http:/ / upload. Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems.linkedin. Convenient GUI system dynamics software developed into user friendly versions by the 1990s and have been applied to diverse systems. wikipedia. 7 February 2011 (UTC) Cybernetics Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. This "circular causal" relationship is necessary and sufficient for a cybernetic perspective. that is. On the other hand cybernetic factory can be modeled as a control system. and . Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory.facebook. ras. org/ wikipedia/ en/ 5/ 50/ EfilingAck5530228. originated Example of cybernetic thinking. where action by the system causes some change in its environment and that change is fed to the system via information (feedback) that causes the system to adapt to these new conditions: the system's changes affect its behavior.diphugovtcollege. This model forecast that exponential growth would lead to economic collapse during the 21st century under a wide variety of growth Rajah2770 (talk) 18:12.Rajib Hazarika's profile on the Linkedin Website (http://in. a related field. pothi. cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social (that is. Overview Cybernetics is most applicable when the system being analysed is involved in a closed signal loop. homelinux. waset. com http:/ / ipppserver. php?page=46 5 External links • (http://www. language-based) systems. logic modeling. org.

or rudder — the same root as government). reacts to information. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology. perceptual control theory. in his book of that title. as some prefer. President of the American Society for Cybernetics. Cybernetics was defined by Norbert Wiener.[5] telematic art. suggested in 1956 by Louis Couffignal. machines and organizations including self-organization. and architecture. governor. social control. Its focus is how anything (digital. emergence. including social systems such as business management and organizational learning. system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics). as the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine. psychology. mechanical or biological) processes information. behavioral psychology and cognitive psychology. sociology. and architecture and organizational theory.[1] 6 Definition The term cybernetics stems from the Greek κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs. The most recent definition has been proposed by Louis Kauffman. It includes the study of feedback. pilot. Studies in cybernetics provide a means for examining the design and function of any system. Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory. anthropology. A more philosophical definition. adaption. cognition. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization and Gordon Pask extended it to include information flows "in all media" from stars to brains. including for the purpose of making them more efficient and effective. system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics). cognitive psychology). and again to action. especially neuropsychology. Cybernetics is a broad field of study. psychology (especially neuropsychology. but in cybernetics these are removed from the context of the individual organism or device. efficiency. Concepts studied by cyberneticists (or.Cybernetics psychology in the 1940s. philosophy. cyberneticians) include. and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks [2] . efficacy and interconnectivity.[6] . characterizes cybernetics as "the art of ensuring the efficacy of action" [3] . and even theology. communication. but the essential goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems that have goals and that participate in circular. black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms. "Cybernetics is the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves" [4] . causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with desired goal. Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory. but are not limited to: learning. one of the pioneers of cybernetics. behavioral psychology. often attributed to the Macy Conferences. philosophy. steersman.

W. The word 'cybernétique' was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) to denote the sciences of government in his classification system of human knowledge. Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts and radar antenna during WWII. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback ("back afferentation") was studied. Although they did not refer to this concept by the name of Cybernetics (they considered it a field of engineering). Ktesibios's device used a cone-shaped float to monitor the level of the water in its reservoir and adjust the rate of flow of the water accordingly to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir. James Watt goal.Cybernetics 7 History The roots of cybernetic theory The word cybernetics was first used in the context of "the study of self-governance" by Plato in The Laws to signify the governance of people. Edwards Deming.S. so that it neither overflowed nor was allowed to run dry. Jay Forrester. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. then from the reservoir to the mechanisms of the clock. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Brown to develop electronic control systems for the U. These papers . later applied these ideas to social organizations such as corporations and cities as an original organizer of the MIT School of Industrial Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. or purpose) in machines with corrective feedback dates from as far back as the late 18th century when James Watt's steam engine was equipped with a governor. The early 20th century Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems. Ktesibios and others such as Heron and Su Song are considered to be some of the first to study cybernetic principles.K. Forrester is known as the founder of System Dynamics. logic modeling. electrical network theory. Navy. mechanical engineering. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper. was an intern at Bell Telephone Labs in 1927 and may have been influenced by network theory. The ideas are also related to the biological work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy in General Systems Theory. the Total Quality Management guru for whom Japan named its top post-WWII industrial prize. In his water clocks. a centrifugal feedback valve for controlling the speed of the engine. evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s. a water clock. one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Deming made "Understanding Systems" one of the four pillars of what he described as "Profound Knowledge" in his book "The New Economics. water flowed from a source such as a holding tank into a reservoir. The study and mathematical modelling of regulatory processes became a continuing research effort and two key articles were published in 1943. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors. was invented by the mechanician Ktesibios. Electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. In 1935 Russian physiologist P. The first artificial automatic regulatory system. The study of teleological mechanisms (from the Greek τέλος or telos for end." Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle (Funktionskreis) in order to explain animal behaviour and the origins of meaning in general. a graduate student at the Servomechanisms Laboratory at MIT during WWII working with Gordon S.

the field as a whole fell from grace. In the UK this became the focus for the Ratio Club. did contribute a unique and unusual addition to the world of cybernetics: Von Neumann cellular automata. Grey Walter. and the paper "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" by Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts. cyborgs) and when this research fell out of favor. McCulloch and others. Together with the US and UK. although better known for his work in mathematics and computer science. uncle of the world-famous mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot. During this stay in France. In the spring of 1947. these thinkers were led to invent a new cybernetics. Ross Ashby and W. according to Dupuy (1986) "realized that the cybernetic metaphors of the program upon which molecular biology had been based rendered a conception of the autonomy of the living being impossible. or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine (Hermann & Cie. Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. the Biological Computer Lab [7] at the University of Illinois. Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics. Urbana/Champaign.e. Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics. Purpose and Teleology" by Arturo Rosenblueth. In the early 1940s John von Neumann. and mathematician Szolem Mandelbrojt (1899–1983). which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in telecommunication engineering. In the 1970s new cyberneticians emerged in multiple fields. was a major center of cybernetic research [8] for almost 20 years. 1950). the field of cybernetics followed a boom-bust cycle of becoming more and more dominated by the subfields of artificial intelligence and machine-biological interfaces (i. 8 The fall and rebirth of cybernetics For a time during the past 30 years. However. under the direction of Heinz von Foerster. and Julian Bigelow. The following summer. one more suited to the organizations which mankind discovers in nature . The result of these deceptively simple John von Neumann thought-experiments was the concept of self replication which cybernetics adopted as a core concept. The ideas of Maturana. and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study. Varela and Atlan. The name cybernetics was coined to denote the study of "teleological mechanisms" and was popularized through his book Cybernetics.[9] . 1948). Norbert Wiener. Wiener was invited to a congress on harmonic analysis. The event was organized by the Bourbaki. The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social memes. and their logical follow up the Von Neumann Universal Constructor. but especially in biology. living cells. Paris. such as W. beginning in 1958. Wiener decided to introduce the neologism cybernetics into his scientific theory.Cybernetics were "Behavior. While not the only instance of a research organization focused on cybernetics. Consequently. a French scientific society. back in the United States. France.organizations he has not himself invented"[9] . Cybernetics as a discipline was firmly established by Wiener. held in Nancy. an important geographical locus of early cybernetics was France. during the 1980s the question of whether the features of this new cybernetics could be applied to social forms of organization remained open to debate. drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling The Human Use of Human Beings : Cybernetics and Society (Houghton-Mifflin.

. according to Bailey (1994). by viewing it as observer-dependent. according to Harries-Jones (1988) "unlike its predecessor. (a) a change from emphasis on the system being steered to the system doing the steering. In the 1980s. Recent endeavors into the true focus of cybernetics. Basic cybernetics Cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept. systems of feedback in evolution. by such related fields as game theory (the analysis of group interaction). That is. the new cybernetics concerns itself with the interaction of autonomous political actors and subgroups.[2] 9 Subdivisions of the field Cybernetics is an earlier but still-used generic term for many types of subject matter. This provides an epistemological foundation of science. systems of control and emergent behavior.[10] One characteristic of the emerging new cybernetics considered in that time by Geyer and van der Zouwen. The work of Gregory Bateson was also strongly influenced by cybernetics. among others. These subjects also extend into many others areas of science.. These shifts in thinking involve. and the factor which guides the steering decisions. attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such things as • • • • • • • • • • Artificial intelligence Robotics Computer Vision Control systems Emergence Learning organization New Cybernetics Second-order cybernetics Interactions of Actors Theory Conversation Theory ASIMO uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to avoid obstacles and navigate stairs. or self-reference of political action both with regards to the expression of political consciousness and with the ways in which systems build upon themselves". A dominant consideration is that of recursiveness. have led to a revived interest in this increasingly relevant field.Cybernetics In political science. but are united in their study of control of systems. was "that it views information as constructed and reconstructed by an individual interacting with the environment. Project Cybersyn attempted to introduce a cybernetically controlled economy during the early 1970s. and (b) new emphasis on communication between several systems which are trying to steer each other"[11] . Another characteristic of the new cybernetics is its contribution towards bridging the "micro-macro gap". and metamaterials (the study of materials with properties beyond the Newtonian properties of their constituent atoms). it links the individual with the society"[11] Another characteristic noted was the "transition from classical cybernetics to the new cybernetics [that] involves a transition from classical problems to new problems. and the practical and reflexive consciousness of the subjects who produce and reproduce the structure of a political community.

There is also a secondary focus on combining artificial systems with biological systems. and how information in the form of genes is passed from generation to generation[12] . . • • • • • • • Bioengineering Biocybernetics Bionics Homeostasis Medical cybernetics Synthetic Biology Systems Biology Thermal image of a cold-blooded tarantula on a warm-blooded human hand In computer science Computer science directly applies the concepts of cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of information. a product of biomedical engineering. primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their environment. in which the small errors and imperfections in a system can generate disasters.Cybernetics 10 In biology Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic systems present in biological organisms. Other topics studied include: • Adaptive systems • • • • Engineering cybernetics Ergonomics Biomedical engineering Systems engineering In management • Entrepreneurial cybernetics • Management cybernetics • Organizational cybernetics • Operations research • Systems engineering An artificial heart. • • • • • Robotics Decision support system Cellular automaton Simulation Technology In engineering Cybernetics in engineering is used to analyze cascading failures and System Accidents.

These and other cybernetic models in sociology are reviewed in a book edited by McClelland and Fararo[13] . interaction of parts in systems. and labeling theory in terms of homeostatic maintenance of sentiments associated with cultural categories. such as etiquette. cybernetics establish the basic hierarchy in Parsons' AGIL paradigm. sociology seeks the reasons for such spontaneous events as smart mobs and riots. Affect Control Theory explains role behavior. • Dynamical system • Information theory • Systems theory In psychology • • • • Homunculus Psycho-Cybernetics Systems psychology Perceptual Control Theory In sociology By examining group behavior through the lens of cybernetics.Cybernetics 11 In mathematics Mathematical Cybernetics focuses on the factors of information. In this way. • Telematic art • Interactive Art • Systems art . and the structure of systems. • Affect Control Theory • Memetics • Sociocybernetics In Art The artist Roy Ascott theorised the cybernetics of art in "Behaviourist Art and the Cybernetic Vision". as well as how communities develop rules. Journal of the International Association for Cybernetics (Namur). emotions. The most comprehensive attempt ever made in the social sciences to increase cybernetics in a generalized theory of society was made by Talcott Parsons. 1967. which is the ording system-dimension of his action theory. Cybernetica. by consensus without formal discussion.

[2] Kelly. The First International Congress on Cybernetics. and Thomas J. in: R. htm [9] Jean-Pierre Dupuy. and Action: Control Systems Theories in Sociology. " Systemics and cybernetics in a historical perspective (http://www. ece. Artificial Life. June 26–29. Behaviourist Art and the Cybernetic Vision. Christopher (2007).vub. • Complex Adaptive System • Complex systems • Complexity theory References [1] Tange. New York: MacMillan. No. uiuc. such as the case of the pepper moth having genes for both light and dark environments. edu/ pubs/ bcl/ hutchinson/ index. [13] McClelland. [7] http:/ / www.). 10. • Lars Bluma. Kent A. Journal of the International Association for Cybernetics (Namur).com/ Cybernetic-Brain-Sketches-Another-Future/dp/0226667898) University Of Chicago Press. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 155-170. pp. "Designing Freedom. 4. • John Johnston. ece. Paris. ISBN 978-0415384827. Meyers (ed. In: Systems Research and Behavioral Science. Boston: Addison-Wesley. Espoo: Helsinki University of Technology. [10] Peter Harries-Jones (1988). Vol.A. ac. and Cliff Joslyn (2001). • Eden Medina. Routledge.. 2 ( Vol 16. Bailey (1994). Namur. Control Engineering Laboratory. Boulding eds. (2008) "The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics." Journal of Latin American Studies 38 (2006):571-606. Kevin (1994). "The Self-Organizing Polity: An Epistemological Analysis of Political Life by Laurent Dobuzinskis" in: Canadian Journal of Political Science (Revue canadienne de science politique).. • Charles François (1999).). [11] Kenneth 46-54 [4] CYBCON discusstion group 20 September 2007 18:15 [5] ~gossimit/ifsr/francois/papers/systemics_and_cybernetics_in_a_historical_perspective. 280.163. 2006. Mü 431-433. 1988). p. "Essai d’une définition générale de la cybernétique".pdf)". Patrick (1973).). OCLC 221860672 32208523 40868076 56082721 57396750. Norbert Wiener und die Entstehung der Kybernetik im Zweiten Weltkrieg. 248. [3] Couffignal. 203–219 (1999) . Sociology and the New Systems Theory: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis. 21. Khalil & Kenneth E. 25–56 • Andrew Pickering (2010) The Cybernetic Brain: Sketches of Another Future (http://www. [6] Hight. MIT Press • Heikki Hyötyniemi (2006). pp.uni-klu. pp. Fararo (Eds. "The autonomy of social reality: on the contribution of systems theory to the theory of society" in: Elias L. Structure and Symbol". Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile. Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology (3rd ed. pp. uiuc. Louis. Purpose. Belgium. p. Neocybernetics in Biological Systems (http://neocybernetics. ISBN 0-201-48340-8. 1958. htm [8] http:/ / www. Evolution. pp. Further reading • Roy Ascott (1967). social systems and the economic world. (2005).be/Papers/Cybernetics-EPST. pp. • Slava Gerovitch (2002) From Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics (http://web. [12] Note: this does not refer to the concept of Racial Memory but to the concept of cumulative adaptation to a particular niche. Ecclesial Cybernetics: A Study of Democracy in the Church. " Cybernetics and Second Order Cybernetics (http://pespmc1. (Academic Press. and the New AI". Cybernetica. Kenzo (1966) "Function.pdf)". New York). Meaning. edu/ pubs/ bcl/ mueller/ index. Out of control: The new biology of slava/homepage/newspeak. 1956. Architectural Principles in the age of Cybernetics. 1986. Order and Complexity.htm) MIT Press.Cybernetics 12 Related fields Complexity science Complexity science attempts to understand the nature of complex systems. • Francis Heylighen. Vol..

1975. Paris.C.pdf). UK. Eprint (http://pangaro. • Hans Joachim Ilgauds (1980). The Age of Information: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Brains-Machines-Mathematics-Michael-Arbib/dp/0387965394) Springer.cybsoc. • Paul Pangaro (1990). Designing Freedom.umich. and Mathematics (http://www. pp.htm) • Reading List for Cybernetics (http://www. Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics (http://www. 1.html).amazon. in: Cybernetics and Systems". • Stuart Umpleby (1989). • Stafford Beer (1974).be/pub/ projects/Principia_Cybernetica/Papers_Umpleby/ Livas short introductory videos on YouTube • A History of Systemic and Cybernetic Thought.vub. & Cybernetics Society (http://www. Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the • text/foerster. Cambridge University Press. Machines. Heims (1993).vub. Methuen. • Steve J. Heims (1980). • Michael A. and E. • W.ieeesmc.html) • Glossary Slideshow (136 slides) (http://www. London and New York. entry in Encyclopædia Britannica 1972. Man. 3.htm)".gwu.cybsoc. (Hermann & Cie Editeurs. 13 External links General • Norbert Wiener and Stefan Odobleja .ac.html) • Basics of Cybernetics (http://www. UK.asc-cybernetics. 1971.A Comparative Analysis (http://www.pdf) Societies • American Society for Cybernetics (http://www. T. "The science of cybernetics and the cybernetics of science" (ftp://ftp. The American Naturalist 118. N.html) • Principia Cybernetica Web (http://pespmc1.vub. The Technology Press.cscs. Introduction to Cybernetics..J. 109–121. • Steve J.P. • B. Constructing a Social Science for Postwar America.html) • What is Cybernetics? ( • Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems (http://pespmc1. html). From Homeostasis to the Teardrop (http://www. Odum (1981).Cybernetics • Heinz von • The Cybernetics Society (http://www. Arbib ( Norbert Aufl. John Wiley.: Educational Technology • IEEE Systems.smithsrisca.vub. 1964) Brains. John Wiley & Sons Inc. No. (1995). " Cybernetics (http://www. CompJurc. 21. Cambridge.txt). be/books/IntroCyb.demon. John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death. Englewood Cliffs. "Cybernetics — A Definition". Patten. "The Cybernetic Nature of Ecosystems".edu/~asc/slide/s1. New cybernetic_teardrop. • Gordon Pask (1972).ac. London. 886-895. 1948)... The Cybernetics Group. PDF text (http://pespmc1. • Norbert Wiener (1948).be/ASC/indexASC. Leipzig. (1990) . Ross Ashby (1956). Cambridge.

Cryptography 14 Cryptography Cryptography (or cryptology. "hidden. -logia. Simple explanation of encryption and decryption methods Modern cryptography follows a strongly scientific approach. Alongside the advancement in cryptology-related technology. computer science. kryptos. The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. An example of such systems is the one-time pad. the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. and electrical engineering. and γράφειν. and electronic commerce. "writing". Applications of cryptography include ATM cards. A "cryptosystem" is the ordered list of elements of finite . from Greek κρυπτός. used in World War II to encrypt around computational hardness very-high-level general staff messages assumptions that are assumed hard to break by an adversary. secret". or -λογία. the practice has raised a number of legal issues. Since WWI and the advent of the computer. in other words. Terminology Until modern times cryptography referred almost exclusively to encryption. A cipher (or cypher) is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption and the reversing decryption. This is a secret parameter (ideally known only to the communicants) for a specific message exchange context.[2] Decryption is the reverse. Information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken exist but they are less practical than computationally-secure mechanisms. computer passwords. Such systems are not unbreakable in theory but it is infeasible to do so for any practical adversary. moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. which is the process of converting ordinary information (called plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (called ciphertext). . Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics. respectively)[1] is the practice and study of hiding information. the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. gráphin. The sender retained the ability to decrypt the information and therefore avoid unwanted persons being able to read it. "study". some of which remain unresolved. and designs cryptographic algorithms German Lorenz cipher machine. Cryptology prior to the modern age was almost synonymous with encryption.

Cryptography possible plaintexts, finite possible cyphertexts, finite possible keys, and the encryption and decryption algorithms which correspond to each key. Keys are important, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the cipher used and are therefore useless (or even counter-productive) for most purposes. Historically, ciphers were often used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. In colloquial use, the term "code" is often used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a more specific meaning. It means the replacement of a unit of plaintext (i.e., a meaningful word or phrase) with a code word (for example, wallaby replaces attack at dawn). Codes are no longer used in serious cryptography—except incidentally for such things as unit designations (e.g., Bronco Flight or Operation Overlord)—since properly chosen ciphers are both more practical and more secure than even the best codes and also are better adapted to computers. Cryptanalysis is the term used for the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the key normally required to do so; i.e., it is the study of how to crack encryption algorithms or their implementations. Some use the terms cryptography and cryptology interchangeably in English, while others (including US military practice generally) use cryptography to refer specifically to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and cryptology to refer to the combined study of cryptography and cryptanalysis.[3] [4] English is more flexible than several other languages in which cryptology (done by cryptologists) is always used in the second sense above. In the English Wikipedia the general term used for the entire field is cryptography (done by cryptographers). The study of characteristics of languages which have some application in cryptography (or cryptology), i.e. frequency data, letter combinations, universal patterns, etc., is called cryptolinguistics.


History of cryptography and cryptanalysis
Before the modern era, cryptography was concerned solely with message confidentiality (i.e., encryption)—conversion of messages from a comprehensible form into an incomprehensible one and back again at the other end, rendering it unreadable by interceptors or eavesdroppers without secret knowledge (namely the key needed for decryption of that message). Encryption was used to (attempt to) ensure secrecy in communications, such as those of spies, military leaders, and diplomats. In recent decades, the field has expanded beyond confidentiality concerns to include techniques for message integrity checking, sender/receiver identity authentication, digital signatures, interactive proofs and secure computation, among others.

Classic cryptography
The earliest forms of secret writing required little more than local pen and paper analogs, as most people could not read. More literacy, or literate opponents, required actual cryptography. The main classical cipher types are transposition ciphers, which rearrange the order of letters in a message (e.g., 'hello world' becomes 'ehlol owrdl' in a trivially simple rearrangement scheme), and substitution ciphers, which systematically replace letters or groups of letters with other letters or groups of letters (e.g., 'fly at once' becomes 'gmz bu podf' by replacing each letter with the one following it in the Latin alphabet). Simple versions of either have never offered much confidentiality from enterprising opponents. An early substitution cipher was the Caesar cipher, in which each letter in the plaintext was replaced by a letter

Reconstructed ancient Greek scytale (rhymes with "Italy"), an early cipher device

some fixed number of positions further down the alphabet. It was named after Julius Caesar who is reported to have used it, with a shift of 3, to communicate with his generals during his military campaigns, just like EXCESS-3 code

Cryptography in boolean algebra. There is record of several early Hebrew ciphers as well. The earliest known use of cryptography is some carved ciphertext on stone in Egypt (ca 1900 BC), but this may have been done for the amusement of literate observers. The next oldest is bakery recipes from Mesopotamia. Cryptography is recommended in the Kama Sutra as a way for lovers to communicate without inconvenient discovery.[5] The Greeks of Classical times are said to have known of ciphers (e.g., the scytale transposition cipher claimed to have been used by the Spartan military).[6] Steganography (i.e., hiding even the existence of a message so as to keep it confidential) was also first developed in ancient times. An early example, from Herodotus, concealed a message—a tattoo on a slave's shaved head—under the regrown hair.[2] Another Greek method was developed by Polybius (now called the "Polybius Square").[7] More modern examples of steganography include the use of invisible ink, microdots, and digital watermarks to conceal information. Ciphertexts produced by a classical cipher (and some modern ciphers) always reveal statistical information about the plaintext, which can often be used to break them. After the discovery of frequency analysis perhaps by the Arab mathematician and polymath, Al-Kindi (also known as Alkindus), in the 9th century, nearly all such ciphers became more or less readily breakable by any informed attacker. Such classical ciphers still enjoy popularity today, though mostly as puzzles (see cryptogram). Al-Kindi wrote a book on cryptography entitled Risalah fi Istikhraj al-Mu'amma (Manuscript for the Deciphering Cryptographic Messages), in which described the first cryptanalysis techniques, including some for polyalphabetic ciphers.[8] [9] Essentially all ciphers remained vulnerable to cryptanalysis using the frequency analysis technique until the development of the polyalphabetic cipher, most clearly by Leon Battista Alberti around the year 1467, though there is some indication that it was already known to Al-Kindi.[9] Alberti's innovation was to use different ciphers (i.e., substitution alphabets) for various parts of a message (perhaps for each successive plaintext letter at the limit). He also invented what was probably the first automatic cipher device, a wheel which implemented a partial realization of his invention. In the polyalphabetic Vigenère cipher, encryption uses a key word, which controls letter substitution depending on which letter of the key word is used. In the mid-19th century Charles Babbage showed that polyalphabetic ciphers of this type remained partially vulnerable to extended frequency analysis techniques.[2]


16th-century book-shaped French cipher machine, with arms of Henri II of France

Although frequency analysis is a powerful and general technique against many ciphers, encryption has still been often effective in practice; many a would-be cryptanalyst was unaware of the technique. Breaking a message Enciphered letter from Gabriel de Luetz without using frequency analysis essentially required knowledge of the cipher d'Aramon, French Ambassador to the used and perhaps of the key involved, thus making espionage, bribery, Ottoman Empire, after 1546, with partial burglary, defection, etc., more attractive approaches to the cryptanalytically decipherment uninformed. It was finally explicitly recognized in the 19th century that secrecy of a cipher's algorithm is not a sensible nor practical safeguard of message security; in fact, it was further realized that any adequate cryptographic scheme (including ciphers) should remain secure even if the adversary fully understands the cipher algorithm itself. Security of the key used should alone be sufficient for a good cipher to maintain confidentiality under an attack. This fundamental principle was first explicitly stated in 1883 by Auguste Kerckhoffs and is generally called Kerckhoffs' principle; alternatively and more bluntly, it was restated by Claude Shannon, the inventor of information theory and the fundamentals of theoretical cryptography, as Shannon's Maxim—'the enemy knows the system'. Different physical devices and aids have been used to assist with ciphers. One of the earliest may have been the scytale of ancient Greece, a rod supposedly used by the Spartans as an aid for a transposition cipher (see image

Cryptography above). In medieval times, other aids were invented such as the cipher grille, which was also used for a kind of steganography. With the invention of polyalphabetic ciphers came more sophisticated aids such as Alberti's own cipher disk, Johannes Trithemius' tabula recta scheme, and Thomas Jefferson's multi-cylinder (not publicly known, and reinvented independently by Bazeries around 1900). Many mechanical encryption/decryption devices were invented early in the 20th century, and several patented, among them rotor machines—famously including the Enigma machine used by the German government and military from the late '20s and during World War II.[10] The ciphers implemented by better quality examples of these machine designs brought about a substantial increase in cryptanalytic difficulty after WWI.[11]


The computer era
The development of digital computers and electronics after WWII made possible much more complex ciphers. Furthermore, computers allowed for the encryption of any kind of data representable in any binary format, unlike classical ciphers which only encrypted written language texts; this was new and significant. Computer use has thus supplanted linguistic cryptography, both for cipher design and cryptanalysis. Many computer ciphers can be characterized by their operation on binary bit sequences (sometimes in groups or blocks), unlike classical and mechanical schemes, which generally manipulate traditional characters (i.e., letters and digits) directly. However, computers have also assisted cryptanalysis, which has compensated to some extent for increased cipher complexity. Nonetheless, good modern ciphers have stayed ahead of cryptanalysis; it is typically the case that use of a quality cipher is very efficient (i.e., fast and requiring few resources, such as memory or CPU capability), while breaking it requires an effort many orders of magnitude larger, and vastly larger than that required for any classical cipher, making cryptanalysis so inefficient and impractical as to be effectively impossible. Alternate methods of attack (bribery, burglary, threat, torture, ...) have become more attractive in consequence. Extensive open academic research into cryptography is relatively recent; it began only in the mid-1970s. In recent times, IBM personnel designed the algorithm that became the Federal (i.e., US) Data Encryption Standard; Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published their key agreement algorithm,;[12] and the RSA algorithm was published in Martin Gardner's Scientific American column. Since then, cryptography has become a widely used tool in communications, computer networks, and computer security generally. Some modern cryptographic techniques can only keep their keys secret if certain mathematical problems are intractable, such as the integer factorization or the discrete Credit card with smart-card capabilities. The 3-by-5-mm chip embedded in the card is shown, logarithm problems, so there are deep connections with abstract enlarged. Smart cards combine low cost and portability mathematics. There are no absolute proofs that a cryptographic with the power to compute cryptographic algorithms. technique is secure (but see one-time pad); at best, there are proofs that some techniques are secure if some computational problem is difficult to solve, or this or that assumption about implementation or practical use is met. As well as being aware of cryptographic history, cryptographic algorithm and system designers must also sensibly consider probable future developments while working on their designs. For instance, continuous improvements in computer processing power have increased the scope of brute-force attacks, thus when specifying key lengths, the required key lengths are similarly advancing. The potential effects of quantum computing are already being considered by some cryptographic system designers; the announced imminence of small implementations of these machines may be making the need for this preemptive caution rather more than merely speculative.[13] Essentially, prior to the early 20th century, cryptography was chiefly concerned with linguistic and lexicographic patterns. Since then the emphasis has shifted, and cryptography now makes extensive use of mathematics, including

Cryptography is. some method of knitting together successive blocks is required. with considerable variation in quality. and malevolent opposition (see cryptographic engineering and security engineering). from ATM encryption[15] to e-mail privacy[16] and secure remote access. They take a message of any length as input. RC4 is a widely used stream cipher. There is also active research examining the relationship between cryptographic problems and quantum physics (see quantum cryptography and quantum computing). Despite its deprecation as an official standard. and output a short.[13] [18] Stream ciphers. less commonly. some with better security in one aspect or another than others. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) are block cipher designs which have been designated One round (out of 8.[13] Block ciphers can be used as stream ciphers. an attacker cannot find two messages that produce the same hash. is also widely used but broken in practice. which is combined with the plaintext bit-by-bit or character-by-character. also. but related in an easily computable way).S. Since messages are almost always longer than a single block. combinatorics. Several have been developed. computational complexity. it is used across a wide range of applications.[12] The modern study of symmetric-key ciphers relates mainly to the study of block ciphers and stream ciphers and to their applications. somewhat like the one-time pad. for instance. but cryptanalysts .g. create an arbitrarily long stream of key material.. The chief ones are discussed here. in which their keys are different. The U. and output a block of ciphertext of the same size. intelligent. in contrast to the 'block' type. a branch of engineering. a modern embodiment of Alberti's polyalphabetic cipher: block ciphers take as input a block of plaintext and a key. used in some versions of PGP for cryptography standards by the US government (though DES's [14] high-speed encryption of. statistics. Many have been thoroughly broken. see Category:Stream ciphers. DES (especially its still-approved and much more secure triple-DES variant) remains quite popular. other kinds of engineering (e. see Topics in Cryptography for more. in a sense. see Block cipher modes of operation. SHA-1 is widely deployed and more secure than MD5. e-mail designation was finally withdrawn after the AES was adopted). MD5. abstract algebra. fixed length hash which can be used in (for example) a digital signature. In a stream cipher. a strengthened variant of MD4. number theory.5) of the patented IDEA cipher.Cryptography aspects of information theory. but an unusual one as it deals with active. Cryptographic hash functions are a third type of cryptographic algorithm. For good hash functions. This was the only kind of encryption publicly known until June 1976. National Security Agency developed the Secure Hash Algorithm series of MD5-like hash functions: SHA-0 was a flawed algorithm that the agency withdrew. They are the modes of operation and must be carefully considered when using a block cipher in a cryptosystem.[17] Many other block ciphers have been designed and released. civil or chemical engineering) need deal only with neutral natural forces. and finite mathematics generally. Symmetric-key cryptography Symmetric-key cryptography refers to encryption methods in which both the sender and receiver share the same key (or. A block cipher is. the output stream is created based on a hidden internal state which changes as the cipher operates. That internal state is initially set up using the secret key material. MD4 is a long-used hash function which is now broken. 18 Modern cryptography The modern field of cryptography can be divided into several areas of study. see Category:Block ciphers.

The public key is typically used for encryption. Others include the Cramer–Shoup cryptosystem. to be called SHA-3. more generally. except that a secret key can be used to authenticate the hash value[13] upon receipt. Ellis at GCHQ. Williamson and Clifford Cocks.[12] In 1978. Instead. respectively). also presents a chicken-and-egg problem which is a considerable practical obstacle for cryptography users in the real world. while its paired private key must remain secret. The difficulty of securely establishing a secret key between two communicating parties.[21] The historian David Kahn described public-key cryptography as "the most revolutionary new concept in the field since polyalphabetic substitution emerged in the Renaissance". as an interrelated pair. share a different key. and perhaps each ciphertext exchanged as well. both the Diffie–Hellman and RSA algorithms had been previously developed (by Malcolm J. standards authority thought it "prudent" from a security perspective to develop a new standard to "significantly improve the robustness of NIST's overall hash algorithm toolkit. and various elliptic curve techniques. though a message or group of messages may have a different key than others. which very quickly requires complex key management schemes to keep them all straight and secret. See Category:Asymmetric-key cryptosystems. In a groundbreaking 1976 paper. but it isn't yet widely deployed. a British intelligence organization. The number of keys required increases as the square of the number of network members.S. and the U. in addition to being the first publicly known examples of high quality public-key algorithms. national standard. . Diffie and Hellman showed that public-key cryptography was possible by presenting the Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol.S.[23] In 1997. another public-key system. Adi Shamir. A significant disadvantage of symmetric ciphers is the key management necessary to use them securely. ideally.Cryptography have identified attacks against it. the SHA-2 family improves on SHA-1. when a secure channel does not already exist between them. Each distinct pair of communicating parties must.[20] A public key system is so constructed that calculation of one key (the 'private key') is computationally infeasible from the other (the 'public key'). have been among the most widely used. the public key may be freely distributed. by 2012. in the early 1970s. a hash function design competition is underway and meant to select a new U. it finally became publicly known that asymmetric key cryptography had been invented by James H. and Len Adleman invented RSA.[24] The Diffie–Hellman and RSA algorithms."[19] Thus. even though they are necessarily related. authors of the first published paper on public-key cryptography In public-key cryptosystems. while the private or secret key is used for decryption. called asymmetric key) cryptography in which two different but mathematically related keys are used—a public key and a private key. ElGamal encryption. both keys are generated secretly. Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman proposed the notion of public-key (also. Message authentication codes (MACs) are much like cryptographic hash functions. 19 Public-key cryptography Symmetric-key cryptosystems use the same key for encryption and decryption of a message.[22] Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Ronald Rivest. and that.

In digital signature schemes. they cannot then be 'moved' from one document to another.g. hybrid signature schemes are often used. public-key cryptography can be used to implement digital signature schemes. message (or a hash of the message.Cryptography 20 In addition to encryption. and one for verification. Because of the difficulty of the underlying problems. signatures can also be permanently tied to the content of the message being However. especially with typical key sizes. the hardness of RSA is related to the integer factorization problem. RSA and DSA are two of the most popular digital signature schemes. in which a fast high-quality symmetric-key encryption algorithm is used for the message itself. and only the resulting hash is digitally signed. Digital signatures are central to the operation of public key infrastructures and many network security schemes (e. SSL/TLS. any subverted browser might attempt will be detectable. which are much more computationally expensive than the techniques used in most block ciphers. for any security. they both have the characteristic that they are easy Padlock icon from the Firefox Web browser. many VPNs. in which a cryptographic hash function is computed.. while Diffie–Hellman and DSA are related to the discrete logarithm problem. in which the matching public key is used with the message to check the validity of the signature. As a result. for a user to produce. while the relevant symmetric key is sent with the message. but difficult for anyone else to forge. Similarly. but encrypted using a public-key algorithm. there are two mislead a user by displaying such an icon algorithms: one for signing.). public-key cryptosystems are commonly hybrid cryptosystems. More recently. etc. most public-key algorithms involve operations such as modular multiplication and exponentiation. Digital meant to indicate a page has been sent in SSL or TLS-encrypted protected form. A digital signature is reminiscent of an ordinary signature. elliptic curve cryptography has developed in which security is based on number theoretic problems involving elliptic curves. in which a secret key is used to process the when a transmission is not actually being protected by SSL or TLS. such an icon is not a guarantee of signed. often from number theory.[13] . or both). For example.[18] Public-key algorithms are most often based on the computational complexity of "hard" problems.

the cryptanalyst may be able to choose ciphertexts and learn their corresponding plaintexts. This means it must be shown that no efficient method (as opposed to the time-consuming brute force method) can be found to break the cipher. Since no such showing can be made currently. was important to Allied victory. "work factor".e. see Cryptanalysis of the Enigma for some historical examples of this). In a ciphertext-only attack. Breaking and reading of the Enigma cipher at Poland's Cipher Bureau. as compared to the effort needed to use the cipher. are mistakes (generally in the design or use of one of the protocols involved. A common distinction turns on what an attacker knows and what capabilities are available. the cryptanalyst has access only to the ciphertext (good modern cryptosystems are usually effectively immune to ciphertext-only attacks). used by Germany's military and civil authorities from the late 1920s through World War II. can be broken with enough computational effort by brute force attack. the cryptanalyst has access to a ciphertext and its corresponding plaintext (or to many such pairs). an example is gardening. and they can be classified in any of several ways. for 7 years before the war. and of equal or greater length than the message. implemented a complex electro-mechanical polyalphabetic cipher. the cryptanalyst may choose a plaintext and learn its corresponding ciphertext (perhaps many times).Cryptography 21 Cryptanalysis The goal of cryptanalysis is to find some weakness or insecurity in a cryptographic scheme. Claude Shannon proved that the one-time pad cipher is unbreakable. kept secret from all possible attackers. apart from the one-time pad. in a chosen-ciphertext attack. in Shannon's terms) is beyond the ability of any adversary. It is a common misconception that every encryption method can be broken. In a known-plaintext attack. never reused. In connection with his WWII work at Bell Labs. but the amount of effort needed may be exponentially dependent on the key size. In such cases. and subsequent decryption at [2] Bletchley Park. Finally. used by the British during WWII. provided the key material is truly random. effective security could be achieved if it is proven that the effort required (i. In a chosen-plaintext attack. Variants of the Enigma machine.[25] Most ciphers.[13] Also important. as of today.. . often overwhelmingly so. There are a wide variety of cryptanalytic attacks. thus permitting its subversion or evasion. the one-time-pad remains the only theoretically unbreakable cipher.

will make any system vulnerable. Note however. While pure cryptanalysis uses weaknesses in the algorithms themselves. blackmail. Thus. trying approximately half of the possible keys. other attacks on cryptosystems are based on actual use of the algorithms in real devices. other things being equal. such as permitting too short keys. factoring-based encryption techniques must use larger keys than elliptic curve techniques. and sometimes a primitive. in a practical time). and other attacks against the personnel who work with cryptosystems or the messages they handle (e. the RSA algorithm is based on a problem related to integer factoring).[27] and can be quite useful to an alert adversary. altered the course of World War II Public-key algorithms are based on the computational difficulty of various problems.e. If a cryptanalyst has access to.. the best known algorithms for solving the elliptic curve-based version of discrete logarithm are much more time-consuming than the best known algorithms for factoring. the amount of time the device took to encrypt a number of plaintexts or report an error in a password or PIN character. Much public-key cryptanalysis concerns numerical algorithms for solving these computational problems. For instance. but the discrete logarithm problem is also important. beginning in 1932. The most famous of these is integer factorization (e. and are called side-channel attacks. which are used to develop more complex tools called cryptosystems or cryptographic protocols. is quite arbitrary. For this reason.. Poznań monument (center) to Polish cryptologists whose breaking of Germany's Enigma machine ciphers.Cryptography 22 Cryptanalysis of symmetric-key ciphers typically involves looking for attacks against the block ciphers or stream ciphers that are more efficient than any attack that could be against a perfect cipher. that the distinction between cryptographic primitives and cryptosystems. More complicated cryptographic tools are then built from these basic primitives. These primitives provide fundamental properties. But this may not be enough assurance. to reach a point at which chances are better than even the key sought will have been found. social engineering. torture.. for example. bribery. of course. Poor administration of a cryptosystem.. a linear cryptanalysis attack against DES requires 243 known plaintexts and approximately 243 DES operations.g. . espionage. one-way functions. regardless of other virtues.g. For example. etc. a simple brute force attack against DES requires one known plaintext and 255 decryptions. this is known as traffic analysis. public-key cryptosystems based on elliptic curves have become popular since their invention in the mid-1990s. or some of them. at least for problems of more or less equivalent size. to achieve an equivalent strength of attack resistance. which guarantee one or more high-level security properties.) may be the most productive attacks of all. Cryptographic primitives Much of the theoretical work in cryptography concerns cryptographic primitives—algorithms with basic cryptographic properties—and their relationship to other cryptographic problems.. An attacker might also study the pattern and length of messages to derive valuable information.[26] This is a considerable improvement on brute force attacks. And. for example. extortion. Typical examples of cryptographic primitives include pseudorandom functions. efficiently (i. the RSA algorithm is sometimes considered a cryptosystem. . he may be able to use a timing attack to break a cipher that is otherwise resistant to analysis.

In some countries. public key encryption) while guaranteeing certain security properties (e. Actually secret communications may be criminal or even treasonous. systems for secret sharing. to any adversary). Some more 'theoretical' cryptosystems include interactive proof systems. Of course. After World War II. it was illegal in the US to sell or distribute encryption technology overseas. One particularly important issue has been the export of cryptography and cryptographic software and hardware. as the distinction between primitives and cryptosystems is somewhat arbitrary.[29] (like zero-knowledge proofs. Cryptosystems use the properties of the underlying cryptographic primitives to support the system's security properties. cryptography is legal for domestic use. Such cryptosystems are sometimes called cryptographic protocols.g.[34] Until the development of the personal computer. and Vietnam. PGP. asymmetric key algorithms (i. or using ad hoc reasoning. high quality encryption techniques became well-known around the globe. etc.. More complex cryptosystems include electronic cash[28] systems. in fact. In China. a sophisticated cryptosystem can be derived from a combination of several more primitive cryptosystems.g.[31] [32] etc. Until 1999. Schnorr signature. .e. Probably because of the importance of cryptanalysis in World War II and an expectation that cryptography would continue to be important for national security. and the diminution of privacy attendant on its prohibition..Cryptography 23 Cryptosystems One or more cryptographic primitives are often used to develop a more complex algorithm. as the Internet grew and computers became more widely available. Among the more restrictive are laws in Belarus. the cryptosystem's structure involves back and forth communication among two or more parties in space (e. Singapore. most security properties of most cryptosystems were demonstrated using empirical techniques.g..[33] In the United States. but there has been much conflict over legal issues related to cryptography. between the sender of a secure message and its receiver) or across time (e. this was not especially problematic. there has been a history of controversial legal issues surrounding cryptography. those whose communications are open to inspection may be less likely to be either. El-Gamal encryption) are designed to provide particular functionality (e. Because of its facilitation of privacy. see: Cryptographic engineering and Security engineering. Kazakhstan.[30] ). Many countries have tight restrictions on the use of cryptography. restricted.. at some point. this has been generally called provable security. and the Internet. public key techniques). El-Gamal encryption. chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) security in the random oracle model). Tunisia. cryptography is also of considerable interest to civil rights supporters. Accordingly. called a cryptographic system.g. Pakistan.e. cryptographically protected backup data). a license is still required to use cryptography. In many cases. many Western governments have. even the domestic use of cryptography is. signcryption systems. Mongolia. or cryptosystem. France significantly restricted the use of cryptography domestically. Cryptosystems (e. Some widely known cryptosystems include RSA encryption. As a result. or has been. there has been considerable effort to develop formal techniques for establishing the security of cryptosystems. export controls came to be seen to be an impediment to commerce and to research. Recently. though it has relaxed many of these. The general idea of provable security is to give arguments about the computational difficulty needed to compromise some security aspect of the cryptosystem (i. Until recently. especially since the advent of inexpensive computers has made widespread access to high quality cryptography possible. encryption was designated as auxiliary military equipment and put on the United States Munitions List. Legal issues Prohibitions Cryptography has long been of interest to intelligence gathering and law enforcement agencies. However.g. strictly regulated export of cryptography. etc. The study of how best to implement and integrate cryptography in software applications is itself a distinct field.

so even when such laws are in force. The whole initiative was also criticized based on its violation of Kerckhoffs' principle. that became publicly known only when it was rediscovered in the late 1980s. Clipper was widely criticized by cryptographers for two reasons. The Mozilla Thunderbird and Microsoft Outlook E-mail client programs similarly can connect to IMAP or POP servers via TLS. together with its source code. etc.[36] . an encryption microchip intended to be part of the Capstone cryptography-control initiative. actual enforcement is often effectively impossible. and found its way onto the Internet in June 1991. One involved Philip Zimmermann's Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption program. as the scheme included a special escrow key held by the government for use by law enforcement. thirty-nine countries signed the Wassenaar Arrangement.[35] [36] Also. then a graduate student at UC Berkeley. Another instance of NSA's involvement was the 1993 Clipper chip affair.[37] In 1996. or RSADSI). when using sufficiently long keys with properly operating and unsubverted software. The secret cipher caused concerns that NSA had deliberately made the cipher weak in order to assist its intelligence efforts. for example in wiretaps. it was released in the US. 512-bit for RSA) would no longer be export-controlled. The technique became publicly known only when Biham and Shamir re-rediscovered and announced it some years later. The entire affair illustrates the difficulty of determining what resources and knowledge an attacker might actually have.Cryptography 24 Export controls In the 1990s. almost every Internet user worldwide has access to quality cryptography (i. everywhere in the world. The cipher algorithm was then classified (the cipher. and because almost every personal computer connected to the Internet.[42] but kept the technique secret at NSA's request.. The treaty stipulated that the use of cryptography with short key-lengths (56-bit for symmetric encryption. Daniel Bernstein. since the relaxation in US export restrictions. examples are Transport Layer Security or SSL stack. Zimmermann was criminally investigated by the Customs Service and the FBI for several years. No charges were ever filed. NSA was involved with the design of DES during its development at IBM and its consideration by the National Bureau of Standards as a possible Federal Standard for cryptography.[38] Cryptography exports from the US are now much less strictly regulated than in the past as a consequence of a major relaxation in 2000.[41] According to Steven Levy. NSA involvement Another contentious issue connected to cryptography in the United States is the influence of the National Security Agency on cipher development and policy. After a complaint by RSA Security (then called RSA Data Security. Many Internet users don't realize that their basic application software contains such extensive cryptosystems. there were several challenges to US export regulations of cryptography.[40] a powerful and general cryptanalytic technique known to NSA and IBM.) in their browsers. The 1995 case Bernstein v. United States ultimately resulted in a 1999 decision that printed source code for cryptographic algorithms and systems was protected as free speech by the United States Constitution. however. Inc. In practice today. IBM rediscovered differential cryptanalysis. includes US-sourced web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft Internet Explorer.e. an arms control treaty that deals with the export of arms and "dual-use" technologies such as cryptography.. called Skipjack.[33] there are no longer very many restrictions on key sizes in US-exported mass-market software. and can send and receive email encrypted with S/MIME. brought a lawsuit against the US government challenging some aspects of the restrictions based on free speech grounds.[39] DES was designed to be resistant to differential cryptanalysis. though it was declassified in 1998 long after the Clipper initiative lapsed). These browsers and email programs are so ubiquitous that even governments whose intent is to regulate civilian use of cryptography generally don't find it practical to do much to control distribution or use of cryptography of this quality.

Cryptography 25 Digital rights management Cryptography is central to digital rights management (DRM). Similar statutes have since been enacted in several countries and regions. [6] V. where the work was legal. 151 (fall 1979). July 2004 [18] Bruce Schneier. pp109–112. gov/ publications/ fips/ fips197/ fips-197.. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-8218-2986-6 [7] A Short History of Cryptography. remains a controversial one. 2001. which criminalized all production.Open PGP Message Format [17] SSH at windowsecurity. com/ articles/ SSH. google. Retrieved 2008-02-01. 1976. pdf). the cryptographic keys responsible for Blu-ray and HD DVD content scrambling were discovered and released onto the Internet. Al-Kadi (April 1992). and jailed for five months pending trial for alleged violations of the DMCA arising from work he had done in Russia. Applied Cryptography.6. or might violate. "Cryptology Goes Public". ( pdf (http:/ / citeseer. 2001. but the law. and Hellman has suggested that the term used should be Diffie–Hellman–Merkle aysmmetric key cryptography.C. June 8. PC van Oorschot. a well-respected cryptography researcher. Burton. and there was a massive internet backlash triggered by the perceived impact of such notices on fair use and free speech. Sir Richard F. In 2007. Cryptologia 16 (2): 97–126 [10] Hakim. ISBN 0-684-83130-9.). net/ books/ ip/ Chap2-1. The Code Book. 58 Foreign Affairs 141. Stealing Secrets. html) by Pawel Golen. archive. Oded Goldreich. csrc. Fred Cohen 1995. cs. "New Directions in Cryptography". Dmitry Sklyarov was arrested during a visit to the US from Russia. Brassey's. Joy (1995). edu/ cache/ papers/ cs/ 16749/ http:zSzzSzwww. V. and SA Vanstone. vol. Peace and all that Jazz. math. . [21] Ralph Merkle was working on similar ideas at the time and encountered publication delays. pp. those that could be used to circumvent DRM technological schemes. In 1998. . Both Alan Cox (longtime number 2 in Linux kernel development) and Professor Edward Felten (and some of his students at Princeton) have encountered problems related to the Act. the MPAA sent out numerous DMCA takedown notices. 14-20 [9] Ibrahim A. uwaterloo. Volume 1: Basic Tools. 44th and 45th arts. being widely implemented and deployed at the behest of some copyright holders. specifically. pdf)) [13] AJ Menezes. ISBN 0-471-11709-9. including the implementation in the EU Copyright Directive. (1984) David Kahn. ISBN 0-521-79172-3 "Cryptology (definition)" (http:/ / www. The Codebreakers. dissemination. In both cases. [5] Kama Sutra. eduzSz~tdnguyenzSzclasseszSzcs671zSzpresentationszSzArvind-NEWDIRS. "Multi-user cryptographic techniques" [Diffie and Hellman. merriam-webster.340126. AFIPS Proceedings 45. Nov. 1967. html) [8] Simon Singh. ca/ hac/ ) ISBN 0-8493-8523-7. Part I. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th edition ed. com/ books?id=cH-NGrpcIMcC& pg=PA6& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". org/ web/ 20050307081354/ www. Similar restrictions are called for by treaties signed by World Intellectual Property Organization member-states. New York: Oxford University Press. ncua.[43] This had a noticeable impact on the cryptography research community since an argument can be made that any cryptanalytic research violated. D. windowsecurity.0. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.Download/ http:/ / citeseer. Telling Lies: How Spies and Codebreakers Helped Shape the Twentieth Century. com/ dictionary/ cryptology). translator. nonetheless. AMS Bookstore.1. [15] NCUA letter to credit unions (http:/ / www. IT-22. 153. Chapter III. 1996. pdf) [20] Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. [22] David Kahn. [12] Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. p. 25. nist. 2nd edition. psu. References [1] [2] [3] [4] Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. " Cryptography: an introduction (http:/ / books. ist. Niels Ferguson. gov/ groups/ ST/ hash/ documents/ FR_Notice_Nov07. The United States Department of Justice and FBI have not enforced the DMCA as rigorously as had been feared by some. I︠A︡shchenko (2002). and use of certain cryptanalytic techniques and technology (now known or later discovered). has publicly stated[44] that he will not release some of his research into an Intel security design for fear of prosecution under the DMCA. cacr. Wiley. psu. pdf). ist. "The origins of cryptology: The Arab contributions”. A History of Us: War. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. pp: 644– (http:/ / www. July 2004 [16] RFC 2440 . ISBN 1-57488-367-4. [14] FIPS PUB 197: The official Advanced Encryption Standard (http:/ / www. Foundations of Cryptography. [11] James Gannon. rutgers. pdf/ diffie76new. a group of techniques for technologically controlling use of copyrighted material. [19] National Institute of Standards and Technology (http:/ / csrc. Washington. the DMCA. p. retrieved 8 June 2010 (http:/ / all. Oxford University Press. nist. Handbook of Applied Cryptography (http:/ / web. gov/ letters/ 2004/ 04-CU-09. 1976]. Merriam-Webster. American President Bill Clinton signed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). edu/ rd/ 86197922.

cz/ usr/ matyas/ lecture/ paper2.html). 18. "Untraceable Off-line Cash in Wallets with Observers" (http:/ / scholar. [36] Levy. "Differential cryptanalysis of DES-like cryptosystems" (http:/ / scholar. [33] RSA Laboratories' Frequently Asked Questions About Today's Cryptography (http:/ / www. Brassey' [25] "Shannon": Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. pdf/ junod01complexity. Excellent coverage of many classical ciphers and cryptography concepts and of the "modern" DES and RSA systems. html#DES) from Bruce Schneier's CryptoGram newsletter. Shamir. psu. wassenaar. ist. 1978.wisdom. ISBN 0-632-01836-4. archive. IBM Journal of Research and Development 38 (3): 243. volume 22. • In Code: A Mathematical Journey by Sarah Flannery (with David Flannery). gz). ACM. Stealing Secrets. com/ rsalabs/ node. orgzSz2001zSz056. Aldrich. D. SIAM J. psu. 56. edu/ cache/ papers/ cs/ 22094/ http:zSzzSzeprint. google.. [38] The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (http:/ / www. 20 November 1973 (http:/ / www. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Previously released as an MIT "Technical Memo" in April 1977. html 26 Further reading • Richard J. ISBN 0-252-72548-4 [26] Pascal Junod. "Trading group theory for randomness" (http:/ / portal. [31] G. Biham and A. 56 [43] Digital Millennium Copyright Act (http:/ / www. OCLC 16832704. org/ Cipher/ Newsbriefs/ 1996/ 960214. edu/ cache/ papers/ cs/ 22094/ http:zSzzSzeprint. muni. [41] E. pdf). CESG Research Report.cryptool. A. orgzSz2001zSz056.1147/rd. 2001. html). Shamir. . and published in Martin Gardner's Scientific American Mathematical recreations column [24] Clifford Cocks. pdf). google. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on the Theory of Computing. [27] Dawn Song. July 2010. June 15. Shamir. 1989. volume 48. 1. html) [39] "The Data Encryption Standard (DES)" (http:/ / www. kde. acm. se. Rackoff. ieee-security. copyright. ISBN 1-57488-367-4. pdf) [44] http:/ / www.Cryptography [23] R. University of Illinois Press. 1. mit. pp. com/ url?sa=U& q=http:/ / ftp. GCHQ: The Uncensored Story of Britain's Most Secret Intelligence Agency. vol. edu/ ~rivest/ rsapaper. Foundations of Cryptography (http://www. cfm?id=22192). "Safeguarding cryptographic keys. research. zimmerman. [37] Bernstein v USDOJ (http:/ / www. p. Computing. "Timing Analysis of Keystrokes and Timing Attacks on SSH" (http:/ / citeseer. schneier. springerlink. ist. Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government—Saving Privacy in the Digital Age. rsasecurity. co-written with her father. pp. com/ journal/ rd/ 383/ coppersmith. org/ crypto/ export_controls/ bernstein_decision_9_cir. num. Goldwasser. and Xuqing Tian. 4 num. "How to share a secret. org/ pub/ security/ docs/ ecash/ crypto93. • Oded Goldreich. cyberlaw." In Proceedings of AFIPS 1979. In Tenth USENIX Security • James Gannon. part of the free open-source package CrypTool. doi:10. Washington.weizmann. vol. Journal of Cryptology. fi. "The Data Encryption Standard (DES) and its strength against attacks" (http:/ / www. [29] László Babai. Popular account of Sarah's award-winning project on public-key cryptography. David Wagner. 1985. . pdf/ junod01complexity. A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems (http:/ / theory. (May 1994). org/ citation. pp. 1963. 1994. 1991. 1979. D. Steven (2001). pp. pp. 612–613. Adleman. lcs. 200 pages. S. 2000 [40] Coppersmith. OCLC 244148644 48066852 48846639. com/ cylw1095. macfergus. pg. ibm. com/ index/ K54H077NP8714058. pdf). • Becket. 313–317. Micali. SAC 2001. June 1979. 21 (2). [42] Levy. A Note on 'Non-Secret Encryption'. com/ niels/ dmca/ cia. Telling Lies: How Spies and Codebreakers Helped Shape the Twentieth Century. Brands. press note from the IEEE. Springer-Verlag. [28] S. Cambridge University Press. Blakley. org/ web/ 20051201184530/ http:/ / www.pdf). in two volumes. and C. 3–72.120–126. 2001. PDF download (https://www. Springer-Verlag. org/ guidelines/ index. html). iacr. Vol. HarperCollins. Penguin Books. pdf) (PDF). html) from Cyberlaw [35] "Case Closed on Zimmermann PGP Investigation" (http:/ / www. asp?id=2152) [34] Cryptography & Speech (http:/ / web. Blackwell Scientific Publications. [32] A." In Communications of the ACM. Communications of the ACM. pdf). Introduction to Cryptology. L. 186–208. gov/ legislation/ dmca. ACM. [30] S. ps. ISBN 0-14-024432-8. iacr.0243. "On the Complexity of Matsui's Attack" (http:/ / citeseer. • Cryptography and Mathematics by Bernhard Esslinger. Rivest. com/ crypto-gram-0006. pdf). In Advances in Cryptology—Proceedings of CRYPTO. com/ url?sa=U& q=http:/ / www. 2001 and 2004. 9th Circuit court of appeals decision. B (1988). "The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems".

pdf) by Raphael Pass and Abhi Shelat. and S. Menezes. P. 27 External links • Free on-line course in cryptography (http://www.ucdavis.. WW2 Enigma cryptanalysis figures into the story. PDF download (http://www. and "The Origins of Cryptology: the Arab Contributions.uwaterloo. Menezes. C. Vanstone CRC Press. vol.cs.cacr.rsasecurity. Springer.Cryptography • Introduction to Modern Cryptography (http://www. • NSA's CryptoKids ( J.html) by Jonathan Katz and Yehuda Lindell. P.rub. 1st Edition ISBN 978-1-907934-01-8.attackprevention. ( listen now (http:/ /www. though not always realistically). video lectures and other information are available on the web by A. no.cacr. A complete course in cryptography offered at Cornell in the form of lecture • "DNA computing and cryptology: the future for Basel in Switzerland?" (http://www.nsa.umd. Discrete Mathematics for Cryptography. vigilant/lectures/gchq) • A Course in Cryptography ( (Slides. by by Christof Paar. . Jan Pelzl. (PDF download available). A Textbook for Students and Practitioners. pp.cornell. • Alvin's Secret Code by Clifford B. • Johann-Christoph Woltag.basel-research. • Overview and Applications of Cryptology (http://www.crypt mini-FAQ (http://www. 2 (April 1992).htm) • GCHQ: Britain's Most Secret Intelligence Agency (http://www2.cryptool. somewhat more mathematical than Schneier's • Crypto Glossary and Dictionary of Technical Cryptography (http://ciphersbyritter. van Oorschot. and rsalabs/ 2009.cs. giving an overview of international law issues regarding cryptography. A. two semesters in English and German (klick on "On-line course").html).math.uwaterloo. • Ibrahim A. Resource for Cryptography Whitepapers. • Cryptography: The Ancient Art of Secret Messages (http://www.warwick.cryptography-textbook. * "Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law" ( van Oorschot. ( • Attack/Prevention (http://www. • Cryptonomicon by Neal Stephenson (novel. • Handbook of Applied Cryptography (http://www. edu/~rogaway/classes/227/spring05/book/main. Vanstone (PDF download available).eu.cs. Understanding Cryptography. • Christof Paar (http://www." on In Our Time at the BBC.) Very accessible introduction to practical cryptography for non-mathematicians. a mathematical introduction to theoretical cryptography including reduction-based security proofs. site also contains a comprehensive set of cryptography slides • Cryptography ( by Monica Pawlan .pdf) by the CrypTool Team. A.pdf).bbc.cryptography-textbook. 'Coded Communications (Encryption)' in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed) Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press 2009). Hicks (children's novel that introduces some basic cryptography and cryptanalysis). Videos. • Introduction to Modern Cryptography by Phillip Rogaway and Mihir Bellare.asp?id=2152) • sci.February 1998 • Handbook of Applied Cryptography (http://www.8 MB—July 2008 • RSA Laboratories' frequently asked questions about today's cryptography (http://www. 97–126.mpepil. • Jonathan Arbib & John Dwyer. somewhat more mathematical than Schneier's Applied Cryptography.

.e. For example. for some technical definition of "simple". which assigns a part of speech to each word in an input sentence). this means being as simple as possible. which assigns a class to each member of a sequence of values (for example. and generalize as well as possible to new data (usually. and methods for manipulating vectors in vector spaces can be correspondingly applied to them. ethology. determine whether a given email is "spam" or "non-spam"). or a blood type of "A". which assigns a real-valued output to each input. the unsupervised equivalent of classification is normally known as clustering. which together constitute a description of all known characteristics of the instance. on the other hand. the distance between instances. carefully tailored patterns) can sometimes succeed in providing similar-quality output to the sort provided by pattern-recognition algorithms. such as computing the dot product or the angle between two vectors. the data to be labeled is the training data. The instance is formally described by a vector of features. psychiatry. in accordance with Occam's Razor). according to some specific algorithm. An example of pattern recognition is classification. Other examples are regression. This is opposed to pattern matching algorithms. considered as vectors in a multi-dimensional vector space).g. However. in community ecology. in other words. A learning procedure then generates a model that attempts to meet two sometimes conflicting objectives: Perform as well as possible on the training data. features are either categorical (also known as nominal. and attempts to find inherent patterns in the data that can then be used to determine the correct output value for new data instances. Note that sometimes different terms are used to describe the corresponding supervised and unsupervised learning procedures for the same type of output. In contrast to pattern recognition. Overview Pattern recognition is generally categorized according to the type of learning procedure used to generate the output value. A combination of the two that has recently been explored is semi-supervised learning. although pattern-matching algorithms (especially with fairly general.) Typically. cognitive science and computer science. Pattern recognition is studied in many fields. which uses a combination of labeled and unlabeled data (typically a small set of labeled data combined with a large amount of unlabeled data). Unsupervised learning. Note also that in some fields. and of grouping the input data into clusters based on some inherent similarity measure (e. the term "classification" is used to refer to what is commonly known as "clustering". Note that in cases of unsupervised learning. there may be no training data at all to speak of. sequence labeling. consisting of a set of instances that have been properly labeled by hand with the correct output. Supervised learning assumes that a set of training data (the training set) has been provided. such as a gender of "male" or "female". which assigns a parse tree to an input sentence. (These feature vectors can be seen as defining points in an appropriate multidimensional space. the terminology is different: For example. rather than assigning each input instance into one of a set of pre-defined classes. The piece of input data for which an output value is generated is formally termed an instance. pattern recognition is the assignment of some sort of output value (or label) to a given input value (or instance). which looks for patterns of a given sort in textual data and is included in the search capabilities of many text editors and word processors. "B". pattern recognition is a more general problem that encompasses other types of output as well. A common example of a pattern-matching algorithm is regular expression matching. which attempts to assign each input value to one of a given set of classes (for example. part of speech tagging. i. Pattern recognition algorithms generally aim to provide a reasonable answer for all possible inputs and to do "fuzzy" matching of inputs. describing the syntactic structure of the sentence. assumes training data that has not been hand-labeled. pattern matching is generally not considered a type of machine learning. including psychology. based on the common perception of the task as involving no training data to speak of.Pattern recognition 28 Pattern recognition In machine learning. and parsing. which look for exact matches in the input with pre-existing patterns. consisting of one of a set of unordered items.

with the expectation taken over the probability distribution of . Feature selection algorithms. The goal of the learning procedure is to maximize this test accuracy on a "typical" test set. In decision theory. Furthermore. N may be set so that the probability of all possible labels is output. but can be computed only empirically by collecting a large number of samples of them using the correct value of and hand-labeling (a time-consuming process. and only used to compare against other confidence values output by the same algorithm. When the number of possible labels is fairly small (e. The particular loss function depends on the type of label being predicted. Non-probabilistic confidence values can in general not be given any specific meaning. produce a function that approximates as closely as possible the correct mapping is some representation of an email and . for some value of N. in the case of classification. ordinal (consisting of one of a set of ordered items.) • Correspondingly. The goal then is to minimize the expected loss.g. which simply output a "best" label. if the problem is is either "spam" or "non-spam"). The distinction between the two is that the resulting features after feature extraction has taken place are of a different sort than the original features and may not easily be interpretable. often times probabilistic algorithms also output a probability of the instance being described by the given label.g. For example. the problem of supervised pattern recognition can be stated as follows: Given an unknown function (the ground truth) that maps input instances to output labels . (Note that some other algorithms may also output confidence values. Unlike other algorithms. less than 5.g. while the features left after feature selection are simply a subset of the original features. neither the distribution of nor the ground truth function are known exactly.e. Probabilistic algorithms have many advantages over non-probabilistic algorithms: • They output a confidence value associated with their choice. probabilistic pattern-recognition algorithms can be more effectively incorporated into larger machine-learning tasks. using mathematical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA). only for probabilistic algorithms is this value mathematically grounded in probability theory. This corresponds simply to assigning a loss of 1 to any incorrect labeling and is equivalent to computing the accuracy of the classification procedure over the set of test data (i. in that they use statistical inference to find the best label for a given instance. a count of the number of occurrences of a particular word in an email) or real-valued (e. in the case of classification). a measurement of blood pressure). but in general. 29 Problem statement (supervised version) Formally. feature extraction algorithms attempt to reduce a large-dimensionality feature vector into a smaller-dimensionality vector that is easier to work with and encodes less redundancy. in a way that partially or completely avoids the problem of error propagation. likewise for integer-valued and real-valued data. then assumed to represent accurate examples of the mapping.g. along with training data filtering spam. Many common pattern recognition algorithms are probabilistic in nature. "large". instead of simply a single best label. (For example. this is defined by specifying a loss function that assigns a specific value to "loss" resulting from producing an incorrect label. • Because of the probabilities output. Techniques to transform the raw feature vectors are sometimes used prior to application of the pattern-matching algorithm. In order for this to be a well-defined problem. between 5 and 10. or greater than 10). In addition. counting up the fraction of instances that the learned function labels correctly.Pattern recognition "AB" or "O"). e. attempt to directly prune out redundant or irrelevant features. they can abstain when the confidence of choosing any particular output is too low. categorical and ordinal data are grouped together. which is typically the limiting factor in the amount of data of this sort that can be collected). In practice. the simple zero-one loss function is often sufficient. For example. many probabilistic algorithms output a list of the N-best labels with associated probabilities.g. Often. "medium" or "small"). many algorithms work only in terms of categorical data and require that real-valued or integer-valued data be discretized into groups (e. "approximates as closely as possible" needs to be defined rigorously. . integer-valued (e.

In a discriminative approach to the problem. the denominator involves integration rather than summation: The value of is typically learned using maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Mathematically: where of is the value used for in the subsequent evaluation procedure. In a generative approach. In a Bayesian context. the inverse probability is instead estimated and combined with the prior probability using Bayes' rule. however. the automatic recognition of handwritten postal codes on postal envelopes. or the automatic recognition of images of human faces. the regularization procedure can be viewed as placing a prior probability on different values of . in regression analysis). the problem is instead to estimate the probability of each possible output label given a particular input instance.Pattern recognition For a probabilistic pattern recognizer. and . classification of text into several categories (e. CAD describes a procedure that supports the doctor's interpretations and findings. Typical applications are automatic speech recognition.g. f is estimated directly.g. the posterior probability . is given by In the Bayesian approach to this problem. instead of choosing a single parameter vector given label for a new instance the posterior probability: is computed by integrating over all possible values of . spam/non-spam email messages). this combines maximum likelihood estimation with a regularization procedure that favors simpler models over more complex models. weighted according to Uses Within medical science. the probability of a . and the function f is typically parameterized by some parameters . as follows: When the labels are continuously distributed (e.[1] [2] The face was automatically detected by special software. to estimate a function of the form 30 where the feature vector input is .e. i. The last two examples form the subtopic image analysis of pattern recognition that deals with digital images as input to pattern recognition systems. pattern recognition is the basis for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. . Essentially. This finds the best value that simultaneously meets two conflicting objects: To perform as well as possible on the training data and to find the simplest possible model.

despite its name. multinomial logistic regression): Note that logistic regression is an algorithm for classification. were content to collect from FDIC for any bank fraud and didnt want to inconvience customers. and on whether the algorithm is statistical or non-statistical in nature. (The name comes from the fact that logistic regression uses an extension of a linear regression model to model the probability of an input being in a particular class. however.Pattern recognition The method of signing one's name was captured with stylus and overlay starting 1990. relative max. on whether learning is supervised or unsupervised. speed. acceleration and pressure is used to uniquely identify and confirm identity. decision lists • • • • Support vector machines Kernel estimation and K-nearest-neighbor algorithms Perceptrons Neural networks (multi-level perceptrons) Clustering algorithms (unsupervised algorithms predicting categorical labels) • • • • Categorical mixture models K-means clustering Hierarchical clustering (agglomerative or divisive) Kernel principal component analysis (Kernel PCA) Regression algorithms (predicting real-valued labels) Supervised: • Linear regression and extensions • Neural networks • Gaussian process regression (kriging) Unsupervised: • Principal components analysis (PCA) • Independent component analysis (ICA) . Statistical algorithms can further be categorized as generative or discriminative. Banks were first offered this technology. Classification algorithms (supervised algorithms predicting categorical labels) • Maximum entropy classifier (aka logistic regression. 31 Algorithms Algorithms for pattern recognition depend on the type of label output.) • Naive Bayes classifier • Decision trees. relative min. The strokes.

wiley. Berlin: Springer. • Koutroumbas. Boston: Academic Press. Duda. which is licensed under the GFDL. Stork (2001) Pattern classification (2nd edition). Pattern Recognition (4th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Peter E. Sergios (2008). 2009 ( (http:/ / eu. Pattern Recognition in Industry. [1] Richard O. ISBN 978-0-470-51706-2.Pattern recognition 32 Categorical sequence labeling algorithms (predicting sequences of categorical labels) Supervised: • Hidden Markov models (HMMs) • Maximum entropy Markov models (MEMMs) • Conditional random fields (CRFs) Unsupervised: • Hidden Markov models (HMMs) Real-valued sequence labeling algorithms (predicting sequences of real-valued labels) Supervised (?): • Kalman filters • Particle filters Unsupervised: • ??? Parsing algorithms (predicting tree structured labels) Supervised and unsupervised: • Probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) General algorithms for predicting arbitrarily-structured labels • Bayesian networks • Markov random fields Ensemble learning algorithms (supervised meta-algorithms for combining multiple learning algorithms together) • • • • Bootstrap aggregating ("bagging") Boosting Ensemble averaging Mixture of experts. Keinosuke (1990). Christopher (2006). ISBN 1-59749-272-8.). . Wiley. Boston: Academic Press.). Hart. Phiroz (2005). hierarchical mixture of experts References This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. Brunelli. html) TM book) Further reading • Fukunaga. David G. Theodoridis. ISBN 0-387-31073-8. Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. Konstantinos. • Bhagat. Template Matching Techniques in Computer Vision: Theory and Practice. New York. • Bishop. Wiley. ISBN 0-08-044538-1. ISBN 0-12-269851-7. com/ WileyCDA/ WileyTitle/ productCd-0470517069. Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition (2nd ed. ISBN 0-471-05669-3 [2] R.

edu. meaning "desire") is the god of desire.php) Pattern Recognition (http://www. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.Pattern recognition • Hornegger. affection and erotic love. Cupid was often depicted with wings. Machine Learning. Sholom M.sciencedirect. For the equivalent deity in Greek mythology. he accidentally scratched himself with his own arrow and fell deeply in love with her.[1] [2] In the Greek version he was named Eros and seen as one of the primordial gods (though other myths exist as Classical statue of Cupid with his bow well). she looked all over the known world for him until at last the . Toussaint. Cupid visited Psyche every night while she slept. Following mkt/archive. ISBN 0-471-13534-8. When Cupid's mother Venus became jealous of the princess Psyche.docentes. often as an icon of Valentine's Day. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann List of Pattern Recognition web sites (http://cgm. the most familiar version is found in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Computational Morphology. Juergen (1996).).shtml) Cupid In Roman mythology. • Schuermann. she ordered Cupid to make Psyche fall in love with the vilest thing in the world. Neural Nets. he told her never to try to see him.worldscinet.iapr. Cupid (Latin cupido.mcgill. He is now in the current culture the personification of love and courtship in general. Pattern Classification: A Unified View of Statistical and Neural Approaches. Machine Learning. Joachim. Paulus.jprr. Legend In the Roman version. and Expert Systems. a bow. Computer Systems That Learn: Classification and Prediction Methods from tried to look at him and angered Cupid. When he left. (1999). New York: Wiley. • Godfried T. though. who was so beloved by her subjects that they forgot to worship Venus. see Eros.cs. ed (1988). R. Cupid was the son of Venus (goddess of love) and Mars. (1991). Casimir A. The following story is almost identical in both cultures.html) Journal of Pattern Recognition Research (http://www. Dietrich W.unal. Weiss.. 33 External links • • • • • The International Association for Pattern Recognition ( (Journal of the Pattern Recognition Society) • International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence (http://www. ISBN 3-528-15558-2. Applied Pattern Recognition: A Practical Introduction to Image and Speech Processing in C++ (2nd ed. ISBN 1-55860-065-5. In popular culture. and a quiver of arrows. incited by her two older sisters who told her Cupid was a monster. Speaking to her so that she could not see him. Cupid is frequently shown shooting his bow to inspire romantic Pattern Recognition Info (http://www. While Cupid was sneaking into her room to shoot Psyche with a golden arrow. • Kulikowski. He is the son of goddess Venus and god Mars. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.

or flirting with a nymph. lyrics and. and a chronological table (http:/ / books. In other images. and the other lead-headed. used among the Greeks and Romans. Cupid figures prominently in ariel poetry. of course. 2008 Annes Publishing Ltd. The best-known story involving Cupid is the tale of Cupid and Psyche. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology. containing a copious account of all the proper names mentioned in ancient authors:: with the value of coins. playing a horn. weights. or Hedone. The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythology. Oxford University Press. • Arthur Cotterell & Rachel Storm. . He is often depicted with his mother (in graphic arts. Rachel (2008). Jupiter. Oxford Reference Online. • Fabio Silva Vallejo. he is less often invoked. google. and measures. Accessed 26 April 2010 [2] John Lemprière. Cupid is often portrayed as a nude (or sometimes diapered) winged boy or baby (a putto) armed with a bow and a quiver of arrows. and perverse. Mitos y leyendas del mundo (Spanish). this is nearly always Venus). 2004 Panamericana Editorial. com/ books?id=s6cTAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA225& dq=cupid+ father+ mother+ venus& lr=& as_brr=1& cd=4#v=onepage& q=cupid father mother venus& f=false) (1820) References • Cotterell. 1997. he is usually shown amusing himself with childhood play. com/ views/ ENTRY. Notes [1] Cotterell. his mother is depicted scolding or even spanking him due to his mischievous nature. sometimes driving a hoop. Cupid: A Dictionary of World Mythology (http:/ / www. catching a butterfly. playful. He is often depicted as carrying two sets of arrows: one set gold-headed. Annes Publishing Ltd. e198) Oxford University Press. elegiac love and metamorphic poetry. which inspire hatred. In epic poetry." 34 Portrayal In painting and sculpture. Together they had a daughter. which inspire love. oxfordreference. perhaps in reference to Virgil's Omnia vincit amor or as political satire on wars for love or love as war.Cupid leader of the gods. but he does appear in Virgil's Aeneid changed into the shape of Ascanius inspiring Dido's love. gave Psyche the gift of immortality so that she could be with him. He is also shown wearing a helmet and carrying a buckler. The Hindu Kāma also has a very similar description. Voluptas. In later literature. Arthur & Storm. (meaning pleasure) and Psyche became a goddess. Arthur. A classical dictionary. html?subview=Main& entry=t73.. On gems and other surviving pieces. throwing darts. Caravaggio's Amor Vincit Omnia Cupid is frequently invoked as fickle. Her name "Psyche" means "soul.

she agrees to listen to Cupid's demands. but the folkloric tradition tends to blend these. so that when she awakens. As he slowly approaches. Apuleius likely used an earlier tale as the basis for his story. Michelangelo Palloni. He accepts the offer and takes off.Cupid and Psyche 35 Cupid and Psyche The legend of Cupid and Psyche (also known as The Tale of Amour and Psyche and The Tale of Eros and Psyche) first appeared as a digressionary story told by an old woman in Lucius Apuleius' novel. modifying it to suit the thematic needs of his novel. she awakens. for her beauty is so great that she is not meant for (mortal) man. Cupid desires Psyche. This causes him to scratch himself with his arrow. He leans over Psyche while she is asleep and before he can scratch her shoulder with the arrow. marrying. he will no longer shoot arrows. and the Earth begins to look young once again. c. or any husband at that. which causes concern to Venus. it is either an allegory or a myth. or mating. Venus asks her son Cupid (known to the Greeks as Eros) to use his golden arrows while Psyche sleeps. 1808. careful not to make a sound. and in the darkness of night the promised bridegroom arrives and the marriage is consummated. Considered as a fairy tale. the west wind. When all continue to admire and praise Psyche's beauty. they have no choice but to follow the oracle's instructions. carries Psyche away. (Aphrodite in the Greek tradition) would have already placed a vile creature for her to fall in love with. c. Cupid visits her every night to sleep with her. Psyche's parents consult an oracle. written in the 2nd century AD. People again fall in love and marry. he readies one of his golden arrows. he turns himself invisible so no one can see him fly in through her window. despite his invisibility. for she looks right into his eyes. an allegory and a myth. upset. animals far and wide mate. Finally. As she does this. Venus Cupid and Psyche. but demands that she never light any lamps. it upsets Cupid greatly. He reports back to Venus shortly after and the news enrages her. Wilanów Palace. As he flies to Psyche's room at night. which will cause the temple of Venus to fall. which tells them to leave Psyche on the nearest mountain. Cupid finally agrees to her commands after a long (and failed) debate. since he does not want her to know who he is until the time is right. shooting his golden arrows as fast as he can. according him one thing to have his own way. Venus. for every passing second he finds her more appealing. by Antonio Canova. After months of no one — man or animal — falling in love. He cannot continue his mission. 1688. for nobody praises her for Cupid's actions. startling him. falling deeply in love with her. for she was born too beautiful for her own safety. the Earth starts to grow old. agrees to his demands only if he begins work immediately. . He takes pity on her. restoring everything to the way it should be. to a fair valley and a magnificent palace where she is attended by invisible servants until nightfall.[1] Legend Envious and jealous of the beauty of a mortal girl named Psyche. It has since been interpreted as a Märchen. Venus places a curse on Psyche that keeps her from meeting a suitable husband. The Golden Ass. fresco Sleeping Psyche. But then Zephyrus. Terrified. but none desire her as a wife. and he decides as long as the curse stays on Psyche.

So Psyche finds a temple to Venus and enters it. She begins to kiss him. that rumor is that she had married a great and terrible serpent who would devour her and her unborn child when the time came for it to be fed. then tricks her sister into believing that Cupid has chosen her as a wife on the mountaintop. However. but if she waits until noontime. Psyche then finds herself in the city where one of her jealous elder sisters live. 2nd century AD. sick at heart. Psyche sadly Cupid and Psyche. but refuses any help beyond advising Psyche that she must call directly on Venus. A river-god tells Psyche that the sheep are vicious and strong and will kill her. but warns that Psyche should not listen to any argument that she should try to discover his true form. she can then pick the wool that sticks to the branches and bark of the trees. to wait till her husband is asleep. 1819 . and she falls from the window to the ground. Venus then orders Psyche to separate all the grains in a large basket of mixed kinds before nightfall. Italy follows their advice. Each sister goes to the top of the peak and jumps down eagerly. Ostia Antica. and is consumed with desire for her husband. She tells her what had happened. who caused all the problems in the first place. but Zephyrus does not bear them and they fall to their deaths at the base of the mountain. but Juno gives her the same advice.Cupid and Psyche 36 Cupid allows Zephyrus to take Psyche back to her sisters and bring all three down to the palace during the day. This time an eagle performs the task for Psyche. The two jealous sisters tell Psyche. Psyche next calls on Juno in her temple. a drop of oil falls from her lamp onto Cupid's shoulder and wakes him. she accidentally pricks herself with one of his François-Édouard Picot. Ceres (Demeter to the Greeks) appears. As Psyche is sorting and clearing the mess. Venus next asks for water flowing from a cleft that is impossible for a mortal to attain and is also guarded by great serpents. and then to light the lamp and slay Statue of Cupido and Psyche kissing. Room E of the House of him at once if it is as they said. then pregnant with Cupid's child. They urge Psyche to conceal a knife and oil lamp in the bedchamber. Latium. the sheep will go to the shade on the other side of the field and sleep. In the light of the lamp Psyche recognizes the fair form on the bed as the god Cupid himself. Venus is outraged at her success and tells her to go to a field where golden sheep graze and to retrieve some golden wool. Psyche later meets her other sister and deceives her likewise. and with its ant companions. finally stumbling into a temple where everything is in slovenly disarray. He flies away. Psyche searches far and wide for her lover. but as she does. An ant takes pity on Psyche. L'Amour et Psyché. separates the grains for her.

puts it back in the box. she decides to open the box and take a little bit of the beauty for herself. made depressed and ill as a result of Psyche's lack of faith. flies to her. furious at Psyche's survival. Proserpina (Persephone to the Greeks). Psyche and Cupid have a daughter. But the tower itself speaks to Psyche and tells her the route that will allow her to enter the Underworld alive and return again. Psyche decides that the quickest way to the Underworld is to throw herself off some high place and die. Inside. Psyche is to go to the Underworld and ask the queen of the Underworld. Relations and origin In Greek mythology. Cupid (Eros). to eat nothing but coarse bread in the underworld. She was portrayed in ancient mosaics as a goddess with butterfly wings (because psyche is also the Greek word for 'butterfly'). Jupiter then has Psyche fetched to Mount Olympus. once Psyche has left the Underworld. life or animating force". and sends her back on her way. . granting her immortality. Jupiter calls a full and formal council of the gods and declares that it is his will that Cupid marry Psyche. and gives her a drink made from ambrosia. to place a bit of her beauty in a box that Venus had given to Psyche. Psyche follows the orders precisely. who had forgiven Psyche. the goddess of "sensual pleasures". wipes the sleep from her face. 1865 However. and so she climbs to the top of a tower. claims that the stress of caring for her son. breath. has caused her to lose some of her beauty. as eating anything else would trap her there forever. how to avoid other dangers on the way there and back. whose Latin name means "pleasure" or "bliss".Cupid and Psyche 37 Venus. Then Cupid flies to Mount Olympus and begs Jupiter (Zeus) to aid them. Psyché aux enfers by Eugène Ernest Hillemacher. called Voluptas (Hedone in Greek mythology). The Greek word psyche literally means "spirit. as well as telling her how to get past Cerberus (by giving the three-headed dog a small cake). instead an infernal sleep arises from the box and overcomes her. rejecting all but bread while beneath the Earth. and most importantly. Venus and Psyche forgive each other. Psyche was the deification of the human soul. Begrudgingly. she can see no beauty.

folk tales become recognized in Europe as a legitimate literary genre. That led her through the world. Youth and Joy. However. and the scented air. The painted valley. In the deep glade where dwells the brooding dove. .Cupid and Psyche 38 Psyche was originally the youngest daughter of the king and queen of Sicily. to whom a dream was given. Later adaptations William Adlington translated the tale into English in 1566. Apuleius' Cupid and Psyche was generally relegated to the status of a "mere" folktale (in English a fairy tale). through Perrault's Mother Goose Tales and with the popularity of other such collections in 17th century France. to make her fall in love with the nearest person or thing available.[2] At the conclusion of Comus (1634).– 'Mid the pine temples. And told in song its high and mystic things! And such the sweet and solemn tale of her The pilgrim heart. Suitors flocked to ask for her hand. on the moonlit mount. eventually marrying her and having her made a goddess by Zeus (Jupiter). "Celestial Cupid. Psyche. When truth's clear river flowed o'er sands of gold. by William Adolphe Bouguereau Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss in the Louvre. advanced. K. When reason borrowed fancy's painted wings. Where silence sits to listen to the stars. so Jove hath sworn.– To seek on earth for him whose home was heaven! "In the full city. and took her to a secret place. She eventually boasted that she was more beautiful than Aphrodite (Venus) herself. Harvey wrote: "They wove bright fables in the days of old. her famed son. the poet John Milton alluded to the story of Cupid and Psyche. Till free consent the gods among Make her his eternal bride. After her wandering labours long. But even Eros (Cupid) fell in love with her. and Aphrodite sent Eros to transfix her with an arrow of desire." The poet T. And from her fair unspotted side Two blissful twins are to be born.– Love's worshipper. Though concerning gods and goddesses. Holds his dear Psyche sweet entranced. Paris.– by the haunted fount. and the most beautiful person on the island.– Through the dim grotto's tracery of spars.

In the later part of her tale. As o'er the couch he bent with ravished eye. Ambition. And half relenting on her beauties gazed. When Cupid starts to obey his mother's command. Sharpened with skill divine. And found his footsteps' traces everywhere. Credulity. Yet her fair side he touched with gentlest art. The dart which in his hand now trembling stood. Disfida (who lives in a "Gothic castle"). Spenser's Blatant Beast also makes an appearance. but in performing this task Tighe's Psyche wanders into a country bordering on Spenser's Fairie Queene as Psyche is aided by a mysterious visored knight and his squire Constance and must escape various traps set by Vanity. "But nevermore they met! since doubts and fears. but with a pitying sigh The evil done now anxious to repair. Till wings unto the weary heart were given. Roman marble Cupid and Psyche after a Hellenistic original of the 2nd century BC 39 . he from his quiver drew. Mary Tighe in her poem Cupid and Psyche first published in 1805 explains the origin of Cupid's love for Psyche. Unseen he still remained. since thus too true His hand might wound her all-exposed heart. a child of sin and tears. Those phantom shapes that haunt and blight the earth. a shining dart: No need had he for bow. Flattery. Varia and Geloso. enchanted and amazed. Had come 'twixt her. She adds two springs in Venus' garden. Tighe's Venus only asks one task of Psyche. to bring her the forbidden water. he brings some of both to a sleeping Psyche but places only some of the bitter water on Psyche's lips and prepares also to pierce her with an arrow: Nor yet content. one with sweet water and one with bitter.Cupid and Psyche She heard far echoes of the voice of Love. whose short Ode to Psyche appeared in 1820. Just then awaking with a sudden start Her opening eye in humid lustre blazed. And she became Love's angel bride in heaven!" Shackerley Marmion wrote a verse version of the Apuleius story called Cupid and Psyche which was published in 1637. Until her pining soul and weeping eyes Had learned to seek him only in the skies. Drew with its daring point celestial blood From his smooth neck's unblemished ivory: Heedless of this. Tighe's work was appreciated by William Wordsworth and also an early influence on John Keats. And that bright spirit of immortal birth. Then stretched his plumes divine. He shed in haste the balmy drops of joy O'er all the silky ringlets of her hair. and breathed celestial air.

mainlesson. 1 (http://www.voluptas.htm) (Illustrated with painting and sculpture.rickwalton. suitable for use in any 6th-12th grade classroom. Marius the or read online (http://www. 40 Fairy tale variants As Bruno Bettelheim notes in The Uses of and Psyche William Morris retold the story in verse in The Earthly Paradise (1868–70). 1894)." reprinted in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Brill. Old Greek Folk Stories Told Anew (1897) • The Baldwin Project: The Enchanted Palace (http://www. pp.html) (Texts of Cupid and Psyche and similar monster or beast as bridegroom • Thomas Bulfinch. "Marius the Epicurean": chapter 5 (http://www. • Robert Bridge's Eros and Psyche at archive. Thomas Bulfinch wrote a short adaptation for his Age of Fable which borrowed Tighe's account of Cupid's self-wounding. Psyche or. 1980). L Ashliman: Folktexts: Cupid and Psyche (http://www. 1 ( (http://www.blackmask. Marius the Epicurean.) • Blackmask: Walter Pater. com/ books?id=xWaOxU28Nn4C& pg=PA84& dq="Cupid+ and+ Psyche"+ inauthor:Wagenvoort& lr=& as_brr=0) [2] Under the title The XI Bookes of the Golden (Information about Voluptas. Robert • Voluptas • Ode to Voluptas (http://www. External links • Readers Theatre version of the Cupid and Psyche Tale (http://trickledownolympus. chapter 5 (1885) • Gutenberg Project: Walter Pater. Vol.html) • Hermetic Philosophy: Cupid and Psyche (http://www.pitt. google. References [1] Hendrik Wagenvoort.php?query=creator:" 7mrs1dex. Robert Bridges wrote Eros and Psyche: A Narrative Poem in Twelve Measures ( Works/mar_85_1. php?author=peabody&book=greek&story=psyche) • Rick Walton's Online Library: Cupid and Psyche (http://www. A full prose adaptation was included as part of Walter Pater's novel Marius the Epicurean in 1885. with hyperlinked commentary).) • Andrew Staniland . Conteininge the Metamorphosie of Lucius Apuleius (London 1566). The Age of Fable (1913) • D. "Cupid and Psyche.blogspot.S. Lewis retold the story in his 1956 book Till We Have Play version of Cupid and Psyche.nmsu. Daughter of Cupid & Psyche) • Walter • Mary Tighe. 1844-1930" eros): pdf (http://www. the Legend of Love (1820) HTML (http://web. (http:/ / books. Josephine Preston Peabody wrote a version for children in her Old Greek Folk Stories Told Anew (1897).edu/~hlinkin) or PDF (http:// web. Marius the (Plain text. mostly of AT-425C • Victorian Prose: Walter Pater.php?author=peabody& book=greek&story=cupid) and The Trial of Psyche (http://www. Beauty and the Beast is a variant of Cupid and Psyche.archive. • Tales Similar to Beauty and the Beast (http://www.pdf) (PDF) • Josephine Preston Peabody.htm) • Blackmask: Cupid and Psyche ( 84–92 online.

org/articles/2001/ Cupid_and_Psyche/cupidpsyche1. In later tellings the Grail is a symbol of God's grace. Number 4 • & Psyche (http://www.htm#beauty''The) • Art • Art Renewal Center: "Cupid & Psyche" by Sharrell E. in the later 12th and early 13th centuries. Archipelago: Volume 4. or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper and said to possess miraculous powers. but in most versions of the legend the hero must prove himself worthy to be in its plate.) • Material on the Musical by Sean Hartley and Jihwan Kim (2000) • Theatrescene.asp) (Examples and discussion of Cupid and Psyche in painting. appearing first in works by Chrétien de Troyes.htm''Eros) (A short story based on the myth.theatrescene. . The connection of Joseph of Arimathea with the Grail legend dates from Robert de Boron's Joseph d'Arimathie (late 12th century) in which Joseph receives the Grail from an apparition of Jesus and sends it with his followers to Great Britain.html) • Holly Woodward.[1] The legend may combine Christian lore with a Celtic myth of a cauldron endowed with special powers. In the early like the saintly Galahad.actingmanitou. Some of the Grail legend is interwoven with legends of the Holy\ The early Grail romances centered on Percival and were woven into the more general Arthurian fabric. The Grail legend's development has been traced in detail by cultural historians: It is a legend which first came together in the form of written romances.) • Acting Manitou in Maine produced a new musical version of Cupid and Psyche • (http://www. Gibson (http://www. 1917 Origins Grail The Grail plays a different role everywhere it appears. The quest for the Holy Grail makes up an important segment of the Arthurian cycle.Cupid and Psyche • Beauty Of Psyche ( Link to the drama camp 41 Holy Grail The Holy Grail is a sacred object figuring in literature and certain Christian traditions.nsf/0/ 19AA3EDED1068A1A85256DBA004FBE2C?OpenDocument) • Talkin Broadway: Cupid and Psyche (http://www. deriving perhaps from some pre-Christian folklore hints. later writers recounted how Joseph used the Grail to catch Christ's blood while interring him and that in Britain he founded a line of guardians to keep it safe.[2] How at the Castle of Corbin a Maiden Bare in the Sangreal and Foretold the Achievements of Galahad: illustration by Arthur Rackham. and he must grow spiritually and mentally before he can locate it again. Percival's immaturity prevents him from fulfilling his destiny when he first encounters the Cupid and Psyche (http://www. most often identified with the dish. building upon this theme.artrenewal. available to all but only fully realized by those who prepare themselves spiritually.

In several articles. an alternative name for "Holy Grail. meaning "a cup or bowl of earth. in turn. which present unique iconic images of the Virgin Mary holding a bowl that radiates tongues of fire. On the other hand. including similarities between the Mabinogion's Bran the Blessed and the Arthurian Fisher King. after the cycle of Grail romances was well established. wood. and between Bran's life-restoring cauldron and the Grail. Barcelona). Goering argues that they were the original inspiration for the Grail legend. The first.Holy Grail 42 Early forms There are two veins of thought concerning the Grail's origin. "Sang real" is sometimes employed to lend a medievalizing air in referring to the Holy Grail. late medieval writers came up with a false etymology for sangréal. borrowed from Greek krater (a two-handed shallow cup). as it is earliest spelled. Although the practice of Holy Communion was first alluded to in the Christian Bible and defined by theologians in the 1st centuries AD. a derivative of crater or cratus which was.[5] This theory has some basis in the fact that the Grail legends are a phenomenon of the Western church (see below). some scholars believe the Grail began as a purely Christian symbol. it was around the time of the appearance of the first Christianized Grail literature that the Roman church was beginning to add more ceremony and mysticism around this particular sacrament. the first Grail stories may have been celebrations of a renewal in this traditional sacrament. later writers played on this pun. though many of the early Celtic-based arguments are largely discredited (Loomis himself came to reject much of Weston and Nutt's work).[3] [4] Another recent theory holds that the earliest stories that cast the Grail in a Christian light were meant to promote the Roman Catholic sacrament of the Holy Communion. This connection with royal blood bore fruit in a modern bestseller linking many historical conspiracy theories (see below). cognate with Old Provençal grazal and Old Catalan gresal. 'by stages'. comes from Old French graal or greal. Since then. and Jessie Weston.[12] or a derivative of Latin gradus meaning "'by degree'. images that predate the first literary account by Chrétien de Troyes. applied to a dish brought to the table in different stages or services during a meal". even when not explicitly religious. Thus. a name for a type of woven basket that came to refer to a dish. . Etymology The word graal. professor Emeritus of history at the University of Southern Indiana." In Old French. Joseph Goering of the University of Toronto has identified sources for Grail imagery in 12th century wall paintings from churches in the Catalan Pyrenees (now mostly removed to the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. but that much of the setting and imagery of the early romances is drawn from Celtic material. Loomis traced a number of parallels between Medieval Welsh literature and Irish material and the Grail romances. cratalis.[6] Most scholars today accept that both Christian and Celtic traditions contributed to the legend's development. or metal" (or other various types of vessels in Southern French dialects).[13] According to the Catholic Encyclopedia. The general view is that the central theme of the Grail is Christian.[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] Alternate suggestions include a derivative of cratis. san graal or san gréal means "Holy Grail" and sang réal means "royal blood". holds that it derived from early Celtic myth and folklore. championed by Roger Sherman Loomis. Alfred Nutt.[7] The most commonly accepted etymology derives it from Latin gradalis or gradale via an earlier form. puts forward a hypothesis which identifies the Shroud of Turin as the real object that inspires the romances of the Holy Grail. Daniel Scavone. For example.

" Chrétien refers to his object not as "The Grail" but as un graal. somewhat deep dish or bowl. named after the manuscript’s former owner. in which Gawain. Galahad. designed to bring the story to a close. The nine most important works from the first group are: • The Perceval of Chrétien de Troyes. The story of the Wounded King's mystical fasting is not unique. where Christ visits him and explains the mysteries of the blessed cup. achieves the Grail. Other early literature After this point. showing the word was used. and founds a dynasty of Grail keepers that eventually includes Perceval. • Perlesvaus. • The German Diu Crône (The Crown). and purportedly a prosification of Robert de Boron’s sequel to Joseph d’Arimathie. • The German Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach. • The Didot Perceval. for instance Saint Catherine of Genoa. or "grail. Grail literature divides into two classes. several saints were said to have lived without food besides communion. passing before him at each course of the meal. who had been warned against talking too much. dated sometime between 1180 and 1191. • Four continuations of Chrétien’s poem. The first concerns King Arthur’s knights visiting the Grail castle or questing after the object. le Conte du Graal (The Story of the Grail) by Chrétien de Troyes. preserving as it does elements of pre-Christian traditions such as the Celtic cult of the head. He later learns that if he had asked the appropriate questions about what he saw. Robert tells the story of Joseph of Arimathea acquiring the chalice of the Last Supper to collect Christ’s blood upon his removal from the cross. While dining in the magical abode of the Fisher King. Robert de Boron Though Chrétien’s account is the earliest and most influential of all Grail texts. • The Welsh romance Peredur. salmon or lamprey. composed between 1191 and 1202. Upon his release Joseph gathers his in-laws and other followers and travels to the west. remains silent through all of this. he would have healed his maimed host. the second concerns the Grail’s history in the time of Joseph of Arimathea. who claims he was working from a source book given to him by his patron.Holy Grail 43 Beginnings in literature Chrétien de Troyes The Grail is first featured in Perceval. rather than Perceval. it was in the work of Robert de Boron that the Grail truly became the "Holy Grail" and assumed the form most familiar to modern readers. For Chrétien the grail was a wide. Perceval witnesses a wondrous procession in which youths carry magnificent objects from one chamber to another. as the audience may have expected for such a container. Joseph is thrown in prison. interesting because it contained not a pike. generally included in the Mabinogion. but a single Mass wafer which provided sustenance for the Fisher King’s crippled father. in its earliest literary context. much to his honor. Finally. likely at least indirectly founded on Chrétien's poem but including very striking differences from it. a beautiful young girl emerges bearing an elaborately decorated graal. First comes a young man carrying a bleeding lance. and the Grail to be a mere prop. and wakes up the next morning alone. the object has not yet acquired the implications of holiness it would have in later works. • The Lancelot section of the vast Vulgate Cycle. This may imply that Chrétien intended the Mass wafer to be the significant part of the ritual. as a common noun. In his verse romance Joseph d’Arimathie. which adapted at least the holiness of Robert’s Grail into the framework of Chrétien’s story. by authors of differing vision and talent. . In this incomplete poem. Perceval. Count Philip of Flanders. which introduces the new Grail hero. called the "least canonical" Grail romance because of its very different character. then two boys carrying candelabras.

and remain popular today. 44 Conceptions of the Grail The Grail was considered a bowl or dish when first described by Chrétien de Troyes. severed head. Galahad and the interpretation of the Grail involving him were picked up in the 15th century by Sir Thomas Malory in Le Morte d'Arthur. who stood amazed in contemplation. several contain pieces of tradition not found in Chrétien which are possibly derived from earlier sources. and the Grail ("Like Perceval when he lived. based on Robert’s tale but expanding it greatly with many new details. the world's greatest knight and the Grail Bearer at the castle of Corbenic.Holy Grail • The Queste del Saint Graal. Bors. his spiritual purity making him a greater warrior than even his illustrious father. concerning the adventures of Galahad and his achievement of the Grail. Galahad. Of the second class there are: • Robert de Boron’s Joseph d’Arimathie. presenting the hero instead with a platter containing his kinsman's bloody. Other authors had their own ideas: Robert de Boron portrayed it as the vessel of the Last Supper. citing the authority of a certain (probably fictional) Kyot the Provençal. so that he was quite unable to ask what purpose the lance and grail served" . the first part of the Vulgate Cycle (but written after Lancelot and the Queste). Hélinand of Froidmont described a grail as a "wide and deep saucer" (scutella lata et aliquantulum profunda). the lance. Wolfram von Eschenbach. claimed the Grail was a stone that fell from Heaven (called lapsit exillis). is destined to achieve the Grail. • Verses by Rigaut de Barbezieux. In Parzival. and Galahad. and Percival achieve the Grail Peredur had no Grail per se. que s'esbait d'esgarder tant qu'anc non saup demandar de que servia la lansa ni-l grazaus"[15] ). • The Estoire del Saint Graal. The authors of the Vulgate Cycle used the Grail as a symbol of divine grace. another part of the Vulgate Cycle. and had been the sanctuary of the Neutral Angels who took neither side during Lucifer's rebellion. Though all these works have their roots in Chrétien. a late 12th or early 13th century[14] Provençal troubador."Attressi con Persavaus el temps que vivia. illegitimate son of Lancelot and Elaine. where mention is made of Perceval. .

on July 9. which contains an artifact.[17] which was obtained during the Crusades at Caesarea Maritima at great cost. and gemstones. the Grail was kept safe at the castle of Munsalvaesche (mons salvationis). Ownership has been attributed to various groups (including the Knights Templar. for instance the Saint Mary of Valencia Cathedral. Spain. revealed that the emerald was green glass. while it was being returned from Paris after the fall of Napoleon. Turn of the century accounts state that Irish partisans of the Clan Dhuir (O'Dwyer. the first Grail King. and has been used by many others. Still other stories claim that a secret line of hereditary protectors keep the Grail. while local folklore in Accokeek. probably because they were at the peak of their influence around the time that Grail stories started circulating in the 12th and 13th centuries).[16] The emerald chalice at Genoa. Spain gold. entrusted to Titurel.Holy Grail 45 Later legend Belief in the Grail and interest in its potential whereabouts has never ceased. Dwyer) transported the Grail to the United States during the 19th Century and the Grail was kept by their descendents in secrecy in a small abbey in the upper-Northwest (now believed to be Southern Minnesota). In Wolfram von Eschenbach's telling. protected the chalice of the Last Supper from the Islamic invaders of the Iberian Peninsula. Syria (now Turkey). and it now rests One of the supposed Holy Grails in Valencia. have identified the castle with the real sanctuary of Montserrat in Catalonia. the Holy Chalice. in the province of Huesca. not least the monks of Montserrat. has been less championed as the Holy Grail since an accident on the road. Other stories claim that the Grail is buried beneath Rosslyn Chapel or lies deep in the spring at Glastonbury Tor. Maryland says that it was brought to the town by a closeted priest aboard Captain John Smith's ship. or that it was hidden by the Templars in Oak Island. atop an ornate stem and base. possibly from Antioch. According to legend. its history can be traced to the 11th century. 2006. Spain. Archaeologists say the artifact is a 1st century Middle Eastern stone vessel. made in the Medieval era of alabaster. Some. most recently by Pope Benedict XVI. supposedly taken by Saint Peter to Rome in the 1st century. located at the south-west of Jaca. the monastery of San Juan de la Peña.[18] . It was the official papal chalice for many popes. and then to Huesca in Spain by Saint Lawrence in the 3rd century. There are cups claimed to be the Grail in several churches. Nova Scotia's famous "Money Pit".

[21] [22] . and was later invoked by Joseph Campbell. Rossetti in which the Grail is revealed as a mystical means to revitalise Arthur himself. Lon Chaney attempted to steal it. Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975) (adapted in 2004 as the stage production Spamalot) was a comedic adaptation. referred to in literature such as Alfred Tennyson's Arthurian cycle the Idylls of the King. the sword Excalibur (fire). Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade and The Fisher King are more recent adoptions. the Grail is a mere sideshow: they say it is a reference to Mary Magdalene as the receptacle of Jesus' bloodline. The Grail later turned up in movies.Holy Grail 46 Modern interpretations The story of the Grail and of the quest to find it became increasingly popular in the 19th century. For the authors of Holy Blood. it debuted in a silent Parsifal. by Carl Jung. a dish (earth). The Grail also features heavily in Umberto Eco's 2000 novel Baudolino. who utilized analytical psychology to interpret the Grail as a series of symbols in their book The Grail Legend. a quest for the Grail appears in Bernard Cornwell's series of books The Grail Quest. Excalibur attempted The Damsel of the Sanct Grael by Dante Gabriel to restore a more traditional heroic representation of an Arthurian tale. Such a tack was taken by psychologists Emma Jung and Marie-Louise von Franz.[19] The high seriousness of the subject was also epitomized in Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting (illustrated). The Silver Chalice. The grail is central in many modern Arthurian works. which depict King Arthur reappearing in modern-day New York City. but lived to wed Mary Magdalene and father children whose Merovingian lineage continues today.[20] Other works attempt to connect the Grail to conspiracy theories and esoteric traditions. The grail features heavily in the novels of Peter David's Knight trilogy. for the first time associating the grail – now periodically producing blood – directly with female fertility. and a spear or wand (air). The Grail has been used as a theme in fantasy. Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon has the grail as one of four objects symbolizing the four Elements: the Grail itself (water). historical fiction and science fiction. The combination of hushed reverence. set during The Hundred Years War. chromatic harmonies and sexualized imagery in Richard Wagner's late opera Parsifal gave new significance to the grail theme. in particular the second and third novels. The Grail has also been treated in works of non-fiction. a novel about the Grail by Thomas B. Michael Moorcock's fantasy novel The War Hound and the World's Pain depicts a supernatural Grail quest set in the era of the Thirty Years' War. which generally seek to interpret its meaning in novel ways.[20] This type of interpretation had previously been utilized. Taliessin Through Logres and Region of the Summer Stars. In The Sign and the Seal. Graham Hancock asserts that the Grail story is a coded description of the stone tablets stored in the Ark of the Covenant. figuratively in Samuel R. Holy Grail. in less detail. while adopting a gesture of blessing with the other. in which a woman modelled by Jane Morris holds the Grail with one hand. and literally on the television shows Babylon 5 and Stargate SG-1 (as the "Sangraal"). and science fiction has taken the Quest into interstellar space. Costain was made into a 1954 movie. One Knight Only and Fall of Knight. including Charles Williams's novel War in Heaven and his two collections of poems about Taliessin. Delany's 1968 novel Nova. and in feminist author Rosalind Miles' Child of the Holy Grail. and of the barren land to which his depressive sickness is connected. In The Light of Faith (1922). including George Frederic Watts and William Dyce also portrayed grail subjects. Other artists. Lancelot du Lac (1974) was made by Robert Bresson. who assert that their research ultimately reveals that Jesus may not have died on the cross.

2004. "Holy Grail legend may be tied to paintings" (http:/ / www. Publications of the Medieval Association of the Midwest 10 (2003): 101-42. ISBN 0-300-10661-0. Princeton. [10] Skeat. [9] Jung. asp). 2005). Norroena Society Publisher. and that the Grail was long buried beneath Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland. p. New York: Dell. DS Brewer. [19] Donington. like Holy Blood. washington. vol. Norse. Micah (October 20.utoronto. 47 References [1] Loomis. PDF) and abstract (http:/ / www. shtml) [3] Goering. [8] Nitze.. Trübner & Co. [5] Barber. . 681-684 . but that in recent decades its guardians had it relocated to a secret chamber embedded in the floor beneath the Inverted Pyramid near the Louvre Museum. p. [13] Richard O'Gorman . (October 2000). The Grail: From Celtic Myth to Christian Symbol. The Grail Legend. No. 1864." observed Pedro Tafur. [16] Glatz. Friedrich. Wilhelm. Harvard University Press. (http:/ / yalepress.”. Vol. 236. ISBN 0-674-01390-5. ISBN 0-691-02075-2 (http:/ / print. bbc. “British King Lucius. pp. xxxvi-xxxvii [11] Mueller. Scavone: "Joseph of Arimathea. com/ scavone2. In Brown's novel. com/ data/ stories/ cns/ 0603899.. for the Early English Text Society. 101-142 (2003). 11 (Mar. 2006). William A. 13. ISBN 0-440-13648-2 [22] Juliette Wood. They keep in it the Holy Grai1. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der englischen Sprache: A-K. [21] Baigent. it is hinted that Jesus was merely a mortal man with strong ideals. 2008. Williams and Norgate. chettler. Roger Sherman (1991). The latter location. 1865. 4. Robert (1963). catholicnews. Holy Grail. Exemplary comparison from Homer to Petrarch. news. html#ch1). Greal." Arthuriana vol. p. ws) [6] D. 3-31 (Winter 1999) ( Article (http:/ / www. has never been mentioned in real Grail lore. Vol.Scavone. 1871. [18] Wagner. 10. pp. 116-117. Lincoln. Folklore. Catholic News. Harvard University Press. Faber [20] Barber. pope uses what tradition says is Holy Grail" (http:/ / www. Richard. 2004. asp?isbn=0300106610) [4] Rynor. the Holy Grail. google. Holy Blood. No. yale. The Holy Grail: imagination and belief. p 418 [15] Sayce. Princeton University Press. which. [17] "The great church is called San Lorenzo. "The Holy Grail: From Romance Motif to Modern Genre". htm). The Arthurian Encyclopedia. like Rosslyn Chapel. Wagner's "Ring" and its Symbols: the Music and the Myth. com/ print?id=DGQcsXGYII4C) [2] BBC History Gallery. edu/ yupbooks/ book. The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief. 169-190. (http:/ / www. Michael. Joseph of Arimathie. Richard.Holy Grail Such works have been the inspiration for a number of popular modern fiction novels. An etymological dictionary of the Romance languages. 111. Romance and Epics of Our Northern Ancestors. by N. Carol (July 10. The Virgin and the Grail: Origins of a Legend. shroud. Pub. 9. "Grail" in Norris J. Harvard University Press. Concerning the Word Graal. co. Yale University Press. The Holy Grail: imagination and belief. 1916). particularly the porch. and it is very remarkable. Walter William. Leigh. who was there in 1436 Pedro Tafur. p. New York. uk/ history/ british/ hg_gallery_03. 1998. Modern Philology. 93. [7] Diez. the Grail. 248–252. 461. which is made of a single emerald and is indeed a marvellous relic. 1986 [14] Barber. Richard (2004). shroud. and Joseph of Arimathea: The Question of Byzantine Origins. ca/ bin6/ 051020-1720. 143. Emma and von Franz. utoronto. Lacy. 1906. Andanças e viajes (http:/ / depts. edu/ silkroad/ texts/ tafur. Marie-Louise. 2. www. is based on the idea that the real Grail is not a cup but the womb and later the earthly remains of Mary Magdalene (again cast as Jesus' wife). no. and the Edessa Icon. Holy Grail (http:/ / www. it/ SCAVONE1. Holy Grail. Henry (1983). [12] Barber. The best known is Dan Brown's bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code. Celt and Teuton. pp. plus a set of ancient documents claimed to tell the true story of Jesus. Olive. his teachings and descendants. pp. htm)) . "At Mass in Valencia. Joseph (2005). Eduard.

edu/camelot/ holy-grail-valencia.htm) at the Catholic Encyclopedia • The Holy Grail today in Valencia Cathedral (http://www. selection of illuminated arthur/livres/estoire/index. to pre-arrange a marriage for young children. the marriage still requires consent of the concerned man and woman when they reach adulthood when the wedding actually goes ahead. Conditions Nikah is based on several conditions. • (French) XVth century Old French Estoire del saint Graal manuscript BNF fr. Haq-e-Mahr is money given to the bride from the groom as a form of insurance should unfortunate circumstances arise. There is a tradition in some Muslim countries. However.htm) • The Holy Grail (http://www. A Muslim bride signing the nikkah nama (marriage certificate) Societal role The nikah contract requires the consent of both parties very strictly if they are adults.shtml).htm) • The Holy Grail (http://www.valenciavalencia. including patronymic) as their husband/wife. When these conditions are fulfilled. Nikah • Two adult free Muslim men or one Muslim male adult and two Muslim female adults witness the ceremony. Islam does allow divorce (talaq) so this contract is revocable. announced. A marriage which is carried out unofficially without informing the public is called nikah urfi. Marriage is seen as a necessity in Islam and is seen as helpful in avoiding zina (extramarital sex/adultery) or cruelty. 113 (http://expositions. • The nikah is publicised or advertised widely.htm) Bibliothèque Nationale de a 45 minute discussion is available for listening at the page. These are some of the conditions that must be fulfilled: • Giving free consent to the marriage personally or through a close relative such as a father (called a wali).co. Modern French Translation.lib. A man and woman each say in clear voice three times that they accept (name of the person.newadvent. then a man and a woman are proclaimed as husband and wife and can live together and carry on their marital duties. (Arabic: ‫ حاكنلا‬‎). is the matrimonial contract between a bride and bridegroom within Islamic marriage. and paid to the bride on the spot or paid in the near future. • The amount of Haq-e-Mahr is agreed upon.rochester.Holy Grail 48 External links • The Holy Grail at the Camelot Project (http://www. an episode of In Our Time (BBC Radio 4). . or nikkah.

R. each player is betting that the hand he has A game of Texas hold 'em in progress. money is only placed into the pot voluntarily by a player who. five cards to each player from a twenty-card pack. The betting round ends when all players have either matched the last bet or have folded. Poker games differ in how the cards are dealt. though there is no specific description of Nas prior to 1890. losing the amount bet so far and all further interest in the hand. In most modern poker games. at least in theory. the long-run expectations of the players are determined by their actions chosen based on probability. then the hands are revealed and the player with the winning hand takes the pot."[2] [3] By the 1990s some gaming historians including . while the outcome of any particular hand significantly involves chance. quranicpath. In standard poker. proceeds clockwise around the table and each player in turn must either match the maximum previous bet or fold. limits on bet sizes. and bluffing was the 15th century German game Pochspiel. to a widely popular spectator activity with international audiences and multi-million dollar tournament prizes. psychology and game theory. Poker has gained in popularity since the beginning of the 20th Century. is undoubtedly the Persian game of as nas. as first played in the United States. and has gone from being primarily a recreational activity confined to small groups of mostly male enthusiasts. or increase the bet. how hands may be formed. One of the earliest known games to incorporate betting. then the remaining player collects the pot and may choose to show or conceal their hand. Poker closely resembles the Persian game of Âs Nas. whether the high or low hand wins the pot in a showdown (in some games. With the exception of initial forced bets. Foster wrote: "the game of poker. html Poker Poker is a family of card games that share betting rules and usually (but not always) hand rankings. If all but one player fold on any round.Nikah 49 External links • QuranicPath | Marriage of Believers [1] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ quranicpath/ marriage. "Hold 'em" is currently the most popular will be the highest ranked. The action then form of poker. with women being a constantly growing part of that audience. History The history of poker is the subject of some debate. hand rankings. the first round of betting begins with some form of forced bet by one of the players. and how many rounds of betting are allowed. If more than one player remains in contention after the final betting round.[1] In the 1937 edition of Foster's Complete Hoyle. F. Thus. A player who matches a bet may also "raise". the pot is split between the high and low hands). rationally believes the bet has positive expected value.

B. 1843). The English game brag (earlier bragg) clearly descended from brelan and incorporated bluffing (though the concept was known in other games by that time). Soon after this spread. It was played in a variety of forms. and Puggy Pearson. The game and jargon of poker have become important parts of American culture and English culture. Atlantic City. it was featured in at least 10 episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation as a weekly event of the senior staff of the fictional ship's crew. high roller. when the chips are down. and four players betting on which player's hand was the most valuable. • Later in the 1970s. Beginning in 1970 a series of developments led to poker becoming far more popular than it was previously: • Modern tournament play became popular in American casinos after the World Series of Poker began. Jonathan H. a French game similar to poker. on which gambling was a common pastime. cash in. The name of the game likely descended from the Irish Poca (Pron. As it spread north along the Mississippi River and to the West during the gold rush. described the spread of the game from there to the rest of the country by Mississippi riverboats. It is commonly regarded as sharing ancestry with the Renaissance game of primero and the French brelan. For example. Zieber. notably Super/System by Doyle Brunson (ISBN 1-58042-081-8) and Caro's Book of Poker Tells by Mike Caro (ISBN 0-89746-100-2). the first serious poker strategy books appeared. 'to knock').[3] It is quite possible that all of these earlier games influenced the development of poker as it exists now. stack up. followed later by The Theory of Poker by David Sklansky (ISBN 1-880685-00-0). Doyle Brunson. Philadelphia. many additions were made including stud poker (the five-card variant). which is trivial and could have been derived from any number of games or made up on general cardplay principles.[10] During the American Civil War. the full 52-card English deck was used and the flush was introduced. Pokah) ('Pocket') or even the French poque. poker was being depicted in popular culture as a commonplace recreational activity. 50 Poker Room at the Trump Taj Mahal. such as the wild card (around 1875). with 52 cards.[8] [9] English actor Joseph Crowell reported that the game was played in New Orleans in 1829. with a deck of 20 cards. call one's bluff. Green's book. and community card poker games (around 1925). An Exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gambling (G.[12] . in the early or mid-18th century.Poker David Parlett started to challenge the notion that poker is a direct derivative of As Nas. Further American developments followed. 20 card poker was a variant for two players (it is a common English practice to reduce the deck in card games when there are fewer players). poker face.[6] The unique features of poker have to do with the betting. and others are used in everyday conversation. was played around the region where poker is said to have originated. and spread throughout the Mississippi River region by 1800. lowball and split-pot poker (around 1900). it is thought to have become a part of the frontier pioneer ethos. and included both straight poker and stud. The draw was added prior to 1850 (when it was first mentioned in print in a handbook of games).[5] In this view poker originated much later. up the ante.[7] The development of poker is linked to the historical movement that also saw the invention of commercial gambling. even by those unaware of their origins at the poker table. Bobby Baldwin. wild card. ace up one's sleeve.[4] Yet it is not clear whether the origins of poker itself lie with the games bearing those names. A modern school of thought rejects these ancestries.[2] There is evidence that a game called poque. pass the buck.[5] as they focus on the card play in poker. in 1970. Amarillo Slim. Such phrases and clichés as ace in the hole. and do not appear in any known older game. beats me.[11] Notable champions from these early WSOP tournaments include Johnny Moss. New Jersey • By the 1980s. and the straight. blue chip. which descended from the German pochen ('to brag as a bluff' lit.

no cards are required to be shown. Chris Moneymaker and Greg Raymer. and the dealer deals the appropriate number of cards to the players one at a time. Between rounds. the hand ends immediately. there is a showdown. beginning with the player to their left.[13] • In 1998. Bluffing is a primary feature of poker. The dealer shuffles the cards. Not only could viewers now follow the action and drama of the game on television.Poker • In the 1990s. in part because of the growing popularity of online satellite-qualifier tournaments where the prize is an entry into a major tournament. One or more players are usually required to make forced bets. In a casino. Television coverage also added an important new dimension to the poker professional's game. if more than one player remains. in which the players reveal their previously hidden cards and evaluate their hands.[15] After the passage of the UIGEA in October 2006. attendance at live tournaments as well as participation in live and online cash games initially slowed. introducing poker for the first time to many Europeans. and the next hand begins. The cards are dealt clockwise around the table. poker and casino gambling spread across the United States. After the initial deal. won their seats to the main event by winning online satellites. Since 2003. as any given hand could now be aired later. Broadcasts of poker tournaments such as the World Series of Poker and World Poker Tour brought in huge audiences for cable and satellite TV distributors. revealing information not only to the other players at the table. Cards may be dealt either face-up or face-down. the bettor is awarded the pot. the best five cards play. .[14] Poker's popularity experienced an unprecedented spike at the beginning of the 21st century. but to anyone who cared to view the broadcast. one at a time. the players' hands develop in some way. with poker fans all over the world entering into tournaments for the chance to compete with them. A poker hand comprises five cards. major poker tournament fields have grown dramatically. which turned the game into a spectator sport. most notably to Atlantic City. but the button (typically a white plastic disk) is rotated clockwise among the players to indicate a nominal dealer to determine the order of betting. often by being dealt additional cards or replacing cards previously dealt. they could also play the game in the comfort of their own home. one that distinguishes it from other vying games and from other games that make use of poker hand rankings. At the end of the last betting round.319 entrants to the 2010 main event. At the end of each round. the player on the chair to their right cuts. The growth and popularity of poker can be seen in the WSOP which had a record 7. the first of what may be several betting rounds begins. Planet Poker dealt the first real money online poker game. if one player bets and no opponents choose to call (match) the bet and all opponents instead fold. This is what makes bluffing possible. usually either an ante or a blind bet (sometimes both). depending on the variant of poker being played. • In 1999. poker pros became celebrities. The player with the best hand according to the poker variant being played wins the pot. Late Night Poker debuted on British television. At any time during a betting round. all bets are gathered into the central pot. however they are still growing and far more popular today than they were prior to 2003. in variants where a player has more than five cards. Because of the increased coverage of poker events.[16] 51 Gameplay In casual play. largely because of the introduction of online poker and hole-card cameras. New Jersey. a house dealer handles the cards for each hand. The 2003 and 2004 World Series of Poker champions. respectively. the right to deal a hand typically rotates among the players and is marked by a token called a dealer button (or buck).

players are dealt an incomplete hand of face-down cards. each of which can be used by one or more of the players to make a 5-card hand. each player bets against the house. Draw poker A complete hand is dealt to each player. players are allowed to attempt to change their hand (with the object of improving it) by discarding unwanted cards and being dealt new ones. There are three main families of variants. Texas hold-em and Omaha are two well-known variants of the Community family. as poker progressed from three to five-card hands. based on the difference in values of the first two cards. most video poker machines play draw poker. For the player to win. Five-card draw is the most famous variation in this family. or streets. This is the oldest poker family.K. This game is more similar to Blackjack in its layout and betting. . Since it depends only on the basic mechanic of betting in rounds. the root of the game as currently played was a game known as Primero. all following a similar pattern of play and generally using the same hand ranking hierarchy. with a betting round between each. a hand is dealt. and then a number of face-up community cards are dealt to the center of the table. deals two extra cards to each player (three face-down. it is usually based on simple variants with few betting rounds.Poker 52 Variants Poker has many variations. This is the next-oldest family. Stud poker Cards are dealt in a prearranged combination of face-down and WSOP Main Event Table face-up rounds. however. strip poker can be played with any form of poker. like five card draw. Payout is dependent on the hand resulting after the draw and the player's initial bet. and players bet in one round. Video poker is a single-player computer game that functions much like a slot machine. largely grouped by the protocol of card-dealing and betting: Straight A complete hand is dealt to each player. Other games that use poker hand rankings may likewise be referred to as poker. and the player can discard and replace cards. and after betting. with raising and re-raising allowed. where the player bets. they were often dealt one card at a time. today. and then is dealt two cards. Other poker-like games played at casinos against the house include three card poker and pai gow poker. is called Acey-Deucey or Red Dog poker. Strip poker is a traditional poker variation where players remove clothing when they lose bets. Another game with the poker name. but with a vastly different mode of play. The most popular stud variant today. the third card dealt (after an opportunity to raise the bet) must have a value in between the first two. which evolved into the game three-card brag. a very popular gentleman's game around the time of the American Revolutionary War and still enjoyed in the U. four face-up) from which they must make the best possible 5-card hand. Community card poker (also known as flop poker) A variation of Stud. seven-card stud. Payout is based on the odds that this is possible. either face-down or face-up. face-down. Straight hands of five cards are sometimes used as a final showdown. but poker is currently virtually always played in a more complex form to allow for additional strategy. with a round of betting following each.

ISBN 978-04701273152 [6] Stephen Longstreet. 2009-03-06. Gotham (2007). channel4.dmoz.Poker 53 Notes [1] Pagat. 2007-10-22. Glitz. [16] "WSOP 2010 Results . Douglas Harper. unlv. Roll the Bones: The History of Gambling. etymonline. ISBN 978-0-672-52253-6 [7] Aaron Brown. Bobbs-Merrill (1977). Answers. . com/ wsop/ ). . com/ dictionary_1861738282/ poker. ISBN 978-0-470-12731-5 [8] David G. pagat. php?id=289). at the Open Directory Project • Poker (http://dir. . Anners (1850) [11] "World Series of Poker: A Retrospective" (http:/ / gaming. .yahoo. ISBN 978-0-8129-2807-5 [10] Henry G. cardplayer.). John Wiley & Sons (2006). Retrieved 2009-03-20. and Aaron Brown. [3] "MSN Encarta: Poker" (http:/ / encarta. com/ viewarticle. The Poker Face of Wall Street. [12] Poker News article (http:/ / www. Bond (ed. pokerplayernewspaper. [4] "Online Etymology Dictionary — term: poker" (http:/ / www. Bad Bet : The Inside Story of the Glamour. pokerstars. edu/ WSOP/ history. [5] Reuven and Gabrielle Brenner. External links • Poker (http://www. PokerStars. com/ topic/ chris-moneymaker). . Retrieved 2009-03-20. Retrieved 2009-03-20. Cardplayer. [14] "Late Night Poker: About the Show" (http:/ / A History of Poker (http:/ / www. htm) [13] "United States of Poker: New Jersey" (http:/ / www. MSN Encarta: Poker. A World of Chance: Betting on Religion. at the Yahoo! Directory . com/ entertainment/ tv/ microsites/ P/ poker/ about_the_show. Schwartz. com/ index. [15] "Chris Moneymaker on" (http:/ / www. html) by David Parlett [2] "History of Poker" (http:/ / www. . Cambridge University Press (2008). Retrieved 2009-03-20. . Retrieved Retrieved 2011-01-22. Channel4. Henry F. com/ vying/ pokerhistory.World Series of Poker Champion Jonathan Duhamel" (http:/ / www. ISBN 978-1-59240-316-5 [9] Timothy O' Retrieved 2009-03-20. Bohn's New Handbook of Games. . 1975-11-21. php?term=poker). answers. Win or Lose: A Social History of Gambling in America . html).unlv. Crown Business (1998).com. html). Retrieved 2007-10-03. and Danger of America's Gambling Industry. Wall Street. com/ news/ 2009/ 05/ poker-pop-culture-star-trek-the-next-generation-6576. com/ history_of_poker/ article/ 7-poque-or-poqas-to-pokuh). html). 2011-01-22.

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