1
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Reversible Gate Oxide Defect
Reversible Gate Oxide Defect
Recharging in
Recharging in
Nanoscale
Nanoscale
Field Effect
Field Effect
Transistors: Charge Annealing, Tunnel
Transistors: Charge Annealing, Tunnel
Gate Leakage, Random Telegraph
Gate Leakage, Random Telegraph
Signal and 1/f Noise
Signal and 1/f Noise
G.I. Zebrev, D.K. Batmanova, N.A. Samokhin
NATIONAL RESEARCH NUCLEAR UNIVERSITY, NATIONAL RESEARCH NUCLEAR UNIVERSITY, MOSCOW MOSCOW , RUSSIA , RUSSIA
2
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Gate Oxide Defect as Source of
Gate Oxide Defect as Source of
Instabilities
Instabilities
• Tunneling leakage currents are the fundamental problem which
determines the minimum thickness of the gate oxide.
• The main effect of radiation degradation consisted in radiation
induced trapped charge and interface traps buildup with
accompanying timedependent relaxation (“annealing”) resulting in
temporal instability of the MOSFET’s threshold voltage and
transconductance.
• The effect to be dealt with in this report is reversible recharging
process due to mutual carrier exchange between the nearinterfacial
oxide defects and the silicon substrate controlled by the Fermi level
position in the Si.
• The recharging of radiationinduced gate oxide defects controls three
main types of temporal instabilities in modern MOSFETs with ultrathin
gate oxides
 logarithmic in time charge annealing;
 radiationinduced random telegraph signal and 1/f noise;
 radiationinduced leakage currents (RILC) through gate oxides.
3
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Reversible Charge Relaxation
Reversible Charge Relaxation
• The carrier exchange
between the Si and traps
tend to restore the
equilibrium at given Fermi
level position or, the same,
at a given gate voltage Vg.
Those traps with energy
levels located outside of the
Fermi level variation range
cannot contribute to
reversible recharging.
• (a) annealing
• (b) emptying
4
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Non
Non


stationary Rate Equation
stationary Rate Equation
• Rate equation describing recharging kinetics of the nearinterfacial defects
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
i G
i
i i
C i
i
C i i
x
f
T x
f f
x
f f
dt
df
t c t t
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
exp
1 1
0 0
is nonequilibrium occupancy number of the
trap’s electronic level with specified
energy and spatial location
( )
i i i
x f f c , =
1
exp 1
÷


.

\

(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
T
E E
f
F C
C
( )

.

\


.

\

=
ì
c
t t
i a
i
x
T
x exp exp
00 0
 occupancy number at the edge of the Si conduction band;
 time constant of elastic tunneling from conductive band to the defect;
( )

.

\
 ÷
=
ì
t t
i
i G
x d
x exp
00
time of elastic tunneling from the defect to the gate
DC
t and
CD
t
are tunneling time constants, respectively, from the conductivity band to the
defect and vise versa, with taking into account the concentration of
electrons in the channel
5
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
The solution of
The solution of
nonstationary
nonstationary
kinetic equation
kinetic equation
• If initial conditions is
( )
( ) 0
0
i i
f t f = =
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0 0
exp 1
i
S
i
i
i i
f f
t
f t f ÷


.

\



.

\

÷ ÷ + =
t
, then solution of rate equation reads
where a notation for the new time constant was introduced
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 1 1
÷


.

\

+ + =
i G i SD i DS
i i
x x x
x
t t t
t
and stationary trapfilling can be written as follows
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
exp 1
÷


.

\


.

\

÷
+ + = =
T
E E
x
x
x
x
x f
F T
i G
i DC
i DC
i i
i
S
i
t
t
t
t
6
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Radiation
Radiation


Induced Charge
Induced Charge
Annealing
Annealing
• Tunnel relaxation of radiationinduced charge trapped in the gate oxides
has temporal logarithmic dependence
( ) ( )
2
0
0 0 min
, , 1 ln 1 .
t g ox
th eff
ox
qF K t
D
V D P P T
l P
ì
q
c c t
 
 
 
~ ÷ ÷ 




\ .
\ .
\ .
• Approximate logarithmic dependence is observed on temporal scales from 10
7
to 10
7
s !
• This is due to exponential scattering of tunnel time constants of recharging
7
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Modeling Radiation
Modeling Radiation


Induced
Induced
Leakage Current (RILC)
Leakage Current (RILC)
For the stationary case the tunneling current
through a single defect is
( ) ( )
1
exp 1
÷


.

\



.

\


.

\

÷
+ + =
T
E E
x x e I
F T
i G i DC i
t t
E
F
defect
silicon
oxide
gate
E
F
• This current is due to tunneling through radiationinduced defects states in the
oxide
• The typical thickness of the capture of positive charge near the interface SiSiO2
in the old devices is a few nanometers, that is equal to the thickness of the oxide of
modern devices.
• Therefore, distribution of defects in the oxide is assumed to be a priori uniform
8
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Monte
Monte


Carlo Simulations of
Carlo Simulations of
Stochastic Gate Leakage
Stochastic Gate Leakage
• RILC is stochastic value due to occasional defect position in energy and space
• One needs MonteCarlo simulation
• Many defects (100) correspond to Gaussian distribution over
samples due to selfaveraging
• A few defects (5) correspond to stochastic distribution even for
equal mean defect numbers
9
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Flicker (1/f) noise
Flicker (1/f) noise
• The main source of noise in MOSFET is low frequency 1/f noise.
• The 1/f noise in MOSFET relates primarily to the exchange of carriers between
the silicon and defects located in the gate dielectric near the interface SiSiO
2
.
• This process leads to fluctuations in the number of carriers in the channel and
corresponding changes in the channel current.
• Superposition of time fluctuations of the current arising from the recharge of
defects with different time constants (the socalled random telegraph signal,
STS, Random Telegraph Signal, RTS) gives 1/f spectrum.
Current fluctuation due to
a single oxide defect
recharging.
• Flicker noise is a superposition of random telegraph signals (RTS) from the
defects with a wide variety of time constants .
• The recharging of defects located near the source and drain electrodes,
practically does not affect the current in the channel, while the largest
contribution to the telegraph signal gives traps located approximately equal
distance from the drain and source.
10
Department of micro Department of micro  and and nanoelectronics nanoelectronics
gizebrev@mephi.ru ICMNE2009
Modeling 1/f noise
Modeling 1/f noise
Rate equation for the fluctuations of the occupancy number in locality a stationary
value with Langevin’s source
( ) t ¸
( ) t
f
dt
f d
i
i i
¸
t
o o
+ ÷ =
( )
}
· ÷


.

\

÷
÷ =
t
i
i
dt t
t t
f ' '
'
exp ¸
t
o
Full response function as a sum
of response functions of separate defects
( ) ( ) '
' '
'
min
1
max
1
t t
t t
E
t t
E
l
t t K ÷


.

\



.

\

÷
÷


.

\

÷
= ÷ u
t t
ì
( )
( )
(
¸
(
¸
+
=
(
¸
(
¸
}
·
0
2
0
2
0 1
0
arctan 2
1 ln
2
1
cos
sin
et
t e
e
t
e
e
t E
t
t
dt
CosFouriertransform of response function yields 1/f spectrum !
( )
1 1
( )
2 4
e K
l l f
ì t ì
e
e
9 ~ =
Mathematical property
of the integral exponential function: