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Written by: IRMAWATI AHMAD AG-3 40300109042
ENGLISH AND LITERATURE DEPARTMENT ADAB AND HUMANITIES FACULTY STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR 2012
Additionally. it is generally believed that before then books were written mainly for adults. most printed works were hard to come by due to their cost and were mostly available for purchase only by upper class society.CHILDREN'S LITERATURE Children's literature as such probably started in the 17th century. Scholarship on children's literature includes professional organizations. . dedicated publications and university courses.
 One of many .which embodies many of the educational and philosophical tenets espoused by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Maria and Richard Lovell Edgeworth's Practical Education: The History of Harry and Lucy (1780). books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become. Charles Perrault (1628–1703) laid the foundations of the fairy tale in France. such as Snow White. In the early 19th century the brothers Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm wrote down and preserved tales told by oral tradition in Germany. though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults. Influential authors: John Bunyan (1628–1688) . Sleeping Beauty. Rapunzel. But by the time William Blake's Songs of Innocence was published in 1789. which urged children to teach themselves.A Little Pretty Pocket-Book Intended for the Instruction and Amusement of Little Master Tommy and Pretty Miss Molly 19th Century Wilhelm (left) and Jakob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann.A Token For Children 18th Century In 1744 John Newbery published A Little Pretty Pocket-Book in England. Recent research suggests that many such tales were based ultimately on written materials. "a clear but subordinate branch of English literature. James Janeway (1636–1674) ." Popular examples of this growing branch included Thomas Day's The History of Sandford and Merton (1783-9) . It is considered a landmark for the beginning of pleasure reading marketed specifically to children. 17th Century In 1658 Jan Ámos Komenský published the illustrated informational book Orbis Pictus in Bohemia. Also during this time. and Hansel and Gretel (1812). usually French or Italian. It is considered to be the first picture book published specifically for children. Influential authors: John Newbery (1713–1767) . Harvey Darton. and Cinderella. Previously. literature marketed for children had been intended to instruct the young.Pilgrim's Progress. His stories include Little Red Riding Hood. according to F.J. Puss in Boots. He sold it with a ball for boys or a pincushion for girls.
or the Silver Skates. His fairy tales have been translated into over 150 languages and continue to be published in millions of copies all over the world and inspired many other works. The tale plays with logic in ways that have given the story lasting popularity to adults as well as children. the story of a Dutch boy who seeks a speed skating prize--silver skates--in a boy's race. Hans lets a friend win. Traditionally considered a coming-of-age story. and its narrative course and structure has been enormously influential. From 1830 to 1834 Russian poet Alexander Pushkin published his Russian folklore-based fairy tales in verse: The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda (1830). "The emperor's new clothes" and "ugly duckling" are expressions that have passed into the English language. In 1883 Robert Louis Stevenson wrote the classic pirate adventure novel Treasure Island. The Tale of Tsar Saltan (1831). . The Snow Queen (1845) and others. The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (1833). Between 1835 and 1848 Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) of Denmark published his beloved fairy tales: The Little Mermaid (1836). The Tale of the Golden Cockerel (1834). It is considered to be one of the most characteristic examples of the genre of literary nonsense. In 1865 Lewis Carroll (1832–1898) published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in England. The Tale of the Dead Princess (1833). and its influence on popular perception of pirates is vast. In 1881 Joel Chandler Harris (1845–1908) published Uncle Remus. The Emperor's New Clothes (1837). Also in 1865. During Andersen's lifetime he was feted by royalty and acclaimed for having brought joy to children across Europe. The subtitle declared that it is a book "for children and those who love children". The Ugly Duckling (1844). because the friend needs the prize more. mainly in the fantasy genre. In 1880 Johanna Spyri (1827–1901) published Heidi (1880) in Switzerland. a collection of stories narrated by the fictional storyteller Uncle Remus and featuring Br'er Rabbit and other animals speaking African-American dialect.didactic An English writer popular in the first half of the nineteenth century was Maria Elizabeth Budden. In 1883 Carlo Collodi wrote his puppet story. The Adventures of Pinocchio as a first Italian fantasy novel for the children of Italy. it is an adventure tale known for its atmosphere. and also a wry commentary on the ambiguity of morality—as seen in Long John Silver. character and action. Mary Mapes Dodge published Hans Brinker. It is one of the most frequently dramatised of all novels.
In 1926 A. He moved to the country. Its success led Baum to write thirteen sequels. followed in 1928. that follows Peter Rabbit. The Story of the Amulet 20th Century In 1902 Beatrix Potter published The Tale of Peter Rabbit. videos and other products made available. Milne wrote Winnie-the-Pooh. as he ventures into the garden of Mr. The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release with toys. In 1933 Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867–1957) published the first installment of the Little House on the Prairie series in the United States based on her childhood in a Western-pioneering family.M Barrie (1860–1937) published Peter and Wendy where Peter Pan. It has been constantly in print since. Other authors continued the series for decades.In 1894 Rudyard Kipling published The Jungle Book. The Phoenix and the Carpet. In 1911 J. The books were . It is one of the best-known stories in American culture and has been translated into 40 languages.The Railway Children. The House at Pooh Corner. chapter stories about an adorable bumbling teddy bear. Moroso (1874–1957) . In 1900 L. more Pooh stories. The books have remained continuously in print since their initial publication and are considered classics of American children's literature. Edith Nesbit (1858–1924) . a mischievous and disobedient young rabbit. the first of ten Doctor Dolittle books.Nobody's Buddy. Several of them were named Newbery Honor books. In 1920 Hugh Lofting wrote The Story of Doctor Dolittle. that has been made into a series of animated and live-action film adaptations. where he spent his time in the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do. In 1908 Kenneth Grahame wrote The Wind in the Willows from his retired position as secretary of the Bank of England. namely. Frank Baum (1856–1919) published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. A. clothing. foods. McGregor. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903. one of the most famous characters in children's literature. "simply messing about in boats" for his son. Influential authors: John A. Five Children and It. They remain widely read. magically refuses to grow up and spends his never-ending childhood in the small island called Neverland. dishes. a collection of stories about a boy who lives in the jungle with animals. his best friend Piglet. as one of the most famous phrases from the book says. and other animal characters.
In 1945 E. S. the first of a long series of books about a magical nanny and the children she shepherded. wrote Stuart Little. Hermione Granger and Ronald Weasley.The Doll's House. B. K. semi-anthropomorphic mouse who sailed a tiny boat and drove a tiny car. The Chronicles of Narnia has sold over 120 million copies in 41 languages. was published. The last Mary Poppins book was published in 1989. White (co-author of Strunk and White's The Elements of Style). in 1952. The Mousewife. Seuss books: The Cat in the Hat.also adapted into a long running. Also in 1957. Rumer Godden (1907–1998) . Seuss. as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales. In 2008. complete or in part. Travers wrote Mary Poppins. In 1950 C. for radio. Influential authors: Hardie Gramatky (1907–1979) . How the Grinch Stole Christmas. A few years later. the story of a barnyard spider and her animal friends. stage. and has been adapted several times. and cinema. wrote the first and best known of his Dr. At the end of the story. all leading up to an epic battle between good and evil. In addition to numerous traditional Christian themes. Seuss book. the series borrows characters and ideas from Greek and Roman mythology. the story of Charlie Bucket's adventures inside Willy Wonka's chocolate factory. In 1957 Theodore Seuss Geisel. in which 3 characters embark on new adventures across 7 books. The Diddakoi 21st Century In 2001. Lewis (1898–1963) published the first of installment of his Chronicles of Narnia series in the UK. titles from the series spent six weeks at number one and helped the Penguin Group post record profits in a tough economy . Little House on the Prairie. writing under the pen name Dr.Little Toot. popular American television series. White published Charlotte's Web. the next best known Dr. In 1964 Roald Dahl wrote Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. the story of an intelligent. Rowling wrote The Harry Potter Series. television. Several sequels followed. The main characters are Harry Potter. In 1934 Pamela L. Eoin Colfer (born 1965) published the first installment of his Artemis Fowl series in Ireland. Charlie wins a prize--the chocolate factory! In 1990 J.
Influential authors: Paula Danziger (1944–2004) . narrative artwork in the form of separate panels that represent individual scenes. Antonia Forest (1915–2003) . or comic magazine) is a magazine made up of comics. often accompanied by dialog (usually in word balloons.Autumn Term.The Cat Ate My Gymsuit. The first comic book appeared in the United States in 1933. reprinting the earlier newspaper comic strips. comic paper. The term "comic book" arose because the first comic books reprinted humor comic strips. Despite their name. Falconer's Lure & others in the Marlow Family series Comic Books A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a funny book. comic books are . emblematic of the comic book art form) as well as including brief descriptive prose. which established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. Amber Brown series.
or to the artistic style of such works. While the specific definition has changed over time. interesting things. modern usage refers to a typically non-realistic or semi-realistic drawing or painting intended for satire. or humor. A cartoon (from the Italian "cartone" and Dutch word "karton". to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate). heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting. but also for adult. but cartoon is not only for children. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes. modern comic books tell stories in a variety of genres. stained glass or tapestry. because comic tell about story with a picture and then the children like it very much. . caricature. because cartoon show the unique picture or character and the cartoonist made it for children. Cartoon A cartoon is a form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art. Cartoon is a part of children literature. meaning strong. Comic book also include as children literature because in comic book there are entertaining story.not necessarily humorous in tone.