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Submitted for partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of :-


Under the supervision of MS Ranjeeta Popli

submitted by: MANISH SINGH ENROLLMENT NO. 01219103912

GITARATTAN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL ( Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University )

Madhuban Chowk, ROHINI, DELHI - 110085

CONTENTS: Topics No. 1. MS-DOS 2. HTML 3. SPREADSHEETS 4. SQL Page 03 - 09 10 - 19 20 - 38 39 - 48


Disk operating System (DOS)

DOS was developed by Microsoft primarily as a single user operating system working on Personal Computers. From 1981 till now many versions starting from version 1.0 till 6.2 have been released. Each successive version had its enhancements aimed at improving the management of the computer resources available to the users. COMPONENTS OF MS DOS: BOOT RECORD MSDOS.SYST IO.SYS COMMAND.COM

BOOTING: Process that starts up a computer system is called booting. It searches for operating system and when located loads it into the main memory. TYPES OF BOOTING:
1. COLD BOOTING:It is done by turning on the

computer. 2. WARM BOOTING: It is performed by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL keys simultaneously.

DOS Commands: A DOS command helps you to give instruction to the operating system in Character User Interface (CUI) environment. Using DOS commands, you can perform various tasks, such as creating and managing files and folders and monitoring your system resources. To create and manage files and folders, perform the following steps:
1. Click the Start button, and then select Run. 2. In the Run dialog box, type cmd in the Run box.

3. Click the OK button.

The Command Prompt window is displayed.

In the Command Prompt window, the command is given after the command prompt and the Enter key is pressed to execute the command. As the drive displayed is the user directory, change the drive to D: drive by giving following command at the command prompt. C:\Users\user>D:


1. INTERNAL COMMANDS: Such commands are

automatically loaded into the computers memory during the booting process. They are executable immediately after getting the dos prompt.
2. EXTERNAL COMMANDS: these commands are meant for

special purpose. They are found on hard disk or floppy disk. They are loaded into the memory only when called.

1. INTERNAL COMMANDS: VER: VER command displays the version or release number of the O/S. The version number indicates which edition of O/S you are working on. SYNTAX: VER< enter> EXAMPLE: C:\> VER VOL: It is used to display volume label and serial number of the current drive. SYNTAX: VOL [drive] EXAMPLE: C:\>VOL DATE: It is used to display the current system date and prompt for entering new date. SYNTAX: DATE< enter> EXAMPLE: C:\>DATE TIME: Displays the current system time and prompt for entering new time. SYNTAX: TIME<enter>

EXAMPLE: C:\> TIME CLS: It clears the cluster screen. SYNTAX: CLS< enter> EXAMPLE: C:\> CLS TREE: It is used to display the directory structure of a specified directory graphically. SYNTAX: TREE[drive:][path][/f] [/f]: displays the names of the files in each directory.


In the DOS, each disk is organized into directories. Each Directory holds file. The default directory is the Root Directory and contains the minimum DOS files. The Root Directory cannot show more than 132 files in its directory listing.

Make Directory:

MD or MKDIR command is used to make directory. Syntax: MD [drive:] [path] [directory name] Or

MKDIR [drive:] [path] [directory name] Example: To create a new directory names Tim under C: drive, give following command: C:\>MD Tim



Change Directory:

You can change your working directory by issuing the CD command. Syntax: CD [drive:] [directory name] Example: To make Tim as current directory, give following command: C:\>CD Tim

PATH: This command defines a list of directories DOS searches for external commands. SYNTAX: PATH( Displays the current search path)

Deleting Directory:

RD command is used to remove a directory. Syntax: RD [drive:] [path]

Examples: To remove Tim directory from the C: drive, give the following command: C:\>RD Tim

Displaying Contents of a Directory

DIR command is used to display the contents of the directory. Syntax: DIR [drive:] [path] [/option] /option stand for various options that can be used with DIR command which are displayed in the following table: Option /p /w /s

Description Pause after each screenful Uses wide list format Also look in subdirectories

Creating text File:

COPY CON command is used to create a text file.

Syntax: COPY CON [filename] After the command is given at the command prompt, the cursor goes to the next line. Write the text and press Clt-Z key together to save the contents in the file. Then, press <Enter> key. Example:

To create a file client.txt under the current folder Tim, give the command: C:\Tim>copy con Client.txt Now, write Hi, How are you? Then press Clt-Z and then, Enter Key.

Displaying the Contents of a File:

TYPE command is used to display the contents of a file.

Syntax: Type [drive:] [path] [filename]

Example: C:\Tim>type Client.txt


Renaming File:

REN command is used to change the name of a file.

Syntax: REN [drive:] [path] [file name] [new filename] Example: To change the name of the file Client.txt to Client1.txt, give following command: C:\Tim>REN Client.txt Client1.txt

Copying Files:

COPY command is used to copy one or more files to an alternate

location. Syntax: COPY [source] [destination] Source Specifies the path of the file or files to be copied. Destination Specifies the path of the destination directory. Example: To


copy Client1.txt from the current Tim directory to Obama directory, give following command: C:\Tim>copy Client1.txt C:\Obama

Deleting Files:

DEL command is used to delete file or files from the disk.

Syntax: DEL [drive:] [path] [filename] Example: To delete Client1.txt from the Tim folder, give following command: C:\Tim>DEL Client1.txt



Moving Files:

MOVE command is used to move a file or files from one location to another location. SYNTAX: MOVE [drive:] [source] [drive:] [target]

EXAPMLE: To move case1.txt file from directory Tim to the directory Obama, give following command: C:\Tim>move Case1.txt C:\Obama FC: FC stands for file compare. It is used to compare two files or two sets of files. This command differentiates between the files and display the difference. SYNTAX: FC<files spec 1> <files spec 2> [/a][/b][/c][/l][/n] /a: displays only first and the last line of each group /b: compares the files in library mode /c: ignores the case of letters /l: compares the files in text mode /n: displays the line numbers for the lines that are different. EXAMPLE: FCfirst.txt second.txt\n and then press <ENTER>


This command is faster than copy command and allows you to copy entire directories including all the sub directories and files to destination. SYNTAX: XCOPY Source[target][/y][-y][/p][/e] /-y: prompts before copying over existing files. /y: overwrites existing files before promting. /p: ask before copying each file. /e: copying empty directory also. /s: copying subfolders. EXAMPLE: XCOPY C:\SAMS D:\SAMS/S/E DOSKEY:


DOS can remember only the last command you had entered. In order to make dos remember all the commands you enter you will have to load a DOSKEY utility. SYNTAX: DOSKEY and press <enter> Display message on the screen. DOSKEY installed. Note: To display all the commands from the history list on the screen. EXAMPLE: DOSKEY/History or/h <Enter>. ATTRIB: The attrib of a file indicates whether it is a: i. ii. iii. iv. Read only file Archive file Hidden file System file

Thus with the ATTRIB command you can check the attributes of a file. SYNTAX: ATTRIB [+r][+a][+h][/+s][filename] +r: read only attribute +a: archive attribute +h: hidden attribute +s: system attribute EXAMPLE: C:\> ATTRIB my.txt +R DELTREE: This command is used for deleting an entire directory whether in that directory contains files or subdirectories and also it will delete hidden files.


SYNTAX: DELTREE [drive:][path] directories[/y] EXAMPLE: C:\>DELTREE my.txt <ENTER> BATCH FILES: It is a collection of dos commands to perform a certain task. A BATCH FILE is nothing but sequence of operations step by step. SYNTAX: C:\> COPY CON A.bat<ENTER> Here, CON means console that is keyboard, A the file name and .bat is the extension of batch file. It is compulsory that a batch file must have extension . BAT.


Hypertext markup language (HTML) is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text, images and other material into visual or audible web pages. It is developed by World Wide Web consortium (W3C). It is not a programming Language. HTML is the set of markup tags. Extension of HTML files is .htm or .html. HTML Tags HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags

HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

HTML Element Syntax

An HTML element starts with a start tag / opening tag An HTML element ends with an end tag / closing tag The element content is everything between the start and the end tag Some HTML elements have empty content


Empty elements are closed in the start tag Most HTML elements can have attributes

HTML Attributes

HTML elements can have attributes Attributes provide additional information about an element Attributes are always specified in the start tag Attributes come in name/value pairs like: name="value"

Getting started with Examples.

HTML Headings
Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. <h1> defines the most important heading. <h6> defines the least important heading.

Save this file in [filename].html.


HTML Lines The <hr /> tag creates a horizontal line in an HTML page.



HTML Text Formatting

<b> tag is used for bold the text. <i> tag is used for italic the text. <u>tag is used for underline the text.


HTML Fonts



HTML Style



HTML Links
<a href> is used for HTML link.



HTML Images


HTML Tables
A table is divided into rows (with the <tr> tag), and each row is divided into data cells (with the <td> tag). td stands for "table data," and holds the content of a data cell. A <td> tag can contain text, links, images, lists, forms, other tables, etc.





Spreadsheet applications (sometimes referred to simply as spreadsheets) are computer programs that let you create and manipulate spreadsheets

electronically. In a spreadsheet application, each value sits in a cell. You can define what type of data is in each cell and how different cells depend on one another. The relationships between cells are called formulas, and the names of the cells are called labels. Some examples of spreadsheet usage:

Spreadsheets act like a calculator by automatically doing calculations. Spreadsheets are used for tracking personal investments, budgeting, invoices, inventory tracking, statistical analysis, numerical modeling, address books, telephone books, printing labels, etc. Spreadsheets are used in almost every profession to calculate, graph, analyze and store information. Spreadsheets are used for What-if calculations. Change one number in a spreadsheet and all the calculations in a large spreadsheet will re-calculate, will automatically change.

There are a number of spreadsheet on the market, Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel being among the most famous. The more powerful spreadsheet applications support graphics features that enable you to produce charts and graphs from the data. Here we will discuss about MS-EXCEL. Microsoft Excel is a proprietary commercial spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office. The current versions are 2010 for Microsoft Windows and 2011 for Mac OS X.

Step of Opening Ms-Excel

Start All Programs - Microsoft Office Microsoft Office Excel Or Start Run type excel and press OK The first page of Microsoft Excel 2007



Microsoft Excel consists of worksheets. Each worksheet contains columns and rows. The columns are lettered A to Z and then continuing with AA, AB, AC and so on; the rows are numbered 1 to 1,048,576.


The Formula Bar

If the Formula bar is turned on, the cell address of the cell you are in displays in the Name box which is located on the left side of the Formula bar. Cell entries display on the right side of the Formula bar.

The Status Bar

The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the Excel window and provides such information as the sum, average, minimum, and maximum value of selected numbers. You can change what displays on the Status bar by right-clicking on the Status bar and selecting the options you want from the Customize Status Bar menu. You click a menu item to select it.

Excel Formulas


A formula is a set of mathematical instructions that can be used in Excel to perform calculations. Formals are started in the formula box with an = sign.

There are many elements to and excel formula. References: The cell or range of cells that you want to use in your calculation Operators: Symbols (+, -, *, /, etc.) that specify the calculation to be performed Constants: Numbers or text values that do not change Functions: Predefined formulas in Excel To create a basic formula in Excel:

Select the cell for the formula Type = (the equal sign) and the formula Click Enter

Calculate with Functions A function is a built in formula in Excel. A function has a name and arguments (the mathematical function) in parentheses.

Common functions in Excel: Sum: Adds all cells in the argument Average: Calculates the average of the cells in the argument Min: Finds the minimum value Max: Finds the maximum value Count: Finds the number of cells that contain a numerical value within a range of the argument To calculate a function:

Click the cell where you want the function applied Click the Insert Function button Choose the function Click OK

Complete the Number 1 box with the first cell in the range that you want calculated Complete the Number 2 box with the last cell in the range that you want calculated


Function Library The function library is a large group of functions on the Formula Tab of the Ribbon. These functions include:

AutoSum: Easily calculates the sum of a range Recently Used: All recently used functions Financial: Accrued interest, cash flow return rates and additional financial functions Logical: And, If, True, False, etc. Text: Text based functions Date & Time: Functions calculated on date and time Math & Trig: Mathematical Functions


Sort and Filter

Sorting and Filtering allow you to manipulate data in a worksheet based on given set of criteria.

Basic Sorts To execute a basic descending or ascending sort based on one column:

Highlight the cells that will be sorted Click the Sort & Filter button on the Home tab Click the Sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button


Custom Sorts To sort on the basis of more than one column:

Click the Sort & Filter button on the Home tab Choose which column you want to sort by first Click Add Level Choose the next column you want to sort Click OK



Filtering allows you to display only data that meets certain criteria. To filter:

Click the column or columns that contain the data you wish to filter On the Home tab, click on Sort & Filter Click Filter button Click the Arrow at the bottom of the first cell Click the Text Filter Click the Words you wish to Filter


To clear the filter click the Sort & Filter button Click Clear

Charts allow you to present information contained in the worksheet in a graphic format. Excel offers many types of charts including: Column, Line, Pie, Bar, Area, Scatter and more. To view the charts available click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon. Create a Chart To create a chart:

Select the cells that contain the data you want to use in the chart Click the Insert tab on the Ribbon Click the type of Chart you want to create


Modify a Chart Once you have created a chart you can do several things to modify the chart. To move the chart:

Click the Chart and Drag it another location on the same worksheet, or Click the Move Chart button on the Design tab Choose the desired location (either a new sheet or a current sheet in the workbook)

To change the data included in the chart:

Click the Chart Click the Select Data button on the Design tab


To reverse which data are displayed in the rows and columns:

Click the Chart Click the Switch Row/Column button on the Design tab

To modify the labels and titles:

Click the Chart On the Layout tab, click the Chart Title or the Data Labels button Change the Title and click Enter


Chart Tools The Chart Tools appear on the Ribbon when you click on the chart. The tools are located on three tabs: Design, Layout, and Format. Within the Design tab you can control the chart type, layout, styles, and location.

Within the Layout tab you can control inserting pictures, shapes and text boxes, labels, axes, background, and analysis.

Within the Format tab you can modify shape styles, word styles and size of the chart.


Copy a Chart to Word

Select the chart Click Copy on the Home tab Go to the Word document where you want the chart located Click Paste on the Home tab

Pivot Table
An Excel pivot table is a special kind of table that assembles and summarizes information from a designated data source. That data source can be an external file or it can be a selection of cells in a worksheet. When creating the pivot table, you specify what fields need to appear and how to organize the data in the table. Once created, you can change the way that the data is summarized to give you a different view of your information, and it is this feature that puts the pivot in pivot table.

In this example the source data contains information about property insurance policies. Each row has the details about one insurance policy, such as the region, state, construction type and the value of the insured property.


Creating a Simple Pivot Table

After your source data is prepared, you can create a pivot table. We'll create a pivot table that shows the total insured value in each of the four regions where we sell insurance. 1. Select any cell in the source data table. 2. On the Ribbon, click the Insert tab. 3. In the Tables group, click PivotTable.

4. In the Create PivotTable dialog box, the address of your source data table should be automatically entered in the Table/Range box. If not, click on the worksheet, and select the range manually.


5. Next, select New Worksheet or Existing Worksheet as the location for your pivot table, and then click OK.

Adding Fields to the Pivot Table

An empty pivot table is created in your workbook, either on a new sheet, or the existing sheet that you selected. When you select a cell within the pivot table, a PivotTable Field List appears, at the right of the worksheet.


We want to see the total insured value in each of the four regions, so we'll add the Region and Insured Value fields to the pivot table. 1. In the PivotTable Field List, add a check mark to the Region field. The Region field is automatically added to the pivot table, in the Row Labels area.

2. Add a check mark to the Insured Value field, and it will be automatically added to the Values area. You can now see the total insured value in each region.


Modifying the Pivot Table

After you've created a pivot table, you can add more fields, remove fields, or move the fields to a different location in the pivot table layout. We'll remove the Region field, and add the Location field, to see the value of rural policies compared to Urban. 1. To remove the Region field, click on its check box, to remove the check mark. 2. To add the Location field, click on its check box, to add a check mark. The pivot table now shows the totals for Rural and Urban locations.


Database oriented approach of organizing data provides a set of programs to facilitate users to organize, create, delete, update and manipulate data. All these programs together form a DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(DBMS). RELATIONAL DATABASES: A relational database organizes its data elements as multiple tables with rows and columns. It stores each table as a seperate file. Each table column represents a a data field and each row represents a data record, also known as tupple. Relational Database Management System(RDBMS) provides greater flexibility of data organization and future enhancements in database as

compared to older models of DBMS such as Hierarchical and Network database models. RDBMS models are found as intuitive models of real life situations by its users since it is easier to understand and use. SQL is a part of RDBMS.

SQL Introduction
SQL stands for Structured Query Language and can be pronounced as SQL or sequel (Structured English Query Language). SQL was first commercially implemented by ORACLE CORPORATION in the year 1979. Some of the features which are found to be new in SQL92 standard are:

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Schema definition statements Temporary statements Built-in join operators Read-only, scrollable and dynamic cursors Standardized connection procedure Altering and dropping objects Standardized error codes and diagnostics

Characteristics of SQL:
1. SQL is oriented specifically around relational databases.

2. SQL commands can operate on several groups of tables as single objects. 3. SQL allows use of temporary tables. 4. SQL is well suited to a client server environment ,where the DBMS resides on a server and services the clients request. 5. SQL provides a flexible transaction management. 6. SQL allows the user to specify constraints. 7. SQL allows users to create domains as objects in a schema.

Advantages of SQL:


1. 2. 3. 4.

Provides creating, deleting and modifying table structure. Defining the relationships between two or more tables. Inserting data into tables. Extracting data in meaningful ways, based on the tables defined relationships. 5. Updating data. 6. Controlling a database.

Types of SQL: Interactive SQL: it is used to operate directly on a database to produce output for desired purpose. In this form of SQL, a command is entered and executed. The output can be seen immediately. Embedded SQL: it consists of SQ put inside the programs which are written in other high level language such as COBOL, Pascal,C or C++. This method makes query system more powerful and efficient.

SQL is a query language used for accessing and modifying information in the database. IBM first developed SQL in 1970s. Also it is an ANSI/ISO standard. It has become a Standard Universal Language used by most of the relational database management systems (RDBMS). Some of the RDBMS systems are: Oracle, Microsoft SQL server, Sybase etc. Most of these have provided their own implementation thus enhancing its feature and making it a powerful tool. Few of the sql commands used in sql programming are SELECT Statement, UPDATE Statement, INSERT INTO Statement, DELETE Statement, WHERE Clause, ORDER BY Clause, GROUP BY Clause, ORDER Clause, Joins, Views, GROUP Functions, Indexes etc.




Constraints are used to limit the type of data that can go into a table. Constraints can be specified when a table is created (with the CREATE TABLE statement) or after the table is created (with the ALTER TABLE statement). We will focus on the following constraints:


1. NOT NULL: It prevents a column from accepting null values.

NULL value does not mean zero value, it just means absence of any data in that column. 2.UNIQUE: it ensures that the values entered into a column are all different,i.e,unique. The UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints both provide a guarantee for uniqueness for a column or set of columns.
A PRIMARY KEY constraint automatically has a UNIQUE constraint defined on it.

3.PRIMARY KEY: to declare a column as primary key of the table, use the PRIMARY KEY constraint. There can be only one primary key in a table. 4.CHECK: this constraint is used to control the values entered into a field.a condition has to be specified along with the CHECK constraint which must be satisfied by all the values being entered into the column. Otherwise the value will be rejected. 5.DEFAULT: it is used to assign default values to a column, before any value is assigned to it.


In a simple manner, SQL is a non-procedural, English-like language that processes data in groups of records rather than one record at a time. Few significant functions of SQL are:

store data modify data retrieve data modify data delete data create tables and other database objects delete data

Types of SQL statements

There are three basic types of SQL statements:

Data definition language (DDL) statements Data manipulation language (DML) statements Dynamic SQL statements

Data definition language commands: Create a Database

Syntax: CREATE DATABASE <database name> <additional parameters> Example: CREATE DATABASE gibs


Create a Table
Syntax: CREATE TABLE <table name> ( <table element>, <table element>, . . . ); Example:


Create table student ( Student_id char (10), Student_Fname varchar (10), Student_Lname varchar(10), Student_address varchar(15), Student_dob datetime )

Alter Table Alter table command can change the definition of a table even after creating it. This command can add columns to the table, change their sizes, change their datatypes, or add or delete constraints.

Syntax: Alter table <table name>


Add <table element> Example: Alter table customer Add cust_id varchar (20)

Drop table DROP TABLE command removes the table definition from a database.


Syntax: Drop table <table name> Example: Drop table student;


Data manipulation language commands:

Insert values into Table

Syntax: Insert into <table_name> values (<value>, <value> , .); Example: Insert into student values (001, sanjeev, gupta, delhi, 04-122010);


Retrieving Data from Table

Syntax: Select * from <table name> Retrieve some specific data. Select <table element > from <table name> where <condition>



Deleting data from the table: User can remove rows from a table with the delete command. this command removes specific rows from a table and not the individual field values. SYNTAX: delete from <table name> where <condition>;

EXAMPLE:delete from employee Where emp_code= 104; Data control language: It is another portion of SQL which allows definition of a security mechanism or scheme for protecting data from unauthorized access. Data control language consists of features

that determine whether a user ais permitted to perform a particular action. It contains commands like GRANT, REVOKE,etc.