our future energy
By : Group 3 December 2012

Group 3:
 Khatlya Rivana P. (104 11 008)  Wuddan Nadhirah R. (104 11 013)

 Aulia Nur Annisa (104 11 030)
 Lika Rosliana (104 11 040)  Fatima Kudsyana (104 11 041)

 Decreasing unrenewable energy resources such as coal and

petroleum in the world.
 The use of energy resources that also contributes as food

consumption such as corns, palm oil, coconut oil, and other plants increases the demand. This affects to unefficient use of food resouces in Indonesia.

Many Resources Today

Indonesia Energy Balance 2006-2015

 Increasing greenhouse gas (GHG)  Global climate change
 Atmospheric CO2 has increased from 280 to 368 ppm in the

last 200 years and is responsible for about 50% enhancement in the greenhouse effect (Karube et al., 1992).
 Global oil production is rapidly approaching its peak,

expensive, destructive, and risky deepwater and polar oil.
 In 2004, the total Indonesian consumption of petroleum-based

fuels was 60.06 million kilolitres (KL), while total production from the existing refineries in Indonesia in 2005 was only .9 million KL. The rest had to be imported (DOE, Indonesia, 2005).

Primary Energy Supply

Energy Demand

On the other hand
 Demand for energy will not disappear.

 Solution: Fossil fuel use  renewable fuels that do not add

CO2 to the atmosphere.  If CO2 emission rates are not reduced or eliminated, significant environmental damage is likely to result (Huesemann, 2006).  The potential worldwide effects from global warming increase in average atmospheric and oceanic temperatures, has led to an increase in efforts to develop
reliable, economically feasible, and sustainable alternative energy sources to replace coal and petroleum (Pak, et al., 1991)
1. 2. 3.

So we have to find the alternative of energy source that also fit the characteristic of indonesian resources.
Let’s find!

Potency of Renewable Resources

What we have in Indonesia ???


Raja Ampat

What we have in Indonesia ?
 Archipelago country with the length of coastal area

more than 80,000 km.  Tropical climate, with high sunlight exposure and relatively constant temperatures in the whole year.  Abundant microalgae varieties (fresh/brackish water, marine).  Availability of other resources: CO2, land, water.

The Importance
 Algae is easy to grow  Can produce a high yield of oil  Oil can be processed into biodiesel  Help to solve dependence on fossil fuels  Can be better for the Earth

What is Algae?
 Algae  Simple plant  Most live in water  Photosynthetic
 Capture light energy
 Convert inorganic to organic matter

 Nonvascular  Use lipids and oils to help float in water  Range from small, single-celled species to complex multicellular

species, such as the giant kelps

 Red Algae  Benthic  Macro  Green Algae  Chlorophyll a and b  Plants  Freshwater  Brown Algae  Benthic  Macro  Kelp  Marine

Types of Algae

 Diatoms  Single celled  Silica cell wall  Blue Green Algae  Vertical migration  Fix N2 from air  Freshwater

 Dinoflagellates  Toxic; suck out O2  Cause red tides  Organic matter


 In case deep concrete ponds is used for marine /brackish microalgae culture, the amount of water

and land required is estimated below, with assumptions that yield of oil extraction can reach 30%.
 Better system production design is expected to reduce the water needs significantly.

Why make it a fuel?
 Algae can be used to make biodiesel  Produces large amounts oil  When compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose  Algae contain anywhere between 2% and 40% of lipids/oils by weight  Once harvested, this oil can be converted into fuels for transportation, aviation or heating

 High growth rate and easy to grow  Warm Seasons
 Amphora sp.  Tetraselmis suecica

 Cold Seasons
 Monoraphidium minutum

 Use of diatoms and green algae

Micro-algae Biotechnology

The Conclusion !
 Marine microalgae has
water and land resources.

developed in Indonesia compare to freshwater type, in terms of CO2,
 Indonesia has long

better potential to be

culture for hatchery.  Indonesia ‘s climate and its geographic is favorable to

experience in marine microalgae

microalgae-based biofuel.  In recent years, the research works on microalgae for biofuel especially for lipid production has

develop low cost production system of


gained more

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