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# Date: Ex. No.

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G1 T1

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T1 G1

Bus No.

Bus Type

Generator pu P Q

1 2 3

SLACK Br BQ

0.6

## 0.0 0.1 5 0.0 5 0.1

-1.0

1.5

BQ

BQ

LINE No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

SB 1 1 2 2 2 3 4

EB 2 3 3 4 5 4 5

## Series Impedance in pu 0.2+0.05j 0.8+0.24j 0.06+0.18j 0.02+0.08j 0.04+0.12j 0.01+0.03j 0.08+0.24j

Half line Change in admittance in pu 0.03j 0.025j 0.02j 0.02j 0.015j 0.01j 0.035j

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## GAUSS SEIDAL LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

AIM:
To carry out load flow analysis of the given power system by gauss ideal method.

THEORY:
Load flow analysis ids the study conducted to determine the study state operation gauss ideal method is one of such algorithm.

PROBLEM FORMULATION:
The performance equation of the power system may be return of [I bus]=[Y bus][Y box] Selected one of the buses of the reference box we get n-1 simulation equations. The bus loading equations can be written as I=Pi-I Qi/Vi Where,
n

(i=1,2,3,..n)

k=1 n

k=1

n

## Vi=(1.0/Yii)[I1- Yij Vi]

J=1

The latest available equations can be solved for voltages in interactive manner. During each iterations compute all the bus voltages obtained at the end of previous instructions. After the solutions is obtained. The stack or memory box, real and reactive powers, the relieve power generate at other generative powers and line force can be calculated.

Date: Ex. No.: STAR T READ LINE AND BUS DATA COMPUTE Y=BUS M ATRIX

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Bus no. = 2

i = i+1

Refer to pu bus

## Calculate Qg1 = Qbus + Qi

QG1 = Qmax Qixdec = Qmax

## QG1i = Qmax Qijdec = QminQii

Step1: Read the data such of line data specified power and specified limit of voltages tolerance for B convergence.

## Date: Ex. No.:

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ALGORITHM:
Step2: Compute bus matrix. Step3: Initialize all the bus voltages. Step4: Inter=1 Step5: Consider I=Z, where j is the bus number. Step6: Consider check where the PV bus or pq o pq bus goto step6 or goto next step. Step7: Consider qcheck for limit violence Qg=Qi+QZ1. If QG1>Q1max squate QG1 to Q1max. Q1=Q1max-Qi then goto step 8. Step8: Calculate the new value of bus voltage using gauss seidal formula.
I=1 n

## Vi=(1.0/Yii) [(Pi-j Qi)/vi- Yii Vi- Yii Vj]

J=1 j=j+1

If Qg1>Q1max squate Qg1 to Q1max. Step9: If all losses are considered goto step 2 or increment the bus i=i+1 and goto step6. Step10: Check for convergence. If there is no convergence goto step 11 or goto 12. Step11: Update the bus voltage using the formula. Step12: Calculate the slack bus power, Q of P-V buses real and reactive give flows real and reactance line losses and print all the results including all the bus voltages and all the bus angles Step13: Stop. Line No. 1 2 3 Starting bus 1 1 2 Ending bus 2 3 3 Series line impedance 0.02+0.04j 0.01+0.03j 0.0125+0.025j Line charging Admittance 0.05j 0.025j 0.025j Voltage 1.05 1.0 1.00 Real power 0 0.2 0.3 Reactive power 0 0 0.02

## Date: Ex. No.: B

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PROGRAM:

Date: Ex. No.: clear all; clc; nb=input('ENTER NUMBER OF BUSES nl=input('THE NUBER OF LINES '); '); '); ');

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## sb=input('THE NUMBER OF STARTING BUSES eb=input('THE NUMBER OF ENDING BUSES

sli=input('ENTER THE DETAILS OF SERIES LINE IMPEDANCE\n'); lca=input('ENTER THE DETAILS OF LINE CHANGING ADMITTANCE\n'); for m=1:nb for n=1:nb if m==n||m~=n if sli(m,n)==0 n=n+1; else y(m,n)=+sli(m,n)^-1+lca(m,n); y(n,n)=+sli(m,n)^-1+lca(m,n); y(m,n)=y(m,n); end end end end ybus=y m=input('ENTER NUMBER OF PV BUSES for i=1:m v(i+1)=input('ENTER TNE PV BUS VOLTAGE '); ');

qmax(i)=input('ENTER MAXIMUM LIMIT OF Q FOR PV BUS '); qmin(i)=input('ENTER MINIMUM LIMIT OF QFOR PV BUS ');

OUPUTS

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## THE NUMBER OF STARTING BUSES THE NUMBER OF ENDING BUSES

ENTER THE DETAILS OF SERIES LINE IMPEDANCE [0 0.2+0.06j 0.8+0.24j 0 0;-0.2-0.06j 0 0.06+0.18j 0.02+0.08j 0.04+0.12j;-0.8-0.24j -0.06-0.18j 0.01+0.03j 0;0 -0.02-0.08j -0.01-0.03j 0 0.08+0.24j;0 -0.04-0.12j 0 -0.08-0.24j 0] ??? Error using ==> vertcat All rows in the bracketed expression must have the same number of columns.

ENTER THE DETAILS OF SERIES LINE IMPEDANCE [0 0.2+0.06j 0.8+0.24j 0 0;-0.2-0.06j 0 0.06+0.18j 0.02+0.08j 0.04+0.12j;-0.8-0.24j -0.06-0.18j 0 0.01+0.03j 0;0 -0.02-0.08j -0.01-0.03j 0 0.08+0.24j;0 -0.04-0.12j 0 -0.08-0.24j 0] ENTER THE DETAILS OF LINE CHANGING ADMITTANCE [0 0.03j 0.025j 0 0;-0.03j 0 0.02j 0.02j 0.015j;-0.025j -0.02j 0 0.01j 0;0 -0.02j -0.01j 0 0.035j;0 -0.015j 0 -0.035j 0]

ybus =

## -1.1468 + 0.3190i 4.5872 - 1.3461i 1.1468 - 0.3190i

-4.5872 + 1.3461i -2.5000 + 7.4850i 1.6667 - 4.9800i 2.9412 -11.7447i 2.5000 - 7.4850i -1.1468 + 0.3190i -1.6667 + 4.9800i -10.0000 +29.9900i 10.0000 -29.9900i 0 0 0

-2.9412 +11.7447i -10.0000 +29.9900i -1.2500 + 3.7150i 1.2500 - 3.7150i -2.5000 + 7.4850i 0 -1.2500 + 3.7150i 1.2500 - 3.7150i

ENTER NUMBER OF PV BUSES end p=input('ENTER THE REAL POWERS q=input('ENTER THE REACTIVE POWERS ');

');

## Date: Ex. No.: v(1)=input('ENTER SLACK BUS VOLTAGE ');

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itrn=input('ENTER NUMBER OF ITERATION '); for i=m+2:nb v(i)=1; end for i=2:m+1 yv=0; for j=1:nb yv=yv+y(i,j)*v(j); end yv=(conj(v(i))*yv); q(i)=-imag(yv); if q(i)<qmin(i-1) q(i)=qmin(i-1); end yv=0; for j=1:nb if i~=j yv=yv+y(i,j)*v(j); end end v1=(complex(p(i),-q(i))/(conj(v(i)))-yv)/y(i,i); del(i)=angle(v1); [re,im]=pol2cart(del(i),v(i)); v(i)=complex(re,im); ENTER TNE PV BUS VOLTAGE 1

ENTER MAXIMUM LIMIT OF Q FOR PV BUS 1 ENTER MINIMUM LIMIT OF QFOR PV BUS ENTER THE REAL POWERS [0 0.2 0.3] 1

Date: Ex. No.: ENTER THE REACTIVE POWERS ENTER SLACK BUS VOLTAGE [0 0 0.02] 1.05

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ENTER NUMBER OF ITERATION 5 the final value of voltages after iteration 5 are -0.4000 + 0.2406I 1.0267-0.0075I 1.0000

## end for i=m:nb-2 yv=0; for j=1:nb if i~=j

Date: Ex. No.: yv=yv+y(i,j)*v(j); end end v(i)=(complex(-p(i),q(i))/(conj(v(i)))-yv)/y(i,i); end for k=2:itrn for i=2:nb-1 yv=0; for j=1:nb if i~=j yv=y(i,j)*v(j); end end v(i)=(complex(-p(i),q(i))/(conj(v(i)))-yv)/y(i,i); end end disp(['the final value of voltage after iteration',num2str(itrn),'are']); disp(v);

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RESULTS:
A program has been developed in MATLAB. Current load analysis for the given power system by gauss seidal method and the results are verified.