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SIM UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEVELOPMENT OF MINIATURIZED MULTI-BAND ANTENNAS FOR MOBILE DEVICES

STUDENT NAME : ZHANG TAO STUDENT PI SUPERVISOR : K0706404 : DR SHEN ZHONG XIANG

PROJECT CODE : JAN2009/BEHE/49

Submitted to the School of Science and Technology in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics

November 2009

ABSTRACT
All of today's wireless communication systems contain one key element, an antenna of some form. This antenna serves as the transducer between the controlled energy residing within the system and the radiated energy existing in free space. In designing wireless systems, engineers must choose an antenna that meets the system's requirements to firmly close the link between the remote points of the communications system. This project is to develop of miniaturized multi-band antennas for mobile devices mainly design of square microstrip patch antenna. Basically the square microstrip patch antennas are analyzed and detailed exploration is conducted to determine the antenna's properties. The current distributions, bandwidth, radiation patterns and gain of the antenna are discussed. In addition, the time domain performance of the proposed antenna is also evaluated in simulations. The research results show that this kind of square microstrip patch antenna can radiate and receive short pulse signals without distortion. The result of study indicates that the improved antenna can realize good bandwidth performance as the square microstrip patch antenna, and it has low-cost, simple structural characteristics. The miniature square microstrip patch antenna and the improved type are suitable for the wireless communication systems, satellite communication systems and mobile communications systems with good prospects. I will summarise the accomplishment, performances of the design and the problems encountered during the whole project. Further improvements and recommendations to the project were also proposed.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 9
1.1 Overview of Microstrip Antenna..................................................................10 1.2 Project Objective.........................................................................................11 1.3 Proposed Approach ....................................................................................11 1.4 Organization of the Thesis..........................................................................11

Literature Review

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2.1 Introduction Microstrip Patch Antenna .......................................................12 2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages.................................................................13 2.3 Feeding Methods........................................................................................14 2.3.1 Microstrip Line Feed.............................................................................14 2.3.2 Coaxial Feed.........................................................................................15 2.3.3 Aperture Coupled Feed.........................................................................16 2.3.4 Proximity Coupled Feed.......................................................................16 2.4 Method of Analysis......................................................................................17 2.4.1 Transmission Line Model......................................................................17 2.4.2 Cavity Model.........................................................................................20 2.5 Multi-Band Antenna....................................................................................21 2.5.1 Definition of Multi-Band Antenna..........................................................21 2.5.2 Design of Multi-Band Antenna .............................................................22 2.6 Antenna Miniaturization Techniques...........................................................23

Square Microstrip Patch Antenna

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3.1 Introduction................................................................................................26 3.2 Design Specifications .................................................................................26 3.3 Design of Square Microstrip Antenna Using Theory Calculation.................26 3.3.1 Design Procedure ................................................................................27 3.4 Design of Square Microstrip Antenna using IE3D Simulator.......................29 3.4.1 Results of Simulation............................................................................30

Miniaturization Antenna Design

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4.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................34 4.2 Design Description......................................................................................34 4.2.1 Reduce dielectric constant technique.................................................34 4.2.2 Square patch with shorting GND technique........................................34 4.2.3 Increase of substrate thickness technique...........................................35
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4.2.4 Double layer half wave patch technique..............................................35 4.2.5 Combination of shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique...................................................................................................... 35 4.3 Results of Simulation using IE3D Simulator................................................36

Conclusions

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5.1 Thesis Contributions...................................................................................51 5.2 Future Work................................................................................................52

Reflections Acknowledgements References

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List of Figures
2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 Structure of a microstrip patch antenna Common shapes of microstrip patch elements Microstrip line feed Probes fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna Aperture-coupled feed Proximity-coupled feed Microstrip line Electric field lines Microstrip patch antennas 11 11 13 14 15 16 16 16 17 18 18 19 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 27 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 32
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2-10 Top view of antenna 2-11 Side view of antenna 2-12 Charge distribution and current density creation on the microstrip patch 2-13 Patch with slots yields longer patch length 2-14 Circular patch with slots and high dielectric constant substrate 2-15 Folding of a half- wave path 2-16 Folding of a quarter-wave patch 2-17 Inverted-F patch antenna post 2-18 Circular patch with shorting 2-19 Circular polarized wire antenna 2-20 Antenna height reduction utilizing photonic hand-gap material 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 (a) Top view of microstrip patch antenna (b) Side view of microstrip patch antenna (c) Overall design of microstrip patch antenna Patch designed in IE3D software S-parameter display for S (1, 1) S-parameter displays for S (2, 2) Smith Chart display for S (1, 1) Smith Chart display for S (2, 2) VSWR for port 1 VSWR for port 2 3D current distribution

3-10 Antenna and radiation efficiency vs frequency 3-11 Gain vs frequency 3-12 Total field directivity vs. frequency
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4-1 Shorted GND patch drawing 4-2 Shorted GND patch Omit substrate view 4-3 Double layer or folded patch drawing 4-4 S-parameters for S (1, 1) comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch 4-5 S-parameters for S (2, 2) comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch 4-6 VSWR for port 1 comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch

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39 4-7 VSWR for port 2 comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch 39 4-8 Smith Chart S (1, 1) comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch

40 4-9 Smith Chart S (2, 2) comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch
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41 4-10 Total field gain vs frequency comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch

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44 4-11 Total voltage field gain vs frquency comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch

45 4-12 Total field directivity vs frequency comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch

46 4-13 Antenna and radiation efficiency vs frequency comparison: (a) Original patch (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch (c) Shorting GND patch (d) Increase substrate thickness patch (e) Double layer half-wave patch (f) Combine methods patch

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List of Tables
4.1 Comparison result of S-parameter 4.2 Comparison result of VSWR 4.3 Comparison result of total field gain
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4.4 Comparison result of total voltage field gain 4.5 Comparison result of total field directivity 4.6 Comparison result of antenna and radiation efficiency 4.7 Comparison of each technique overall performance

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Chapter 1 Introduction
Modern and future wireless systems are placing greater demands on antenna designs. Many systems now operate in two or more frequency bands, requiring dual or triple band operation
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of fundamentally narrow band antennas. These include, satellite navigation systems, cellular systems, wireless LAN and combination of these systems. One of the most popular antennas employed in mobile communication systems is the monopole antenna and its family. The monopole antennas are convenient to match to 50 ohms, and are unbalanced. The square microstrip patch antenna reported for multi-bands for handsets is only about 0.05 times the wavelength of the lowest operating frequency. This antenna is not only capable of multiband operations, but also possesses omnidirectional radiation patterns for all operation bands. The impedance BW covers almost all the present wireless systems of GSM (880-960MHz), including Digital Communication Systems (DCS, 1720-1880MHz), Personal Communication Systems (PCS, 1850-1990MHz) Universal Mobile communication systems (UMTS, 1920-2170MHz) and Industrial Science Band (ISM, 2400-2484MHz). Its desired characteristics, such as low cost, ease of manufacture, compact size, very wide BW, acceptable radiation efficiency, and omnidirectional radiation patterns, makes the proposed antenna very attractive for mobile communications. 1.1 Overview of Microstrip Antenna A microstrip antenna consists of conducting patch on a ground plane separated by dielectric substrate. This concept was undeveloped until the revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization and large-scale integration in 1970[1]. After that many authors have described the radiation from the ground plane by a dielectric substrate for different configurations. The early work of Munson on micro strip antennas for use as a low profile flush mounted antennas on rockets and missiles showed that this was a practical concept for use in many antenna system problems. Various mathematical models were developed for this antenna and its applications were extended to many other fields. The number of papers, articles published in the journals for the last ten years, on these antennas shows the importance gained by them. The micro strip antennas are the present day antenna designers choice. Low dielectric constant substrates are generally preferred for maximum radiation. The conducting patch can take any shape but rectangular and circular configurations are the most commonly used configuration. Other configurations are complex to analyze and require heavy numerical computations. A microstrip antenna is characterized by its length, width, input impedance, and gain and radiation patterns. Various parameters of the microstrip antenna and its design considerations were discussed in the subsequent chapters. The length of the antenna is nearly half wavelength in

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the dielectric; it is a very critical parameter, which governs the resonant frequency of the antenna. There are no hard and fast rules to find the width of the patch. 1.2 Project Objective The project objective is to develop a miniaturized multi-band antenna with a smaller dimension and get better performance. Not only desired for GSM 900, 1800, 1900, UMTS and WLAN applications to contribute effectively to standards for 3rd generation mobile devices but also required in modern personal wireless communication devices. 1.3 Proposed Approach The main approach would be to conduct at the SIM University Electronics laboratory. The course required to re-design a smaller multi-band antenna. Existing miniaturization multiband antennas technique will be analyzed and see their performances from data. The requirements of this project will be from literature review, and the guidance from the project supervisor. The project will involve software which is available in the internet. A systematic procedure of tests and measurement will have to be carrying out to ensure accuracy of the test result. Assistant and guidance will be provided by Nanyang Technological University. This project is scheduled for one year. 1.4 Organization of the Thesis An introduction to microstrip antennas was given in Chapter 2.Apart from the advantages and disadvantages, the various feeding techniques and models of analysis were listed. Chapter 3 deals with design of square microstrip patch antenna and provides
Information about ID3E Software for simulation of square microstrip patch antenna which will be used for cross verification of results for designed antennas.

Chapter 4 provides the design and development of miniaturization square microstrip patch antenna and verification of the results for designed antennas. Finally, Chapter 5 summarizes the contribution of this thesis and suggests areas for future work.

Chapter 2

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Literature Review
2.1 Introduction Microstrip Patch Antenna Fundamentally, a microstrip patch antenna consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate, and a ground plane on the other side as shown in Figure 2-1. The patch is generally made of high conducting material such as copper or gold and no restriction on the shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric substrate.

Figure 2-1 Structure of a microstrip patch antenna In order to simplify analysis and performance prediction, the patch is generally square, rectangular, circular, triangular, and elliptical or some other common shape as shown in Figure 2-2. For a rectangular patch, the length L of the patch is usually 0.3333o< L < 0.5 o, where o is the free-space wavelength. The patch is selected to be very thin such that t << o (where t is the patch thickness). The height h of the dielectric substrate is usually 0.003 o h 0.05 o. The dielectric constant of the substrate (r) is typically in the range 2.2 r 12.

Figure 2-2 Common shapes of microstrip patch elements

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Microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the patch edge and the ground plane. For good antenna performance, a thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency, larger bandwidth and better radiation. However, such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size. In order to design a compact Microstrip patch antenna, substrates with higher dielectric constants must be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. Hence a trade-off must be realized between the antenna dimensions and antenna performance. 2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages Microstrip patch antennas are increasing in popularity for use in wireless applications due to their low-profile structure. Therefore they are extremely compatible for embedded antennas in handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones, pagers etc. The telemetry and communication antennas on missiles need to be thin and conformal and are often in the form of microstrip patch antennas. Another area where they have been used successfully is in Satellite communication. Some of their principal advantages discussed by Kumar and Ray are given below: Light weight and low volume. Low profile planar configuration which can be easily made conformal to host surface. Low fabrication cost, hence can be manufactured in large quantities. Supports both, linear as well as circular polarization. Can be easily integrated with microwave integrated circuits (MICs). Capable of dual and triple frequency operations. Mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces. Microstrip patch antennas suffer from more drawbacks as compared to conventional antennas. Some of their major disadvantages discussed by and Garg et al are given below: Narrow bandwidth. Low efficiency. Low Gain. Extraneous radiation from feeds and junctions. Poor end fire radiator except tapered slot antennas. Low power handling capacity. Surface wave excitation. Microstrip patch antennas have a very high antenna quality factor (Q). It represents the losses associated with the antenna where a large Q leads to narrow bandwidth and low efficiency. Q
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can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate. However, as the thickness increases, an increasing fraction of the total power delivered by the source goes into a surface wave. This surface wave contribution can be counted as an unwanted power loss because it is ultimately scattered at the dielectric bends. That causes degradation of the antenna characteristics. Other problems like lower gain and lower power handling capacity can be overcome by using an array configuration for the elements. 2.3 Feeding Methods Feeding of the microstrip patch antennas can be used by a variety of methods. These methods can be classified into two categories- contacting and non-contacting. In the contacting method, the RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a microstrip line. In the non-contacting scheme, electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the microstrip line and the radiating patch. The four most popular feed techniques used are the microstrip line, coaxial probe; both contacting schemes; aperture coupling and proximity coupling; both non-contacting schemes. 2.3.1 Microstrip Line Feed In this type of feed technique, a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the Microstrip patch as shown in Figure 2-3. The conducting strip is smaller in width compared to the patch. This kind of arrangement has the advantage of the feed can be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar structure.

Figure 2-3 Microstrip line feed The purpose of the inset cut in the patch is to match the impedance of the feed line to the patch without the need for any additional matching element. This can be achieved by properly controlling the inset position. Hence this is an easy feeding scheme, since it provides
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ease of fabrication and simplicity in modeling as well as impedance matching. However as the thickness of the dielectric substrate being used, increases, surface waves and spurious feed radiation also increases, which hampers the bandwidth of the antenna. The feed radiation also leads to undesired cross polarized radiation. 2.3.2 Coaxial Feed The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding microstrip patch antennas. As seen from Figure 2-4, the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch, while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane.

Figure 2-4 Probe fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna The main advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any desired location inside the patch in order to match with its input impedance. This feed method is easy to fabricate and has low spurious radiation. However, a major disadvantage is that it provides narrow bandwidth and is difficult to model since a hole has to be drilled in the substrate and the connector protrudes outside the ground plane, thus not making it completely planar for thick substrates (h > 0.02o). Also, for thicker substrates, the increased probe length makes the input impedance more inductive, leading to matching problems. It is seen above that for a thick dielectric substrate, which provides broad bandwidth, the microstrip line feed and the coaxial feed suffer from numerous disadvantages. The non-contacting feed techniques which have been discussed below, solve these issues.

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2.3.3 Aperture Coupled Feed In this type of feed technique, the radiating patch and the microstrip feed line are separated by the ground plane as shown in Figure 2-5. Coupling between the patch and the feed line is made through a slot or an aperture in the ground plane.

Figure 2-5 Aperture-coupled feed The coupling aperture is usually centered under the patch, leading to lower cross polarization due to symmetry of the configuration. The amount of coupling from the feed line to the patch is determined by the shape, size and location of the aperture. Since the ground plane separates the patch and the feed line, spurious radiation is minimized. Generally, a high dielectric material is used for bottom substrate and a thick, low dielectric constant material is used for the top substrate to optimize radiation from the patch. The major disadvantage of this feed technique is that it is difficult to fabricate due to multiple layers, which also increases the antenna thickness. This feeding scheme also provides narrow bandwidth. 2.3.4 Proximity Coupled Feed This type of feed technique is also called as the electromagnetic coupling scheme. As shown in Figure 2-6, two dielectric substrates are used such that the feed line is between the two substrates and the radiating patch is on top of the upper substrate. The main advantage of this feed technique is that it eliminates spurious feed radiation and provides very high bandwidth (as high as 13%), due to overall increase in the thickness of the microstrip patch antenna. This scheme also provides choices between two different dielectric media, one for the patch and one for the feed line to optimize the individual performances.

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Figure 2-6 Proximity-coupled Feed Matching can be achieved by controlling the length of the feed line and the width toline ratio of the patch. The major disadvantage of this feed scheme is that it is difficult to fabricate because of the two dielectric layers which need proper alignment. Also, there is an increase in the overall thickness of the antenna. 2.4 Method of Analysis The preferred models for the analysis of microstrip patch antennas are the transmission line model, cavity model, and full wave model, which include primarily integral equations, Moment Method. The transmission line model is the simplest of all and it gives good physical insight but it is less accurate. The cavity model is more accurate and gives good physical insight but is complex in nature. The full wave models are extremely accurate, versatile and can treat single elements, finite and infinite arrays, stacked elements, arbitrary shaped elements and coupling. These give less insight as compared to the two models mentioned above and are far more complex in nature. 2.4.1 Transmission Line Model This model represents the microstrip antenna by two slots of width W and height h, separated by a transmission line of length L. The microstrip is essentially a non-homogeneous line of two dielectrics, typically the substrate and air.

Figure 2-7 Microstrip Line


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Figure 2-8 Electric Field Lines


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Hence, as seen from Figure 2-7, most of the electric field lines reside in the substrate and parts of some lines in air. As a result, this transmission line cannot support pure transverseelectric-magnetic (TEM) mode of transmission, since the phase velocities would be different in the air and the substrate. Instead, the dominant mode of propagation would be the quasiTEM mode. Hence, an effective dielectric constant ( reff ) must be obtained in order to account for the fringing and the wave propagation in the line. The value of reff is slightly less than r because the fringing fields around the periphery of the patch are not confined in the dielectric substrate but are also spread in the air as shown in Figure 2-8 above. The expression for reff is given by Balanis [2] as:

(2.1) Where
reff = Effective dielectric constant

r = Dielectric constant of substrate


h = Height of dielectric substrate W = Width of the patch Consider Figure 2-9 below, which shows a rectangular microstrip patch antenna of length L, width W resting on a substrate of height h. The co-ordinate axis is selected such that the length is along the x direction, width is along the y direction and the height is along the z direction.

Figure 2-9 Microstrip Patch Antennas In order to operate in the fundamental TM10 mode, the length of the patch must be slightly less than /2 where is the wavelength in the dielectric medium and is equal to o/ reff where o is the free space wavelength. The TM10 mode implies that the field varies one /2
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cycle along the length, and there is no variation along the width of the patch. In the Figure 210 shown below, the microstrip patch antenna is represented by two slots, separated by a transmission line of length L and open circuited at both the ends. Along the width of the patch, the voltage is maximum and current is minimum due to the open ends. The fields at the edges can be resolved into normal and tangential components with respect to the ground plane.

Figure 2-10 Top View of Antenna

Figure 2-11 Side View of Antenna

It is seen from Figure 2-11 that the normal components of the electric field at the two edges along the width are in opposite directions and thus out of phase since the patch is /2 long and hence they cancel each other in the broadside direction. The tangential components (seen in Figure 2-11), which are in phase, means that the resulting fields combine to give maximum radiated field normal to the surface of the structure. Hence the edges along the width can be represented as two radiating slots, which are /2 apart and excited in phase and radiating in the half space above the ground plane. The fringing fields along the width can be modeled as radiating slots and electrically the patch of the microstrip antenna looks greater than its physical dimensions. The dimensions of the patch along its length have now been extended on each end by a distance L, which is given empirically by Hammers tad [3] as:

(2.2) The effective length of the patch Leff now becomes:

(2.3)

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For a given resonance frequency f 0 , the effective length is given by: (2.4) For a rectangular microstrip patch antenna. The resonance frequency for any TM mode is given by James and Hall [4] as:

(2.5) Where m and n are modes along L and W respectively. For efficient radiation, the width W is given by Bahl and Bhartia [4].

(2.6) 2.4.2 Cavity Model Although the transmission line model discussed in the previous section is easy to use, it has some inherent disadvantages. Specifically, it is useful for patches of rectangular design and it ignores field variations along the radiating edges. These disadvantages can be overcome by using the cavity model. A brief overview of this model is given below. In this model, the interior region of the dielectric substrate is modeled as a cavity bounded by electric walls on the top and bottom. The basis for this assumption is the following observations for thin substrates (h << ).
Since the substrate is thin, the fields in the interior region do not vary much in the z

direction, i.e. normal to the patch. The electric field is z directed only, and the magnetic field has only the transverse components Hx and Hy in the region bounded by the patch metallization and the ground plane. This observation provides for the electric walls at the top and the bottom.

Figure 2-12 Charge distribution and current density creation on the microstrip patch
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Consider Figure 2-12 shown above. When the microstrip patch is provided power, a charge distribution is seen on the upper and lower surfaces of the patch and at the bottom of the ground plane. This charge distribution is controlled by two mechanisms-an attractive mechanism and a repulsive mechanism as discussed by Richards. The attractive mechanism is between the opposite charges on the bottom side of the patch and the ground plane, which helps in keeping the charge concentration intact at the bottom of the patch. The repulsive mechanism is between the like charges on the bottom surface of the patch, which causes pushing of some charges from the bottom, to the top of the patch. As a result of this charge movement, currents flow at the top and bottom surface of the patch. The cavity model assumes that the height to width ratio (i.e. height of substrate and width of the patch) is very small and as a result of this the attractive mechanism dominates and causes most of the charge concentration and the current to be below the patch surface. Much less current would flow on the top surface of the patch and as the height to width ratio further decreases, the current on the top surface of the patch would be almost equal to zero, which would not allow the creation of any tangential magnetic field components to the patch edges. Hence, the four sidewalls could be modeled as perfectly magnetic conducting surfaces. This implies that the magnetic fields and the electric field distribution beneath the patch would not be disturbed. However, in practice, a finite width to height ratio would be there and this would not make the tangential magnetic fields to be completely zero, but they being very small, the side walls could be approximated to be perfectly magnetic conducting. 2.5 Multi-Band Antenna 2.5.1 Definition of Multi-Band Antenna An antenna designed to operate on several bands. It is used design one part of the antenna is active for one band, and another part is active for a different band. A multi-band antenna may have lower than average gain or may be physically larger in compensation. A multi-band antenna adapted to a portable electrical device capable of operating in various wireless communication bands includes a first radiating conductor having opposite elongated sides, a second radiating conductor extending from one end of the first radiating conductor, a third radiating conductor arranging about a central area of the first radiating. Both the second radiating conductor and the third radiating conductor extend from the same elongated side of the first radiating conductor. A feeding body is curved from the third radiating conductor. According to a position that the feeding body connecting to the third radiating conductor and designed the feeding body, operation of the multi-band antenna has a preferred range of a low frequency bandwidth and a high frequency harmonic bandwidth.
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2.5.2 Design of Multi-Band Antenna Compact antenna To efficiently radiate an electromagnetic wave into the free space, the size of an antenna should be something in the order of the wavelength radiated, which is inversely proportional to the frequency. Complete built-in antenna As the handsets saturate in their proliferation and they diversify in functions, the design has emerged as a major element of driving the customers to buy; In contrast to whip antennas that protrude from the casing, built-in antennas that are installed within the casing for proper operation can give a high degree of freedom of design. Not only because of this, but also from the standpoints of reinforcing shock resistance, improvement of specific absorption rate on the human body, reduction of manufacturing costs, the requirement for complete built-in antennas for handsets is always growing. Multi-band Operation The application of multi-band systems with a variety of frequency band combinations is accelerating, whereby the international roaming is progressing globally, the communications capacity is increasing and new functions are being added including GPS and Bluetooth. It s expected, therefore, that all the handsets will probably become compatible with multi-band in the near further. Isolation Characteristics The isolation characteristics of an antenna indicate whether its performance is stabilized or not against the environmental changes. Much importance has been placed on the isolation characteristics of a mobile phone antenna from the two viewpoints as show below. The first relates to the foldable casing consisting of the main circuit board and display. More specifically, whether or not the same level of communication sensitivity can be maintained between the two conditions where the casing is folded or unfolded. The second is concerned with the performance stability against the influence of the human hand and head. This is a problem specific to handsets such that the equipment is used near the head while being held by the hand. Since human body is a lousy dielectric, the electromagnetic waves radiated during the communication are absorbed by the human body thus considerably degrading the radiation efficiency.
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2.6 Antenna Miniaturization Techniques Below is several miniaturization techniques have been identified: The use of high dielectric-constant material The most popular technique in reducing the size of a printed antenna is to use high-dielectricconstant material for its substrate. In doing so, the guided-wavelength underneath the patch is reduced and, hence the resonating patch size is also reduced. To further reduce the size, slot can be introduced onto the resonating patch. In doing so, the current on the patch or the filed underneath the patch will resonate from one edge as illustrated in Fig 2-13. Slots on the resonating patch For the longer path, reduces the resonant frequency or the physical size of the antenna. Depending on the length of the slots, a 10% to 20% size reduction can be achieved. Show in Fig 2-14.

The folding of a single-layer patch into a two-layer structure This technique is to fold the complete single-layer patch antenna (including substrate and ground plane) to form a two-layer structure and hence reduce the planar dimension by half. The configuration of the folded half-wave patch is illustrated in Fig 2-15 and the folding of a quarter-wave patch is shown in Fig 2-16.

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The inverted-F configuration This technique is to use the planar inverted-F configuration as shown in Fig 2-17. Where the width dimension of the short-circuited plate is significantly smaller than L1 and the dimensions L1 and L2 are each on the order of 1/8. The use of a shorting post This technique is very similar to the inverted-F method, is the use of a circular patch with a shorting post as illustrated in Fig 2-18.

The quarter-wave-patch approach The antenna operates as a quarter wave patch antenna and is constructed from a rectangular metal patch separated from a larger metallic plane. This metallic plane serves as the reference ground plane for a circuit attached to the antenna, with a direct short between the patch and the ground plane along one edge of the patch. The genetic algorithm This technique is used to minimize the size of wire type or printed antennas, while optimize their RF performance. This antenna optimization is very similar to humans biological
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genetic evolution where biological configurations adapt to optimal fitness to the natural environment by a huge number of chromosome sets with binary type of genetic decisions. For example, by using this technique, an odd-shaped small wire antenna as shown in Fig 219, achieved circular polarization with hemispherical radiation coverage.

The use of photonic band-gap material This emerging techniques show the photonic band-gap material. In the case of electromagnetic application, it is also best called the electromagnetic band gap material. It acts very similar to a frequency selective surface, will reflect or transmit through only a certain band of electromagnetic energy. This material comes in various forms. One uses a thin slab of dielectric material with many equally spaced holes as shown in Fig 2-20.

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Chapter 3 Square Microstrip Patch Antenna


3.1 Introduction In this chapter, the procedure for designing a square microstrip patch will be discussed. By using theory to calculate design antenna, the dimension of the antenna is achieved. Follow by the simulation of the design using IE3D application. The results obtained from the simulations are demonstrated and analyzed. 3.2 Design Specifications The three essential parameters for the design of a square microstrip patch antenna are: Frequency of operation ( f 0 ): The resonant frequency of the antenna must be selected appropriately. The Mobile Communication Systems uses the frequency range from 850-3000 MHz Hence the antenna designed must be able to operate in this frequency range. The resonant frequency selected for my design is 3.0 GHz. Dielectric constant of the substrate ( r ): The dielectric material selected for my design is silicon with a constant of 2.5. A substrate with a high dielectric constant has been selected since it reduces the dimensions of the antenna. Height of dielectric substrate (h): For the square microstrip patch antenna to be used in cellular phones, it is essential that the antenna is not bulky. Hence, the height of the dielectric substrate is selected as 1.5 mm. Hence, the essential parameters for the design are: f 0 = 3.0 GHz r = 2.5 h = 1.5 mm 3.3 Design of Square Microstrip Antenna Using Theory Calculation The propagation of the electromagnetic field is usually considered in free space, where it travels at the speed of light. vo = 3 10 8 m / s . , lambda is the wavelength, expressed in meters. Wavelength of the GSM band In GSM band, the following expression is used:
=
vo f (GHz )

(3.1)

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Hence, the wavelength of the antenna when operating at 3 GHz is 0.1 m. 3.3.1 Design Procedure From the above, the essential parameters for the design are: a. f o = 3 GHz, b. r = 2.5, c. h = 1.5 mm a) Calculation of the Width (W): The width of the microstrip patch antenna is given by equation:
W = vo 2 fo 2 r +1

(3.2)

Substituting v o =3x10 8 m/s, r =2.5 and f o =3 GHz, W= 38 mm b) Calculation of Effective dielectric constant ( reff ):
reff = r +1
2 +

r 1
2

h 1 +12 W

1 2

(3.3) Substituting r =2.5, W= 38 mm and h= 1.5 mm, reff =2.36 c) Calculation of the Effective length ( Leff ):
Leff = vo 2 f o reff

(3.4)

Substituting v o =3x10 8 m/s, reff =2.36 and f o =3 GHz Leff =32.5 mm d) Calculation of the length extension (L):
( reff + 0.3)( ( reff W + 0.264 ) h W 0.258 )( + 0.8) h

L = 0.412 h

(3.5) Substituting v o =3x10 8 m/s, reff =2.36 and f o =3 GHz

L =1.24 mm
e) Calculation of actual length of patch (L):
L = Leff 2L

(3.6)

Substituting Leff =33.95 mm, L =1.24 mm L =30.01mm f) Calculation of the ground plane dimensions (Lg and Wg):
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The transmission line model is applicable to infinite ground planes only. However, for practical considerations, it is essential to have a finite ground plane. The finite ground can be obtained if the size of the ground plane is greater than the patch dimensions by approximately six times the substrate thickness all around the periphery. Hence, for this design, the ground plane dimensions would be given as: Lg = 6h + L, Wg = 6h + W Hence, the calculated Lg and Wg are 39 mm and 47 mm respectively. g Microstrip Patch Antenna Dimensions (3.7)

Figure 3-1 (a) Top view of microstrip patch antenna

Figure 3-1 (b) Side view of microstrip patch antenna

Figure 3-1 (c) Overall design of microstrip patch antenna.

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Based on the calculation above, the L and W derived are 30 mm and 38 mm .The design of the microstrip antenna array starts from microstrip antenna. The microstrip antenna is feed using microstrip feed line, the design dimensions for this project is as follows: Frequency, f o = 3GHz Dielectric constant, r = 2.5 Substrate thickness, h = 1.5 mm Metallic strip thickness, t = 0.02 mm Conductivity of ground plane (Copper), g = 5.8 x 10 7 S/m Effective dielectric constant, reff = 2.3 Resonant input impedance, Rin = 50 h) Using bandwidth equation: BW=3.77

[(

1 / r2 ( W / L )( h / )

(3.8)

Substituting r = 2.5, W= 38mm, h = 1.5 mm L= 30 mm BW=0.167 GHz 3.4 Design of Square Microstrip Antenna using IE3D Simulator Given specifications were, 1. Dielectric constant ( r ) = 2.5 2. Frequency ( f r ) = 3.0 GHz. 3. Height (h) = 1/16 Inch = 1.59 mm. 4. Velocity of light (c) = 310 8 ms 1 . 5. Practical width (W) W = 38 mm. 6. Loss Tangent (tan ) = 0.001. 7. Practical Length (L) L = 30 mm. 8. Metallic strip thickness, t = 0.02 mm

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3.4.1 Results of Simulation The Figure 3-2 shown the square microstrip patch design shape using IE3D simulator.

Figure 3-2 Patch designed in IE3D software

S-Parameters S-parameters are mostly used for networks operating at radio frequency and microwave frequencies where signal power and energy considerations are more easily quantified than currents and voltages. Below Figure 3-3, 3-4 show that S-Parameter Displays for S (1.1) and S (2.2). From the graphs, the bandwidth is about 0.16 GHz and closed to the calculation result.0.167 GHz at frequency 3 GHz.

Figure 3-3 S-Parameter display for S (1, 1)

Figure 3-4 S-Parameter displays for S (2, 2)

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Smith Charts From the graph Figure 3-5, 3-6 as shown that the system impedance R1 is 50 .

Figure 3-5 Smith Chart display for S (1, 1) Figure 3-6 Smith Chart display for S (2, 2) Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) From the graph Figure 3-7, 3-8 shown that the ratio of the amplitude of a partial standing wave at an antinodes (maximum) to the amplitude at an adjacent node (minimum) for the design patch antenna. Therefore VSWR estimate is 3 at frequency 3 GHz.

Figure 3-7 VSWR for Port 1 3D Current Distribution

Figure 3-8 VSWR for Port 2

From Figure 3-9 graph is shown the design patch current distribution condition.

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Figure 3-9 3D Current distribution Antenna and Radiation Efficiency Display From Figure 3-10 shown that the design of square microstrip patch antenna has 80% antenna efficiency and 85% radiation efficiency at frequency 3 GHz.

Figure 3-10 Antenna and radiation efficiency vs frequency Total Gain vs. Frequency Graph The Figure 3-11 is shown that the total field gain is about 6.5 dBi at frequency 3 GHz.

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Figure 3-11 Gain vs frequency Total Field Directivity vs. Frequency Graph The Figure 3-12 is shown that total field directivity has 7.2 dBi at frequency 3 GHz.

Figure 3-12 Total field directivity vs. frequency


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Chapter 4 Miniaturization Antenna Design


4.1 Introduction In this chapter, 5 types of miniaturization antenna techniques are analyzed and simulated using IE3D application and the each type of results are compared. Consequence of miniaturization the physical dimension can be result in undesirable changes of bandwidth, efficiency and so on. Applying of technique could cover back such condition, depend on the techniques that applied, there may be different outcome. In this Section, these techniques or of miniaturization are tested out by applying on the original antenna patch and follow by, analyzed how much the antenna simulated results are different. 4.2 Design Description 4.2.1 Reduce dielectric constant technique Changing the dielectric constant could vary the antenna performance. In this design, the dielectric constant is lowed and specifications are as follows: Dielectric constant ( r ) = 1.5 Height of substrate (h) = 1/16 Inch = 1.5 mm. Thickness of patch = 0.002 mm Loss Tangent (tan ) = 0.001. Practical width (W) W = 38 mm. Practical Length (L) L = 30 mm. The specification is same as the original design. The only change is on reducing of dielectric constant 2.5mm to 1.5mm. 4.2.2 Square patch with shorting GND technique This method is widely used in some of the monopole planar antenna. Antenna patch and ground will be shorted directly near the feeding probe. Finite ground have used for this design. Design is as follows:

Figure 4-1 Shorted GND patch drawing

Figure 4-2 Shorted GND patch omit substrate view

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4.2.3 Increase of substrate thickness technique In the microstrip antenna type, the thickness and dielectric constant of the substrate are playing a major role. Changing those will result in alteration of the original design. Any techniques could have advantages and disadvantages. In this part, the substrate thickness will be doubled compare to the original design. Dielectric constant ( r ) = 2.5 Height of substrate (h) = 1/16 Inch = 3.0 mm. Thickness of patch = 0.002 mm Loss Tangent (tan ) = 0.001. Practical width (W) W = 38 mm. Practical Length (L) L = 30 mm. 4.2.4 Double layer half wave patch technique Normally, when one is thinking of miniaturization on the object, example an A4 paper sheet, folding it would be a first instinct idea. Folding the object into smaller part is the most obvious in physical appearance in smaller. Therefore, the experiment on folding the square patch is carried out in this section and the specification is as follows:

Figure 4-3 Double layer or folded patch drawing 4.2.5 Combination of shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique After trying out the above techniques and analyzing the data from the simulation, combining the two techniques into one is considered. From the result, shorting the GND and increasing the substrate is desirable.

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4.3 Results of Simulation using IE3D Simulator 4.3.1 S-parameter- S (1, 1) After analyses the S-parameter simulation result from Table 4.1.the result has shown that: a) Reduce dielectric constant technique will be get more than 50% bandwidth compare the original design bandwidth. b) Square patch with shorting GND technique get more than 112% bandwidth compare the original design bandwidth. c) Double sizes of thickness substrate technique get same bandwidth result compare the original design bandwidth. d) Half wave square patch technique get more than 400% bandwidth compare the original design bandwidth. e) Combination of square patch with shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique get more than 180% bandwidth compare the original design bandwidth. S-parameter Comparison Results 1.Original Design 2.Dielectric Constant Reduce 1.5 mm 3.Square Patch With Shorting GND 4.Thickness Substrate Increase from 1.5 to 3mm 5.Half Wave Square Patch (double layer substrate) 6.Square Patch with Shorting GND + Increase Substrate Thickness Table 4.1 Comparison results of S-parameter Below Figure 4-4 and Figure 4-5 are each technique simulation result graph for S-parameter using IE3D simulator. (Bandwidth(dBi) 0.16 GHZ 0.24 GHZ 0.34 GHZ 0.15 GHZ 0.78 GHz 0.31 GHZ

Figure 4-4 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-4 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

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Figure 4-4 (c) Shorting GND patch

Figure 4-4 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

Figure 4-4 (e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.2 S-parameter s( 2,2 )

Figure 4-4 (f) Combine methods patch

Figure 4-5(a) Original patch

Figure 4-5(b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

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Figure 4-5 (c) Shorting GND patch

Figure 4-5 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

Figure 4-5(e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.3 VSWR Port 1

Figure 4-5 (f) Combine methods patch

After analyses the VSWR simulation result from Table 4.2.the result has shown that: a) Reduce dielectric constant technique will be get 71.3. It is more worst than original design VSWR. b) Square patch with shorting GND technique get same result compare the original design patch. c) Double size of thickness substrate technique get slightly larger VSWR than the original design patch. d) Half wave square patch technique get 2 times larger VSWR than the original design patch. e) Combination of square patch with shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique get more than 2 times larger VSWR than the original design patch antenna.

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VSWR Comparison Results 1.Original Design 2.Dielectric Constant Reduce 1.5 mm 3.Square Patch With Shorting GND 4.Thickness Substrate Increase from 1.5 to 3mm 5.Half Wave Square Patch (double layer substrate) 6. Square Patch with Shorting GND + Increase Substrate Thickness Table 4.2 Comparison results of VSWR IE3D simulator.

VSWR 3 71.3 3.1 4.85 6 6.32

Below Figure 4-6 and Figure 4-7 are each technique simulation result graph for VSWR using

Figure 4-6 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-6 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

Figure 4-6 (c) Shorting GND patch

Figure 4-6 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

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Figure 4-6(e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.4 VSWR Port 2

Figure 4-6 (f) Combine methods patch

Figure 4-7 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-7 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

Figure 4-7 (c) Shorting GND patch Figure 4-7 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

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Figure 4-7(e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.5 Smith Chart S( 1,1 )

Figure 4-7 (f) Combine methods patch

After analyses the Smith Chart simulation result from graph. I can say that only the increase substrate thickness patch technique given same result and the rest techniques are worse than the original patch antenna design. Below Figure 4-8 and Figure 4-9 are each technique simulation result graph for Smith Chart using IE3D simulator.

Figure 4-8 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-8 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

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Figure 4-8 (c) Shorting GND patch

Figure 4-8 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

Figure 4-8(e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.6 Smith Chart S( 2,2 )

Figure 4-8 (f) Combine methods patch

Figure 4-9 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-9 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

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Figure 4-9 (c) Shorting GND patch

Figure 4-9 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

Figure 4-9(e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.7 Total Field Gain Vs Frequency

Figure 4-9 (f) Combine methods patch

After analyses the total field gain simulation result from Table 4.3. The result has shown that: a) Reduce dielectric constant technique will be get -9.47 dBi. It is more worst than original design gain. b) Square patch with shorting GND technique get lower gain compare the original design patch. c) Double sizes of thickness substrate technique get slightly higher than shorting GND technique but still not good enough than the original design patch. d) Half wave square patch technique get -7.6 dBi. It is better than reduce dielectric constant technique but it is worst than original design gain. e) Combination of square patch with shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique only get 2.07 dBi power gains. It is not better than original design patch antenna.

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Total Field Gain Comparison Results 1.Original Design 2.Dielectric Constant Reduce 1.5 mm 3.Square Patch With Shorting GND 4.Thickness Substrate Increase from 1.5 to 3mm 5.Half Wave Square Patch (double layer substrate) 6. Square Patch with Shorting GND + Increase Substrate Thickness Table 4.3 Comparison results of total field gain

Power Gain(dBi) 6.5 -9.47 2.92 3.77 -7.6 2.07

Below Figure 4-10 are each technique simulation result graph for total field gain vs frequency using IE3D simulator.

Figure 4-10 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-10 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

Figure 4-10 (c) Shorting GND patch Figure 4-10 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

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Figure 4-10(e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.8 Total Voltage Field Gain Vs Frquency

Figure 4-10 (f) Combine methods patch

After analyses the total voltage field gain simulation result from Table 4.4. The result has shown that: a) Reduce dielectric constant technique will be get -15 dBi. It is more worst than original design gain. b) Square patch with shorting GND technique get lower gain compare the original design patch. c) Double sizes of thickness substrate technique get slightly higher than shorting GND technique but still not good enough than the original design patch. d) Half wave square patch technique get -12.56 dBi. It is better than reduce dielectric constant technique but it is worst than original design gain. e) Combination of square patch with shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique get -0.64 dBi power gain. It is not better than original design patch antenna. Total Voltage Field Gain Comparison Results 1.Original Design 2.Dielectric Constant Reduce 1.5 mm 3.Square Patch With Shorting GND 4.Thickness Substrate Increase from 1.5 to 3mm 5.Half Wave Square Patch (double layer substrate) 6. Square Patch with Shorting GND + Increase Substrate Thickness Voltage Field Gain(dBi) 3.85 -15 -1.13 -1.11 -12.56 -0.64

Table 4.4 Comparison results of total voltage field gain Below Figure 4-11 are each technique simulation result graph for total field gain vs frequency using IE3D simulator.

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Figure 4-11 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-11 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

Figure 4-11 (c) Shorting GND patch Figure 4-11 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

Figure 4-11(e) Double layer half-wave patch 4.3.9 Total Field Directivity Vs Frequency

Figure 4-11 (f) Combine methods patch

After analyses the total voltage field directivity simulation result from Table 4.5. The result has shown that: a) Reduce dielectric constant technique will be get 5.24 dBi. It is lower than original design gain. b) Square patch with shorting GND technique get slightly lower compare the original design patch.
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c) Double sizes of thickness substrate technique get slightly higher than the original design patch. d) Half wave square patch techniques get 6.4 dBi and lower than original design gain. e) Combination of square patch with shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique get 7.05 dBi. It is not better than original design patch antenna. Total Field Directivity Comparison Results Directivity(dBi) 1.Original Design 7.20 2.Dielectric Constant Reduce 1.5 mm 5.24 3.Square Patch With Shorting GND 6.86 4.Thickness Substrate Increase from 1.5 to 3mm 7.4 5.Half Wave Square Patch (double layer substrate) 6.4 6. Square Patch with Shorting GND + Increase Substrate Thickness 7.05 Table 4.5 Comparison results of total field directivity Below Figure 4-12 are each technique simulation result graph for total field directivity vs frequency using IE3D simulator.

Figure 4-12 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-12 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

Figure 4-12 (c) Shorting GND patch Figure 4-12 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

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Figure 4-12(e) Double layer half-wave patch

Figure 4-12 (f) Combine methods patch

4.3.10 Antenna and Radiation Efficiency Vs Frequency After analyses the antenna and radiation efficiency simulation result from Table 4.6. The results have shown that: a) Reduce dielectric constant technique is given 68.3% lower radiation efficiency and only 4.93% antenna efficiency compare the original patch antenna result. b) Square patch with shorting GND technique get slightly higher radiation efficiency and only 40.5 % antenna efficiency compare the original patch antenna result. c) Double size of thickness substrate technique get slightly lower radiation efficiency and 50% antenna efficiency compare the original patch antenna result. d) Half wave square patch technique get only 20.27% radiation efficiency and only 4.34% antenna efficiency compare the original patch antenna result. e) Combination of square patch with shorting GND and increase substrate thickness technique given same radiation efficiency but the antenna efficiency result is not better than original patch antenna result.

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Antenna and Radiation Efficiency Comparison Results 1.Original Design 2.Dielectric Constant Reduce 1.5 mm 3.Square Patch With Shorting GND 4.Thickness Substrate Increase from 1.5 to 3mm 5.Half Wave Square Patch (double layer substrate) 6. Square Patch with Shorting GND + Increase Substrate Thickness

Radiation Efficiency 84.80% 68.30% 85.50% 75.59% 20.27% 84.50%

Antenna Efficiency 78% 4.93% 40.50% 50% 4.34% 33.30%

Table 4.6 Comparison result of antenna and radiation efficiency Below Figure 4-13 are each technique simulation result graph for antenna and radiation efficiency using IE3D simulator.

Figure 4-13 (a) Original patch

Figure 4-13 (b) Reduce dielectric constant patch

Figure 4-13 (c) Shorting GND patch

Figure 4-13 (d) Increase substrate thickness patch

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Figure 4-13(e) Double layer half-wave patch

Figure 4-13 (f) Combine methods patch

4.3.11 Each Technique Overall Performance From above data come out the overall simulation performance. The Table 4.7 is shown that original design is still the best overall performance. The rest miniaturization techniques can only achieved individual best performance.
Overall Performance Results Bandwidth (dBi) Power Gain (dBi) 6.5 -9.47 VSWR Radiation Efficiency Antenna Efficiency Voltage Field Gain(dBi) Directivity(dBi)

1. Original Design 2. Dielectric Constant Reduce to 1.5mm 3. Square Patch with Shorting GND 4. Thickness Substrate Increase from 1.5 to 3 mm 5. Half Wave Square Patch 6. Square Patch with Shorting GND + Increase Substrate Thickness

0.16 GHz 0.24GHz

3 71.3

84.80% 68.30%

78.00% 4.93%

3.85 -15

7.2 5.24

0.34 GHz

2.92

3.1

85.50%

40.50%

-1.13

6.86

0.15 GHz 0.78 GHz

3.77 -7.6

4.85 6

75.59% 20.27%

50.00% 4.34%

-1.11 -12.56

7.4 6.4

0.31 GHz

2.07

6.32

84.50%

33.30%

-0.64

7.05

Table 4.7 Comparison of each technique overall performance

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Chapter 5 Conclusions
5.1 Thesis Contributions The design of square microstrip patch antenna for mobile device has been completed using IE3D software. The simulation results are good enough to satisfy our requirements to fabricate it on hardware which can be used wherever needed, especially for the frequency 3GHz. Although the simulation was carried out for the frequency of 3GHz, the design can be adjusted to the desired frequency according to the formulae state in the section 3, since the result have been proof that formula is reliable to be used. Each simulation results have stated in the section 4 is for the techniques of miniature for the square microstrip patch antenna. Difference techniques have given different advantages. The idea of the section 4 is to show clear statement between the original patch and the patch that have applied the miniature techniques. From them, one can choose which method is suitable for the application. Although, the results are good enough, the size adjustment should be carried out in the future work. Above all, this report can be a good starting point for the person, who is planning to use the square type microstrip antenna. Formulae are given, and good enough to design. However, one must be take note that investigation in this report has been limited, mostly to theoretical studies and simulations due to lack of fabrication facilities.

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5.2 Future Work Firstly, since this project is mainly reference on the theory and research paper. All the results that have been collected are based on the simulation, which is nearly closer to the actual result. In order to use it in the real time system, actually hardware should be fabricated and tested out, which can be given accurate and reliable answer.Detailed experimental studies can be taken up at a later stage to fabricate the antenna. Before going for fabrication we can optimize the parameters of antenna using one of the soft computing techniques known as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Secondly, during the software simulation, using the origin design, there are some difference in simulation result, when the probe feed different position on the patch will given out the different answer. Importance of the probe position doesnt explain much in the book that referred. Therefore, different probe location on the same patch and number of probe using may differ. This should be carried out in the future work and find out the best location for the probe feed. Thirdly, dielectric constant for the substrate has been simulated using 1.5 which is less than the original design. Constant of material greater than original design are worth for trying. It can be given different answer. Finally, miniatures techniques that have mention in this report are individual result of adjusting the original design, without changing the original dimension. Actual size should be changed to smaller dimension from the original and applying all the methods on the newly designed patch. The result of the same methods original and new design should be compared and analyzed. This can lead to importance of the technique.

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Reflections
Finally, come to the end of the report. I have put all my effort on this. All my energy and strength are putting in for the completion the report before deadline. Moreover, final year report is the core of the degree course it is like a turning point of my life. Struggling such important thing is not an easy job indeed. Any mistake or any wrong choice can end up my afford in vain. As the saying state that Think before you leap, I have to put an extra care on every steps that I moved. Only with the foundation courses like Wireless Communication Systems (ENG315) and Electronic Material (ENG323) taught in SIM University, there is a lot of knowledge and skills require having a deeper understanding in miniature microstrip patch antenna theories, and its mathematical relations. Therefore, the first step was to find the relevant papers and books on this microstrip patch antenna. Not to my surprise, there are a lot of researches done in this area, and this did not help at all as I have somehow lost focus on what is desired, this is the typical information overload during the literature survey. During the meet up with Dr Shen, he provides me with the relevant comments and valuable inputs with regards to my progress. Without the help of my dedicated tutor to guide me and to align the ideas, this project would not be completed. When I started on this project, I have an initial idea on fabricating it and tested out in the anechoic chamber. This can be given a reliable product. However, such facilities are pretty expensive and difficult for a part-time student like me to make a time arrangement to

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carry out. Therefore, I have decided to use the simulation software, which is specialized in designing the antenna. When I do the pre planning on the project, it seems to be going smoothly. Initial report is seamlessly done. Timeline is drawn out according to my schedule. Planar antenna design is chosen. However, when it come to part for the simulation and miniaturization, I start to realize that substrate is playing an important role for the antenna. It can make a difference putting the substrate in between ground and patch. Therefore, I have to modify my initial design into microstrip type antenna, which is quite a well built up design. Substrate layer is added between patch and ground layer. techniques. On the other hand, simulation applications are quite hard to get within in my research. Reliable and availability of software are main concerns for me. Some applications are provided with evaluation version. It didnt turn out to be reliable and easy to use. Results are turn out to be limited to certain expectation. The first application that I have tried out is Antenna Magus from CST MICROWAVE STUDIO. This application is user friendly, but, since it provide evaluation version, I can only able to use some of the designs. Simulation for the microstrip antenna is easily carried out, because the antenna design are pre defined and user only need to put in the dimension of the antenna patch and dielectric constant of the substrate. However, the simulation results are not in detail. Graphs are pretty general. Moreover, pre defined design cannot be able to use for the section 4, where I am going to deal with the changing of the design. Next application that I have used is HFSS from ANSOFT. This application is like professional software for designing the antenna design. It is quite powerful, user can draw his own design and simulate. When I used this application, I found out that this software is too powerful to be used on my notebook. It needs a high performance machine to handle the simulation. For the first time, I have seen that my notebook have to keep on running for two days in order to do the simulation, yet it didnt complete. Therefore, I have to give up on this application. At the end, I found out the IE3D from ZELAND, which I have borrowed from one of my close friend, is a good software for designing the antenna. Although it is not a user friendly, it can be drawn my own design and do the simulation, which can give a satisfy result. Day and night, trying and learning the tutorial on IE3D, finally, I have got my expected result which has been stated in this report. Putting so much effort on this report, it is not in vain at all. I have leant a lot. Such a lesson cannot be able to find in the class room. We must go and try it, experience it. Learning
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This can be solved for one of the miniature

in the class room may not be giving me a same experience or lesson as I do the project. This is a very good opportunity to use what we have leant in the class. Work out such important thing with a full concentration would not be a problem, but it doesnt turn out in that way for me. I have to work full time in the morning and going for the lesson in the evening. Life will not be easy if there is need of playing multiple roles. Job, study and family are the only vocabulary to define my life for the past few years. Of course, I am aware of that these are pains that I am giving or should I say investing. Nothing is free in this world, No Pain No Gain, in order to achieve what I want. I have to cross this journey.

Acknowledgements
I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my advisor Dr Shen Zhong Xiang for his guidance and instruction during my years at SIM University made my graduate career challenging, exciting and rewarding. I am indebted to them for their time, patience, and support. I would like to thank to Sean not only for his help and valuable suggestions for this thesis, but also for his advice and taking the time to read my thesis. I am especially indebted to my faithful colleague Lim Eng Ann, for her friendship, support and encouragement. Without her help this work would have been a lot harder. I would like to thank Hong Bo and Liu Pan for sharing with me his optimism and intelligence. There are always willing to help anyone. Acknowledgements are also due to Bao Chen, Chen Hua, Yen, Zhi Wei, for their support and friendship. I would like to thank my parents for their continued support and encouragement and my family stood behind me for which I am thankful for them forever.

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Finally, I would like to thank my wife Chen Qi for her patience, understanding and unlimited encouragement.Without her support, I would not have made it.

References
[1]

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC, New York 1997. R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. Bahl, A. Ittipiboon,Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, ARTECH HOUSE, Boston 2001. S.Silver, Microwave Antenna Theory and Design, McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC, New York 1949. D.M.Pozar and D. H. Schaubert, Microstrip Antennas: The Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays, IEEE Press, 1995. K. F. Lee, Ed., Advances in Microstrip and Printed Antennas, John Wiley, 1997. F. E. Gardiol, Broadband Patch Antennas, Artech House. D. R. Jackson and J. T. Williams, A comparison of CAD models for radiation from rectangular microstrip patches, Intl. Journal of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Computer Aided Design, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 236-248, April 1991. 63

[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

[8]

D. R. Jackson, S. A. Long, J. T. Williams, and V. B. Davis, Computer aided design of rectangular microstrip antennas, Ch. 5 of Advances in Microstrip and Printed Antennas, K. F. Lee, Editor, John Wiley, 1997.

[9] [10] [11]

J.-F. Zrcher and F. E. Gardiol, Broadband Patch Antennas, Artech House, 1995. H. Pues and A Van de Capelle, Accurate transmission-line model for the rectangular microstrip antenna, Proc. IEE, vol. 131, pt. H, no. 6, pp. 334-340, Dec. 1984. D. M. Pozar, Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-30, pp. 1191-1196, Nov.

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