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A Publication of the Nigerian Association for Educational Administration and Planning.


Title page.................. Copy right page............ Foreword................... About the contributors... Table of contents........

i ii iii Iv-v vi-ix

Sub-Theme 1
Measurement of Productivity in Education CHAPTER ONE: Education and Productivity in Nigeria: An Overview - Dr. J.O. Fadipe..................................................1

CHAPTER TWO: Issues in Measuring Teachers Productivity

- Dr. A.O. Sofoluwe..............................................9

CHAPTER THREE: Measuring Teachers Productivity and Primary School Quality: An Evaluation of Concept and Issues
- Mr.J.B. Odunuga& Mr. P.K. Ajila......................16

CHAPTER FOUR: Measuring Teacher Productivity: An Overview of

the'APER' Form - Dr. A.F.S. Ahmed.......................22

Sub-Theme 2
Human Resource Management and Productivity CHAPTER FIVE: Human Resource Development and Productivity - Prof. Segun Ogunsaju.......................................32

CHAPTER SIX: Teachers' Remuneration, Conditions of Service, Job Satisfaction, Attitude to Work and Job Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Lagos State - Prof. E.O.-Fagbamiye.......................................41 CHAPTER SEVEN: Resource Allocation and Utilisation for University Education in Nigeria: Trends and Issues - Prof. D.O. Durosaro.........................................51 CHAPTER EIGHT: Staff Personnel Management and Productivity in
Education - Dr. R.O. Oduwaiye.............................68

CHAPTER NINE: Personnel Practices and Role Stress as Correlates of Students1 Academic Performance in Public and Private Secondary schools in Lagos State - Dr. S.A. Oyebade.77 CHAPTER TEN: Belief Systems of Secondary School Principals and Vice Principals about Productivity of Teachers in llorin Metropolis, Kwara State

- Dr. (Mrs.) Yetunde Ijaiya....................................88

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Enhancing Educational Productivity through Effective Staff Personnel Administration in Nigerian
schools - Dr. P.K. Ojedele.,...................................99

CHAPTER TWELVE: Providing Quality Education when Resources are Scarce. Strategies for Improving Secondary School Effectiveness - Dr. Ngozi E. Uzoka............109

Sub-Theme 3
Management of School Physical Facilities and Productivity

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Physical Facilities and Productivity in Education - Dr. G.O. Oyesola...118 CHAPTER FOURTEEN: The Role of School Plant in Educational
Productivity - Dr. N.B. Oyedeji..........:................128

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: Maintenance of School Infrastructure for

Productivity - B.M. Taiwo....................................134

Sub-Theme 4
Teacher Professionalism and Productivity in Nigeria CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Teacher Professionalism and Productivity: A management Perspective - Dr. A.T. Alabi............142

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: Towards Teacher Professionalism and Productivity in Nigerian Primary schools A.T.L Ojibara & N.B.L Ojibara (Mrs.)................147

Sub-Theme 5
Other Correlates of Education and Productivity in Nigeria CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: School Climate and Productivity in Selected Secondary Schools in Owerri and Umuahia Educational Zones of Imo and Abia States - Dr. Uche Emetarom........................................154 CHAPTER NINETEEN: Impact of Welfare Services on Productivity of Academic Staff in Colleges of Education -K. Udensi.....................................................165 CHAPTER TWENTY: Gender Behavioural Flexibility and Productivity of Women in Nigeria - Dr. O. Mowaiye Fagbemi.........176 CHAPTER TWENTY ONE: Theory Z: A Management Model for Increasing Teacher Morale and Productivity in Nigeria - Dr. (Mrs.) A. N. Okorie.....................................186

CHAPTER TWENTY TWO: Strategies for Achieving Productivity in the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme - Dr. M.O. Arikewuyo....198 CHAPTER TWENTY THREE: The Socio-Economic and Socio Cultural Context of Juvenile Street Trading in Lagos - Dr. J. O. Omokhodion......................................208 CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR: The Making of a Productive Teacher of Social Studies for Nigerian Secondary Schools - Drs. C.C. Okam, G.O. Bozimo and Mr. S.A. Rinfat...................212 CHAPTER TWENTY FIVE: Deprofessionalization of Teaching and Teachers' Productivity in Nigeria - Dr. R.W. Okunloye........................................219 CHAPTER TWENTY SIX: Organisational Climate and Teacher Productivity in secondary Schools in Jos-North Local Government Area of Plateau State - Dr. E.E. Oluchukwu........................................226 CHAPTER TWENTY SEVEN: Lecturers Job Satisfaction and Performance in Nigerian Colleges of Education - Dr. (Mrs.) A.I. Fabiyi .....................................237

BY Professor D. O. DUROSARO

Introduction In many countries, education is viewed as a good investment in nations development. The reason for this is that it is expected that the educational system will produce the quality and quantity of human resources required for the economy's growth using the right mix of inputs. In Nigeria the educational sector has been consuming quite a large proportion of the annual budgets of our states because expenditure on this sector is largely regarded as an investment. But the problem which is currently assailing the Nigerian educational system is the usual gap between the expected and the actual quality of output. There is the need to establish and maintain an appreciable educational standard at all levels. There is also the need to establish standardised operating criteria for the system. Our educational system seems to be crisis-ridden and our educational managers have always been busy managing crises or facing crises of management because of the issues of the absence of clearly defined standards of operation. In recent time, there have been increases in the investment on education which according to Aghenta (1987) had risen up to 40% of the annual budget at state level and about 24% at the Federal level. The increase in expenditure on education has resulted in greater awareness and interest in the quality of education Politicians, parents, educationists and all concerned individuals have been quick to comment on the issue of standards in education in Nigeria. Since expenditure in education is largely regarded as an investment, continuous appraisal to ensure both cost-effectiveness and prudence seems appropriate as in the commercial and industrial sectors. Hence, a part of this paper tries to examine the issue of standards in Nigerian education with particular reference to resource allocation and utilization for University education. The Concept of Standards The word standard is a relative term. It implies that there must be a reference point from which the intrinsic value of an endeavour can be measured, the general impression in Nigeria seems to be that the

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


standard of education is on the downward trend. An English dictionary simply defines standard as a 'model" or 'anything regarded as perfect and which could be used as a basis of comparison" (Halsey. 1979). This definition confirms the view that there must be a basis for comparison of either the educational products or practices over time before one carpass a judgement. Hence, those who condemned the standard of present Nigerian education do so by making vivid comparison between the, products of yester-years and those of present day. For instance a person might lament the falling' standard in English and Mathematics in the schools based on the fact that the majority of the products of schools 30 or 40 years ago wrote and spoke better English and were able to solve mathematical problems than their counterparts of present day schools Some other scholars have viewed the concept of standard in education from other perspectives. For instance, Funk and Wagnalls (1975) viewed standard in education as a measure or quality to which other measures or qualities must conform Also, Majasan (1989) opined that standard in education is a normative variable that is based on certain indices that are themselves defined by the values, goals, orientation and level of development of society This opinion was corroborated by Udoh (1989) who intimated that standard in education comes in when the degree or level of excellence are indicated for the achievement of the purposes of education. Standard, thus viewed, is the desirable level of attainment. Therefore, the basic questions raised in this paper are: 1. How are human, material and financial resources allocated to university education Nigeria? 2. How are human, material and financial resources allocated to university education in Nigeria utilised? 3. Is there any desirable level of attainment set for both resource allocation and utilization for university education in Nigeria? 4. How well are the set levels of attainment being met? 5. What are the possible strategies for improvement?

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


Resource Allocation to University Education For the sake of clarity, the term resource allocation is used here to mean the distribution of human and material resources devoted to university education in Nigeria. This definition is in line with the ideas of previous scholars like Akangbou (1987), Callaway and Musone (1968), Gravenir (1984) and Durosaro (1985). The resources to be considered include human and material resources. The human resource includes both staff and student personnel while the material resource includes both financial and physical facilities devoted to the system.

Human Resource Allocation

With regard to the human resource allocation to universities in Nigeria, the student enrolment in the system is guided by a national policy of 60.40 ratio for science and arts enrolment respectively. Table 1 presents a vivid picture of the distribution of enrolment in Nigerian Universities by faculty. The Table shows clearly that the enrolment is heavily weighted towards the humanities - rather than sciences. Table 1: Enrolment in Nigerian Universities by Faculty 1986 - 1990.
Field of Study Sciences Faculties Agriculture Earth & Mineral Sciences Engineering and Technology Environmental Design Medicine Pharmacy Science Vet. Medicine Sub-Total* Administration Arts Education Law Social Sciences Others 1986 7566 108 10,026 4,585 8958 1811 16969 994 51,047 7,614 18,029 23,755 6,950 16,348 2,542 1987 8,078 510 11,327 4,979 9353 2043 18840 1121 56,251 8,019 18,155 25,400 8,156 17,254 2,435 1988 9,087 564 12,555 5371 9856 1993 21199 1292 61,929 8,859 20,255 28,178 9,091 18,288 4,013 1989 9,582 618 13,964 5.186 10034 1994 25466 1364 100,560 9,974 22,378 29,348 10,300 19,692 867 ______ 1990 12943 N.A. 15,085 6,091 10960 2316 29526 1448 78,369 12,683 23,377 27,529 9,761 21,841 7,311


Education and Productivity in Nigeria


Sub-Total* Grand Total

75,238 79,419 88,684 60,207 102,502 126,283 135,670 150,613 160,767 180,871

Sources: NUC Statistical Digest 1980 - 86. 1987 - 90.

Also, the staffing of the university system in Nigeria is guided by the laid down criteria of the National Universities Commission (NUC). This is usually Faculty related. For example, it is stipulated that the lecturer/student ratio for Arts should be 1:22. The lecturer/student ratio for the Sciences should be 1:15 while the lecturer/student ratio for the Faculty of Education should be 1:25. The Basic Medical Sciences have the lowest lecturer/student ratio. The Nigerian Medical Council recommends one lecturer to 15 students in every subject area, but in the clinical area the recommendation is one lecturer to 10 students. The data on academic staff in Nigerian Universities between 1986 and 1990 are shown on Table 2.

Education and Productivity in Nigeria






1987 1 ,065 " 958 863 1,280 1,013 671 505 385 336 615 318 367 411 112 67 51 9,019 147 321 142 346 92 241 261 111 1,661 10,680

1988 1,075 902 839 820 1,153 153 915 657 457 698 415 348 588 32 265 415 384 127 97 73 9,106 147 321 142 359 92 241 361 111 2,029 10,764


1990 1,129 716 879 1,186 924 627 46 436 401 784 31 1 446 400 151 141 160 131 126 67 111 9,597 241 457 89 435 141 290 329 157 11,736


Universities by Institution
Institution University of Ibadan University of Lagos University of Nigeria, Nsukka A. B. U. Zaria O. A. U. lle-lfe University of Benin University of Jos University of Calabar Bayero University, Kano University of Maiduguri Usumanu Danfodio Univ. Sokoto University of llorin University of Port-Harcourt A. T. B,a)ewa Univ., Bauchi University of Makurdi F. U. T. Owerri F. U. T. Yola F U. T. Akure r- U. Agric. Abeokuta F U. T. Minna Sub-Total Anambra State Univ. Rivers State Univ. Imo State Univ. Bendel State Univ. Ondo State Univ. Ogun State Univ. Cross River State Univ. Lagos State Univ. Sub-Total 1,268 Grand Total 1986 1,065 1,054 892 1,227 983 659 440 419 330 339 263 356 335 97 _ 52 32 8,370 95 321 142 167 92 142 232 77 1,661 10,038 1989 1,098 705 873 1,186 962 667 433 420 355 653 297 401 401 162 103 140 94 106 50 84 9,216 275 319 203 363 141 255 324 147 2,139 11,245

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


Table 2 reveals that the Ahmadu Bello University which had me highest also had the largest number of academic sis''' Bellowed by the of Ibadan and Lagos respectively. Apparent' too, the first universities have more academic staff t! "n the second ration universities and the latter also have more academic staff than the third generation and state owned universities The structure of academic staff in each department should be such that Professorial grade accounts for 20%, Senior Lecturer grade 45% and Lecturer grade 35% The distribution of non-academic staff of Nigerian universities also fall in line with the National Universities Commission approved resource allocation parameter. There are laid down ratios for academic to non-academic senior administrative and technical staff. For examples, there should be one senior administrative staff to every three academic staff. There should also be one senior technical support staff to every three or four academic staff in the science based disciplines. For the junior support staff, there should be a total of half of the senior staff establishment. The data on the non academic staff in Nigerian universities by institution from 1986 to 1990 are presented on Table 3.

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


Table 3: Number of Non-Academic Staff in Nigerian Universities by Institution: 1986-90.

Institution University of Ibadan University of Lagos University of Nig. Nsukka A. B. U. Zaria O. A. U. lle-lfe University of Benin University of Jos University of Calabar Bayero University, Kano University of Maiduguri Usuman Danfodio Univ. Sokoto University of llorin University of Port-Harcourt A. T. Balewa Univ., Bauchi University of Makurdi F. U. T. Owerri F.U.T. Yola F. U. T. Akure F. U. Agric. Abeokuta F. U. T. Minna Sub-Total 16,252 Anambra State Univ. Rivers State Univ. Imo State Univ. ' Bendel State Univ. Ondo .State Univ. Ogun State Univ. Cross River State Univ. Lagos State Univ. Sub-Total 2,811 Grand Total 1986 2,349 2,408 1,912 2,301 900 1,022 970 883 606 833 414 822 377 237 159 66 17,734 167 530 235 213 147 193 383 143 2,785 29,063 1987 2,364 2,465 1,796 2,300 111 1,049 1,037 883 624 830 509 830 540 171 160 110 17,482 293 530 235 637 186 342 364 198 2,848 20,519 1988 2,364 2,389 1,942 2,247 1,081 1 ,252-924 806 637 940 488 933 808 314 207 150 40,320 293 530 235 635 186 336 364 267 7,264 20,330 1989 4,894 3,959 5,676 3,816 4,034 2,256 1,838 2,045 1,353 2,400 1,120 1,373 1,782 526 618 661 445 425 363 376 38,194 1,086 1,429 612 1,641 386 504 1,052 554 6,727 47,584 1990 4,779 2,994 4,452 4,112 3,312 2,462 1 ,782 2,090 1,431 2,177 1,133 1,712 1 ,927 579 820 694 366 527 373 433 1,103 89 1,544 386 373 1,099 648 44,921

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


The table shows that in 1990, the University of Ibadan had the largest academic staff, followed closely by University of Nigeria, and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Even though the state srsities belong to the fourth generation of universities, some of them as Bayero University, Kano and Usman Dan Fodio University, koto had employed more non academic staff than some second generation universities. Physical Facilities Allocation At this juncture, it may be necessary to discuss the material resource allocation to Nigerian universities. A look at the data on physical resource allocation to Nigerian universities shows that there was remarkable growth in the number of university institutions in Nigeria between 1986 and 1990. Table 4 presents the relevant information on this aspect. The number of universities in Nigeria in 1986 was 24. The number rose to 28 by 1989 and 29 in 1990. The physical facilities in each institution varied widely in terms of quantity and quality. There are broad guidelines on the procurement of materials and facilities for each faculty and department, depending on the dictates of the course programmes. The basic facilities provided in each university include student accommodation, lecture rooms, health care facilities, workshops and laboratories, administrative facilities and equipment and furniture as well as municipal services. The requirement varies from department to department but there are broad guidelines from NUC. For-example, there are prescribed minimum space requirements for offices, hostels, classrooms, laboratories, seminar and conference rooms. Academic staff offices should be 13.5 m2 per lecturer, classroom accommodation should be 0.7 m2 per student, laboratory should be 7.5 m? per student while conference rooms should be 18.5 m2 per student. Moreover, three categories of equipment are needed in most university departments. .The b first category is needed for teaching purposes, the second for office use the third category of equipment is needed for administrative work, research and students' fieldwork. For teaching, each lecturer has chalk board, pieces of chalk, overhead projector, video set and personal computer and tape recorders. For office use in the departmental Offices, there is need for one good photocopier, copying machine, one or two typewriters, one typesetting filing cabinets, air conditioners, one set of upholstered

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


chairs, six office chairs, four book shelves, one refrigerator, one executive table and chair, two typist tables and chairs, a wall to wall carpeting, one car, two notice boards and at least one blackboard. In addition, in each lecturer's office there should be one table, four chairs, one air conditioner, one filing cabinet, one blackboard and two bookshelves with a floor decently carpeted. There are also other instructional equipment that should be provided in the science based departments. For instance, in the Medical Sciences, to teach Anatomy there should be one cadaver for eight students, one dissecting microscope for eight students, one light microscope for two students, one spectrophotometer for twenty students and one centrifuge for six students. There is no doubt, all these resources have financial implications and it is pertinent to discuss the financial resource allocation to Nigerian Universities at this point. Financial Resource Allocation Financial resource passes from the Federal Government through the National Universities Commission (NUC) to Federal Universities. The NUC has five major divisions one of which is the Finance Division which is saddled with the responsibility of managing and disbursing funds to universities. The funds to the universities could be in form of recurrent grant, capital grant and special grants. The NUC has laid down general financial policies for the universities and it advises the institutions on financial matters. Capital grants to Nigerian universities is usually in line with the provisions of the overall national development plan and as catered for in the fiscal year's budget. In determining the capital expenditure of a university, the student enrolment and the nature of the course programmes play very vital roles. These guide the determination of lecturers, space for lectures and other support services required. These requirements when calculated are then translated into specific projects and arranged in their order of priority. The estimated cost of each project is then determined. It is the combination of all the estimated costs of all such projects in a university that form the capital estimates submitted to the NUC. However, when a university submits the capital estimate to the NUC, the Planning Division of the Commission analyses it against the

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


background of the university's enrolment, the national manpower development target and realism. After verifying the cost computations, the Vice Chancellors, Bursars and the academic planning officers of the universities are then invited to a budget hearing session at the NUC at which the differences between the adjusted estimate by the NUC and the original submissions of the institutions are discussed. The final and agreeable estimate is then approved by the NUC for submission through the Federal Ministry of Education to the Federal Ministry of Finance for approval before it becomes the basis for capital expenditure. The NUC exercises control over capital expenditure in the universities by making official visits to the various universities to see, at first hand, the site and the physical structures. There are also consultants from the NUC who monitor drawings and specifications of each project and every project must be approved before it is started. Also, a member of the NUC is required to attend all tender board meetings of each university and each university is expected to complete a capital project data sheet which is used to provide, on a quarterly basis, the physical progress report as well as the cost to date of each project. In addition, a team of auditors from NUC makes occasional visits to universities to verify the financial information given by universities on each project. It is a financial requirement that universities should keep a separate bank account for capital grants so that such funds are not inadvertently misappropriated for recurrent expenditures. The universities are mandated to submit a quarterly capital grant return to NUC in line with the Finance Ordinance of 1958 (Section 9). The detail of information to be compiled in the quarterly capital grant return includes: name and description of each capital project in progress, stage of completion at the time of making quarterly return, estimated cost to that stage, actual cost of project to that stage, variance of actual cost from estimated cost and explanation for variance, a statement of receipt and disbursement for the capital grant fund, and a bank reconciliation statement for capital grant bank account. The trend in the capital grant allocation to Federal Government owned Universities in Nigeria is presented on Table 4.
Education and Productivity in Nigeria 61

Table 4: Capital Grants to Federal Universities in Nigeria, 1986 - 1990.

Years 1986 N Amount 48,877,120 1987 N 127,500,000 81,000,000 1988 N 1989 N 60,833,318 1990 N 80,000,000

Source: A/L/C Annual Reports, 1986 - 1990.

Table 5 shows that allocation of capital funds to universities fluctuated widely. The grant rose from N 45.8 million in 1986 to N 127.5 million in 1987 but declined to N 60.8 million in 1989. This figure 'rose to N 80.0 million by 1990. The procedure used for the recurrent grant allocation to universities is fairly similar to that of the capital grant. The universities are requested to submit their recurrent expenditure needs for the next financial year to NUC. The NUC then spends considerable time pruning and consolidating them for budget hearing. All vice chancellors, bursars and directors of planning attend the budget hearing to defend the estimates submitted by them. The agreeable estimate is then forwarded to the Federal Government for approval before it becomes the basis for making recurrent expenditure in the Universities! The recurrent allocations of the universities are used mainly for personal emoluments and other charges. The personal emolument figures are fairly exact and actual while the other charges consist of operating expenses some of which are variable while others are fixed. ,The trend of recurrent grant allocation to Federal Government owned universities in Nigeria is shown in Table 5. Table 5: -1990.
Years Amount

Recurrent Grants to Federal Universities in Nigeria, 1986

1986 N 442,594,570

1987 1988 1989 N N N 406,405,501 316,047,550 500,000,000

1990 N 575,000,000

Source. A/L/C Annual Report!?, 1986 - 1990.

Education and Productivity in Nigeria 62

Table 5 shows that N 442.5 million was allocated as recurrent grant to Nigerian Universities in 1986. The amount declined to N 316.0 million in but rose to N 575.0 million in 1990. Resource Utilization for University Education Resource utilization in this paper means the manner of application of the human, material and financial resources devoted to university education. Human resource utilization, with particular reference to students did not comply with the 60:40 quota of science versus humanities between 1986 and 1990. Table 6 presents the data on enrolment ratio in Nigerian universities from 1986 - 1990 vis a vis science and humanities. Table 6: Enrolment in Nigerian Universities showing ratio of science to humanities, 1986- 1990
Discipline/Years Science Humanities Ratio of Science/Humanities 1986 51,047 75,238 40:60 1987 56,251 79,419 42:58 1988 61,917 88,684 41:59 1989 68,208 92,559 42:58 1990 78,369 102,502 43:57

Source: NUC Statistical Digest. Table 6 shows that the trend was in favour of humanities. Between 1986 and 1990 the enrolment in the sciences was 42% of total enrolment. When the utilization of university teachers is considered, the lecturer-student ratio in most Nigerian universities seems to fall short of the prescribed minimum. For example, the lecturer-student ratios in Nigerian universities by faculties for the 1985/86 academic year is presented on.

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


Table 7: Number of Academic Staff in Nigerian Universities by Institution: 1986-90.

Institution AdmUniversity of Ibadan University of Lagos University of Nigeria, Nsukka A. B. U. Zarla O. A. U. lieIfe University of Benin University of Jos University of Calabar Bayero University, Kano _ 21.2 35.0 Agric 14.2 10.8 Arts Earth & Educ., Min. 9.7 8.6 9.1 10.4 11.3 19.1 Engin/ Envir. 12.0 14.7 21.3 Law Medi- Sciecine nce _ 10.8 8.8 4.3 10.8 _ 9.3 Soc. Sci. 17.8 17.6 13.3

15.1 18.3 23.1

19.6 10.2

44.6 15.0 -

3.5 13.9 7.8 24.2 -

11.9 7.7 14.9 16.0 17.2 12.4

20.6 22.1 25.0 13.0 19.1 29.2

6.9 16.3 18.1 _ _ 4.6

12.1 24.3 _

10.2 "5.8 18.5 5.5 34.5 6.9 9.4 6.9

7.5 8.3 10.2 6.2 7.1 5.5

_ 16.8 17.7 16.4 11.1 10.7

10.4 33.5 _ _ 2.1

18.3 28.0

University of Malduguri Usumanu _ Danfodlp Univ. Sokoto University of Llorln -

4.4 6.0

9.7 14.2/ 7 -

23.6 25.7

2.8 21.8

_ 3.6

25.4 5.5 8.5 12.4



20.5 6.3 11.8 9.5 1 10.5 _ 7.1

14.3 11.5 7.4 10.8 11.4 _ -

20.9 40.1 _ _. _ 8.2 15.5 _ - 4.9 48.9

20.0 7.7 10.9 _ 14.6 10.1 22.1 7.6

_ _ _ _ 4.4 16.7 8.3 13.4

_ _ _ _ _

7.6 6.3 _ 6.9 _

12.8 22.7 6.7 _ 16.7

University of 19.7 Port-Harcourt F. U. T. Owerrl F. U. T. Akure F. U. T. Minn 5.2 -

4.7 8.8 15,3 12.6 41.6 3.9 _

Federal 29.9 Universities Anambra State Univ. 10.4

28.0 6.9 _ _

Rivers State 17.2

21.4 _

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


Univ. Imo State Univ. 17.4 . 10.0 31.9 16.9 12.3 25.2 17.2 17.6 14.5 23.0 6.4 10.0 11.4 11.4 8.2 18.4 18.5 _ 13.2 37.5 11.5 12,8 _ 5.2 15.8 9.2 9.9 14.8 4.9 4.2 20.4 21.8 17.7 24.9 4.9 6.8 8.6 17.6 6.8 8.9 _ 60.1 _ 14.4 _ 7.4 _ 11.1 10.6 6.5 12.9 22.9 X 63 14.9

BendelStaet Univ. Ondo State Univ. Ogun State 4.2 Univ. Crocs River 5.9 State Univ. Lagos State Univ. State Universities Fed. & State Univs.

8.8 15.6

Source: NUC Annual Report, 1985/86.

The average lecturer/student ratio in Nigerian universities was 1:25.9 in Administration instead of 1:22. Also in science, the lecturer/student ratio was 1:8.8 instead of 1:15. In education the actual ratio was 1:18.5 instead of 1:25 prescribed. In medicine, the actual ratio was 1:6.9 instead of 1:15. In addition, there were variations in the lecturer/student ratio between Federal and State owned universities. In administration, the ratio for federal universities was 1:25.9 on the average while for state universities it was 1:14.5. For law, federal universities had an average of 1:28 while state universities had an average of 1:17.7. However, in some of the faculties there seems to be some uniformity in the lecturer/student ratio in both federal and state universities. Table 8 shows the utilization of non-teaching personnel. The non-academic staff ratio rose from 1:2 in 1986 to 1:4 in 1989 and was down to 1:3 in 1990. The state owned universities had a ratio of one academic staff to three non academic staff in 1990. No doubt, the academic/non academic staff mix has some implications for efficiency in finance, space and material utilization.
Education and Productivity in Nigeria 65

Table 8: Academic/Non Academic Staff ratio in Nigerian Universities, 1986-1990.

Years Academics Non Academics Ratio Academics Non Academics Ratio 1986 8,770 16,252 1:2 1,268 2,811 1:2 1987 9,019 17,734 1:2 1,661 2,785 1:2 1988 9,103 17,482 1:2 1,661 2,848 1:2 1989 9,216 40,320 1:4 2,029 7,264 1:4 1990 9,597 38,194 1:4 2,139 6,727 1:3

Source. Computed from NUC Annual Reports, 1986 - 1990.

The information on the unit cost per student in Nigerian universities is presented on Table 9. Table 9: Unit cost per student in Nigeria Universities 1986-1990
Years Capital Cost Recurrent Cost Total Cost Enrolment Unit Cost 1986 N 45,877,120 N 442,594,570 1987 N127,500,000 N406,405,501 1988 N 81 ,000,000 N 316,047,550 1989 N 60,833,318 N 500,000,000 1990 N 80,000,000 N 575,000,000 N 655,000,000 180,871 N 3,621.37

N 488,47 1,690 N 533,905,501 126,285 N3,868.01 135,670 N 3,935.33

N 397,047,550 N 560,833,318 150,613 N 2,636.21 160,767 N 3,488.49

Source: Computed from NUC Annual Reports, 1986 - 1990. The Table shows that the unit cost per student in Nigerian universities varied from N33,868.01 in 1986 to N 3,935.33 in 1987. The cost declined to N 2,636.21 in 1988 but rose slightly to N 3,621.37 in 1990. The provision of funds for goods and services in direct teaching departments in Nigerian universities is in relation to the intensity of student teacher contact, Laboratory facilities and type of teaching equipment required in the following proportion: In the humanities, between 15% and 20% of total salaries of staff in the discipline is provided for goods and services. In the science-based disciplines, up to 25 - 36% of total staff salaries is provided. Allocation for library is 6% of total operating cost in the university.
Education and Productivity in Nigeria 66

Allocation for teaching and research equipment is 5% of total

operating cost in the university. Research fund allocation is 20% of total teaching cost or higher if research needs can be justified. Public service fund allocation is 10% of total teaching cost. Administrative support cost is also provided for, to pay for salaries, goods and services required by all non academic personnel not located in academic departments. Special allocations are also made for health services, maintenance of goods and property on per staff member rate. There are also non academic expenditure like leave grant, housing allowance, vehicle allowance and retirement benefits at nationally approved rates.

Obviously, there seems to be some desirable levels of attainment set for the resource allocation and utilization in Nigerian universities. The pertinent thing to discuss is whether the criteria provided are met and followed by all. The present study discovered that the 60/40 quota of student enrolment in science/humanities was not met. Also, the lecturer/student ratios prescribed in the faculties were not achieved. The academic/non academic quota in some cases was not met. These gaps, no doubt, have implication on the use-efficiency of our university resources. Most universities complain of inadequacy of space and material resources. Staff members in the faculties face the problem of attrition owing to poor facilities and conditions of service. Yet, student enrolment continues to grow, leading to inadequate facilities in the universities. The persisting economic downturn seems to have compounded the problems particularly with the serious depreciation of the rain and the lower absorptive capacity of the economy for university graduate. The facilities in the universities can no longer be maintained as they should. The high cost of universities and other tertiary institutions in relation to basic education, together with the fear of increasing problem of graduate unemployment in Nigeria calls for a rethinking of the goals of our university system.

Education and Productivity in Nigeria


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