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The Transition from Asceticism to Mysticism at the Middle of the Ninth Century C.E. Author(s): Christopher Melchert Reviewed work(s): Source: Studia Islamica, No. 83 (1996), pp. 51-70 Published by: Maisonneuve & Larose Stable URL: . Accessed: 04/12/2012 11:37
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Studia Islamica, 1996/1(fivrier) 83

The transitionfrom asceticism to mysticismat the middle of the ninth century C.E.

to Muslims seem to insist strongly divinetranscendence, stress so on in so highly elementof morality religion, the development an the that of Islamicmystical tradition sometimes has been attributed foreign to influences (1).LouisMassignon on largely theevidenceofterminology, argued, Islamic thatIslamicmysticism thoroughly developed out of an earlier, asceticaltradition A transition from Islamicasceticism Islamicmysto (2). ticism has now become a scholarly (3). commonplace No one has gone " further, though, way of 1) precisely by defining ascetical" and " mystitook place. I cal" and 2) showingjust where and when the transition think I can demonstratethat the extant record is overwhelmingly not until ascetical, mystical, Dho al-Nonal-MigTi. Thereafter, mystical truly schools emergedat about the same timein Khurasan(Abl Yazid and especially the less famous Ab0 Haf? al-Naysabiri) and Baghdad There was soon trouble withold-style and al-Nari). (al-Kharraz, ascetics, were arrested theInquisition GhulamKhalil. in Sufis of Then seventy-odd it Islamicmysticism foundthe apologist needed in al-Junayd, develwho
KevinReinhart commented on draft thisarticle. of helpfully an earlier " A. the (1) See, forexample, Reynold Nicholson, A Historical Concerning Origin Enquiry and Development Sufiism of 1906,303-348,esp. 306. of RoyalAsiaticSociety, ",Journal the It is accurate equateIslamic to with in the of mysticism Sufism discussing perceptions Western Chabbihas demonstrated Sufism, that scholars however, earlyin thiscentury; Jacqueline by thatname,was onlyone of severalmystical traditions at leasttheeleventh until C.E.: century sur iranien "Reflexions le soufisme primitif ",Journalasiatique,266 (1978): 37-55. Essai sur les originesdu lexique technique la de (2) See above all Louis Massignon, rev.edn. (Paris:J.Vrin,1954). musulmane, mystique (3) E.g.,see The Encyclopediaof Religion,ed. MirceaEliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987),s.v." Sufism by Peter Awn. ", J.


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Roth& ClausWittich. Towardsthe is and A (5) Mydebtto Mueller great:" Asceticism Mysticism.withappendices (Opladen: Westdeutscher & Otto. finding be in time. ".Tillich. of 97 f. proportions can be measured. God can be obeyed at any God revealedin theobjectsof nature.of Calif. confidant abunof chosenness. keley: Univ. Guenther (4) Max Weber. use " asceticism in contrast " mysticism as have Weber. vols. the contrary.Cf. It has been developed by numerous the others. to the in have oftenused " asceticism" translate Islamicists particular ". Joachim of earMatthes summarizing Verlag.223 on Tue. Mueller Schematically. thanthemystic specialtimes to the therefore. tendto be optimists. The Emergenceof Mysticism the Middleof the Ninth Century of The opposition asceticalto mystical religion goes back above all to Max Weber(4). about by piety. 52 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. however.Similarly. asceticalpietyemphasizesobedience to a (5). at I. tics(6).g. " mysticismto translate " " " ta. notably PaulTillich. " " Asceticism is commonly of used to denotea program self-discipline and austerity.Asceticscharacteristically perceivemorepersonality divinAsceticstend for thanmystics.Encyclopedia Religion.however.must obeyed at all timesand in all places). ".inInternationalYearbook theSociology Religion : Sociological & and Theories Religion/Religion Language. whomdivinity seem verydiffuse.68-132. dantgrace.72. by Mystics. imposing is about communion withan immanent God. lierdichotomies Nietzsche. anyplace (indeed. may ity and may alternatepersonallybetween fear and to be pessimists.1973). " to I Rather. by s.Economy Press. (6) E. Kaelber.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT alarmmystical oped a new languageto treat unduly experiencewithout ing ascetics. as such may well characterize practiceof mysand the not thatis emphatically thesense in whichI use ithere. Contribution 8 of of for Sociology Faith". I use " asceticism Arabiczuhd.168. a and the otherswho have bequeathed the term. contrast.1978).5ber2 and Society. al. "Asceticism by WalterO. On elementsof strong pietyis without and every and will both asceticism mysticism be foundin everyreligion that individual's note well.awwuf ed. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . world. elements in need notbe a Sufiforthereto be distinctly Muslim mystical whose willtherebe founda Muslimmystic his or her outlook.Mueller.544-551. Giinter different worlview. contrast.v.Neither asceticalelements.ThomasLuckmann.ed.Mystical transcendent God's will on the natural God. skillfully and summarized Gert Neo-Orthodox by theologian H.. asceticwillpay less regard in and places. Massignon.

We mayconveniently our chronology Islamicmysticism take of from thebiographical of (d. 1960). is now clearthatclassicalSufism.(Cairo: Matba'at al-Sa'adah. the Filikely of codo. 1021). no. vols. looking evidenceof theasceticalor mystical ther can be found other in to Sufism Abo Nasral-Sarraj like sayings guides (d. Kitabal-Luma 'f al-tasawwuf. usually attached chainsoftransmitters. (Leiden: E. historique mouvements asc6tiques mystiques Khursa~n Studia and himthe Salimiyah constituted rival a Islamica. Johannes availableas editedby Nor al-Din Sharibah (Cairo: Jama'at al-Azhar lil-Nashr wa-al-Tiba'ah.72. al-Sulami's chieftendency must have been to demonstrate becontinuity tween the Sufisof his day and the asceticswithwhomhe begins: ifthe it sayingsof the earliestfigures suggestrather discontinuity. One must a alwaysbewareoflatergenerations' having projected given back onto a famous seldomdoes thisappearto saying earlyfigure. God's Unruly Friends(Salt Lake City: Qalandaritype.". Studia Islamica.Fromthethirteenth in to of C.there century developedrivals Sufism the for T. Reynold Nicholson. What Is MeantbyZuhd. a shortcharacterization.of UtahPress. suggest individual not it herent. al-Sulami AH 412/AD dictionary 'Abd al-Rahman dividesthe Sufisup to his time (9).W. 46 (1977). 27-44. in al-awliya'. morial 12 (London: Luzac. forthe sake of precision. tasawwufof thelate ninth the century and after. Also Tabaqat al-safiyah.Brill. ed.where such projections thickest. biographical seem to be arybeginsafterthe earliestperiod. 430/1038). with classical Sufismin Baghdad there developed the (8) Roughlycontemporary " and in for sur Chabbi.For each Sufi.see Leah Kinberg. 1953). Remarques Karramiyah Malamatlyah Khurasan. Univ. Fairly be a problem the Tabaqat of al-Sulami. in this dictionFirst. whomsee Ahmet Karamustafa.(Contrast the earlier volumes of Aba Nu'aym). no.E.Abii Nu'aym.1914). 10 E. Fursayings. al-Luma'ft al-tayawwuf. dates. 53 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. was notthe onlyvariety Islamicmysticism of (8).223 on Tue. Gibb Meed. 378/988).less often otherstandard biographical dictionaries . Ser. Tabaqat al-saftyah Al-Sulami intofivegenerations each comprising names.61 (1985).J.1994). outlooks. quotations the earlierfigures forthe mostpart. the oppositeof " asceticism and because it as ". K A. sample of the prophetic gives hadithreportshe related. mereliterary types(although is notthe " (7) For the ethicalideal of zuhd. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1932-1938).he twenty a name.Hilyat (10). method to examinethesefigures' to is My for worldview. 5-72. Pedersen (9) AI-Sulami.seems unthathe has projected ideas of his own timeback to theirs. indicate idealtypeidentto an ifiedby studentsof religionin the twentieth ratherthan the century " consciousethicalideal of medievalMuslims I use " mysticismboth (7).TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM rather thanzuhd forthesake ofprecision. whomsee Jacqueline le developpement des et au ". Second. (10) Al-Sarraj.. Hlilyat al-awliya.J. Sahl al-Tustari after movement Basra. Aba Nu'aym and al-Ibahani (d. nally.168.and then a collectionof his sayings.

It is probable inventions of the dubiousare circumspect attrimany reflecting piety a laterdate.223 on Tue.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT mainpurposeof thisessayto reconstruct thoseoutlooks. Most of his recordedsayings driveat the cultivation a seriousand of from devotion. Ad'ham (d. career as a frontier raider (by one account.eleventh-century biographers. " technical terms landmarks for (19) " States" and" stations becameSufi alongthemystical 54 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Almostwithout the of first exception. 100. simply. : 36.. 19.Likewise. (18) Al-Sulami.fearand sadnessovercame of al-Razideclared(17). I haveloved and is this and what God loved "."Blessed is he who flees.and weeps over his sin" (18).. Mecca.I askedhim about so that. Reports theway he livedfurther of an suggest asceticaltemausterities continual like winter of perament: fasting. 31-35 (henceforwardSh.heardtheQur'an.14. for example. 8: (12) Aba Nu'aym. On theapologetic Massignon..rather. 8: (14) Aba Nu'aym. the (19). Shaqiq ibnIbrahim Kolan. 187/803). earliest figures al-Sulami's generationseem pronouncedly The earliestof all is Ibrahimibn ascetical. he maintains ascetical : on God's personality" It is impossible youshould that emphasis become close to him (an tuwaliyah)withouthis becomingclose to you" (5). When he speaks of comingclose to God. he toldme. 8: (16) Aba Nu'aym.Especially butions latermystics the seriesthatal-Sulami like 16-21 = through quotesfromal-Kharraz. 163/779-780 most of whose sayingsindicatean other?).keeps company to (d. clothing onlya fur withno undershirt. ". 84. single-minded withhis Lord. ed." When he whelmingly heardmention God or. =-. he died fighting Upper in a thancontemMesopotamia) suggests manofstruggle of actionrather an plation (14). him. 8 the that largecollection hissayings of does include (15) Aba Nu'aym. " Sharibah. purposes thetenth.see and of Essai. 373. to weightheir asceticaland mystical elements) (").actualquotations emphasizedivinepredestination.184/810)was saidto be thefirst speak ofthestates(abwal) inTransoxania.too." Love of meeting people is partof the love of the world. see Chabbi. Abf 'Alli up. forexample. 12 Sh.72. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the one to of the (11) For a sustained attempt characterize majorfigures the earlyperiod.his eyes filled and he wept" (16). to ibn saw I wasdisciple al-Fudayl 'Iyadfor thirty andnever him years laugh orsmile savethedayhisson'Alidied. people. " God(mighty glorious he)loved matter. 7: (13) Abo Nu'aym. 8: (17) Abo Nu'aym.. no shoes or headcover and his (13). 9. "). is overascetical. servant His Ibrahim al-Ash'ath ibn said. anticipating usageofmystics on However.while leavingthemis partof leavingthe world" (12). The pietyof al-Fudaylibn 'Iyad (d. but worldly asceticaloutlook.168." Reflexions 55.

flight " ascetical on for withemphasis goodworks." Hal ". . an equal numberare mystics. has nothing over forremembering orjinn. in 10: 76-79. 200's. God lovesinspiteofhaving need oftheworshipper. (Leiden: E. by L. 78. The apparent extract Abo Nu'aym. (d.theKufan 820 to (d. (22) Al-Sulami. He adds a definite him. example from three is Onewho self-possessed never :first.Brill. hefear obscurity outcome.tendsto pressthe difference.243/857-858)pursuedthorough with self-purification the of knowing God: " When love is made firm the servant's in object only he left man heart. answered. example. loving loving servant. too.however. (20) Al-Sulami. know what be made come him not will from momentthe that the ofthe andthird. outlook. 227/841). see a change: some of we the later figures al-Sulami'sfirst in generationare stillpredominantly like the earlier. early immigrant Antioch Allah Khubayq early 'Abd ibn 200's/ See ". (d..Seeking paradise outworks one ofthesins. Baghdad. but ascetical. orafter Ahmad 820 (d.72. notice. is intercession without causeis a a Awaiting of for from whois disobeyed igone is species delusion. (21) Abo Nu'aym.J.55 .their preoccupation to him and their and thoroughly "(22). Al-Muhasibi (d. heaven or but (dhikr)of thebeloved " (24).ca. the other. no whereas worshipper's springs the love 55 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. to to one to next. ascetic. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . his (25) To be sure. appear be therest the earlier in first names al-Sulami's generation Basran : the Mansar preacher ibn'Ammar Baghdad.Somemasters assigned " and permanentstations butusagewas notuniform.Forexample. speaksof God's loving creatures to and al-Muhasibi devoteda treatise the love of God. Hilyah8: 64. In suchobhell-nothing therecollection theremight livion seem to be something a mystical like of transcendence thatal-Mubasibi does not speak of God's opposites. 10: (24) Abo Nu'aym.Ascetical.90.the Qur'anitself (5.Sh. TheEncyclopaedia Islam. .Sh. of edn.89. was Ma'rff al-Karkhi 200/815-816) a prominent (d. distinguished path.mourning insecurity. famous Baghdadi al-Hafi Ibn traditionist Abi al-Hawari 230/844-845). ?). ?).63.. Baghdadi with to concerned al-Fudayl devote to himself wholly God. Hoping mercy norance stupidity Equally and to ascetical of " (23)..their with " awliya').Sh. he before. Tabaqot.55 is oftcited). the but God (25). 79 78 (23) Al-Sulami.TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM a on and hand. ibn'Asim the Bishr (d. al-Antaki 220/835). 1960-).168. was asked aboutthe hallmark the friends God. ('aqil) departs these particles on that gone that that be afraid account sins have he of second. betweenGod's love and the worshipper's. onlyoftheservant's a them definite or between transientstates" " order. though. Gardet. of whenMa'rof (of he for concern God. betraying thoroughly for ascetical (20).v.223 on Tue. the Turks Shaqiqdiedfighting pagan (21).and theSyrian Aroundthe middleof the ninthcentury.s.

52. 253/867?).223 on Tue. 1961). 42 (27) Al-Sulami. performed a specific 45 (29) AI-Sulami. 43 prayer be at timebutoutsidethefivedailyprescribed prayers. (hubb)is expressly equatedwithlonging (shawq). not men. Bonner 10 van des (26) Abi Nu'aym. n. whichcannotbe feltby God. however. 150.168. The wirdis a private to (28) Al-Sulami. Muhammad nahal-Mubammadiyah. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of : do nottake anything anyone. assert that I not van Ess is wrong but distinguish piety of the that hima mystic notoutweigh do onlythat elements al-Mubasibi's justify calling piety thosethatmakehiman ascetic.g.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT seems al-Muhasibi's attention theexternal to of concomitants inward pu" rification: Whoever has corrected interior means of self-obserhis by vationand sincerity ornament exterior will his withstriving following and the Sunnah(the preceptand exampleof Muhammad.. He seems anxiousabout impeccableperformance of his ritual duties: " If partof mywirdprayer escapes me. usually indication the mystical seem to date from tenth the these stories (31).and have nothing whichto give anyof of to thing anyone" (27). Perfectly asceticalseems his concernto complement to good workswithorthodoxy:" A little according the Sunnahis better thanmuchwithheresy "(29).12 (Bonn: Orientalischen Seminars.72. Tabaqat. = Sh. asadvice like thatof earlierand contemporary 245/859-860)as giving to cetics.. Moreover.propositions he neverconnectswithunconventional For a sensiblestudy Sari al-Saqati. As withothersbeforehim. Hijaz. . " fi al-madrasah ".on the whole.whileheretical fussaq ahl al-sunnah awliva' Allah wa-zuhhadahl al-bid'aha'da' Allah) " (apud Ibn Abi 2 al-SunIjamid al-Fiqi.Josef Ess. century love from towardGod (76).Die Gedankenwelt al-Mahasibi. True preserving gulf one who is likeyou. vols.214 f).. Abi Nu'aym.a feltlack(79). : 75.ed. leadingsourceof Islamiclaw) " (26). however. of see practice.directedmainlyat payingattention God. Tabaqat al-banabilah. The heresies Ahmadwere above all the was 1) propositions thattheQur'anwas createdand 2) thatitspronunciation . : 184). liable. Al-Sari al-baghdadiyah al-taeawwuf 16 hima transitional figure Hawtlyat al-jami'ah al-tanisiyah (1978): 187-225. al-Saqatiwa-nash'at Tawfiqibn'Amir.s. gratitude quitein the ascetictradition.appears to be closer the asceticalpole. " Sunnah maybe translated and I ". 139 = Sh. The Islamictradition orthodoxy may. e. = Sh. interpret in of Sari'sstatement the light severalby his oldercontemporary AhmadIbn Hanbal. an outlook.whiletrue wealthis thatyou be able to do without is poverty thatyou wantnot one who is like you" (0).stress " less thanorthopraxy.[Cairo: Matba'at 'Ya'li.. 1 that bothered 19521. concernforpuredevohis tionto God alone makeshimanti-social" Do notask anything anyone. al-Risalah.. " Orthodox of are of ascetics theenemies God are reprobates thefriends God. Our early sources quote Abo Turab al-Nakhshabi (d. Ess does notuse theterm betweenal-Muhasibi's and an ascetic's. Sari al-Saqati(d. (31) See al-Qushayri.farit is thorough reto as van to and often refers al-Mahasibi a mystic. 50.Tawfiqfinds " " (al-tasawwuf. I can never make it up "(28). anotherBaghdadi.49. 10: 124. Bab fa-ma al-ghalib.. orientalistische and Studien. between" pureasceticism(al-zuhd al-mabd) and " mysticism (30) Al-Sulami.= Cairo: Mustafaal-Babi 56 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.. Latersourcesasof sociatehimwithmiracles. for and example.. = Sh. "orthopraxy however.yet ever " the betweentheworshipper God .

program singleto His of figure mindeddevotionto God was probablysimilar thatof his ascetical to and of is contemporaries predecessors:" The truth knowing love of him withthe heart. (Cairo: 'Isai al-Babi al-Halabi. 2: 308. 96 96 (33) Al-Sulami.20. 1967-).It does notappearthatDha al-Nanappliedtheterm mystical " Sufi" to himself. administered them. Al-Khatib al-Baghdaditells a similar storyof Dho al-Non: Tarikh Maktabat 1931). f. Tarikh (36) Al-Qifti. 57 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.forthen willdissolve his of it and become Whoever the of pure.A manuscript the7th/13th Kastamonou of definitions Sufism from Dho al-Non(122b.Historical K ". is impossible.A. theotherhand. 1318). handlung.= Sh. His advice to one who would be humblehas all the characters the of outlook(34): mystical lethimdirect soulto thegreatness God. Ahmadibn Khidrawayh 240/854-855). but equallyfromfigures Ja'far al-$adiq(89b) and Abo Ianifah (124b).how he has ordainedthem.TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM of (d..Dhu al-Non'sinvolvement created. 185. does present al-tasawwuf. The preacher 258/872)might Yahya ibn Mu'adhal-Razi(d.(Cairo:al-Khanji.. things with alchemyand. 105.(Leiden: E.agree well with a outlook(36).200 . = Sh.seems to be a transition difficult characterize. 5: 214.72. " from (37) Nicholson. (d. 25 (34) Al-Sulami. all are to So has Dhu al-Nun's adviceto seek revelation looking finite at : by things " Knowing(ma'rifah)is gottenby three: regarding how he has affairs.1 : 646. of and cutting conoff cernforeverything him" (32). (32) Al-Sulami. and how he has createdthem" (35).J. Nishapur. 14 vols. ed.the truth shining. Hilyab 9: 39. syncretistically.Julius 1903). the callerhas : is and been heard: what confusioncan therebe afterthissave fromblindness ? "(33) The earliest seem clearly to from own sayings his moremystical than asceticalis the NubianDho al-Nonal-Misri Giza. al-kubrdi.see Fuat Sezgin. for souls poornext hisawesomeness. al-Subki.Yet Ahmadalso hints confidence but at in abundantgrace. 105. Schrifttums.hisownpower goesaway. R. On onlyon God soundsnotunlikethatofearlier ed. be interpreted either asceticor a mystic.168.. Baghdad. 1964-1976). 10 vols.a trait mystics of absentin asceticslike Shaqiq notably ibn Ibrahim "The way is clear. 2713. Lippert (Leipzig: Dieterlich'sche Verlagsbuchal-bukama. 'Abdal-Fattah al-Hulw and Mahmad Muhammad al-Tanahi. (35) Abo Nu'aym. 245/860-246/861). recollection himwiththe tongue.. Mi'yar Enquiry 309.Geschichte of On des arabischen to 9 vols. originally Balkh. casting doubton the historicity everyattribution. Mubammad Tabaqat al-shafi-yah al-Halabi. cent. like 123b). ancientwisdom. practical as an His adviceto think ascetics. thingsordained. the ms. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The attribution al-Kharraz Brill. Nicholsonseems justified regarding but in Dho the of al-Nan as virtually founder theosophical Sufism (37)..223 on Tue. = Sh. regards power God.

1912). Qur'anspeaksof God's lovefor hispeople. when you are a mighty king"(41).and earlier thanAbu Yazid did notfailto notice. mystical Abia Yazid al-Bastami 261/875?)(39). and for everystationthereis an etiquette (42). RhuvonGuest. Governors citesearlyreferences saf. Contemporary reports) the term the traditionists.81a. (ahl way as " Sufism Dho al-Nanspeaksofthepeople of truth al-baqq) and theloverof God (mubibb (of Allah). Goldziher. to figures According al-Sulami. an does relatea story whichDhi al-Nanmeets. 327.J. 10: as the (41) Abu Nu'aym. highest knowers.. to The and Judgesof Egypt. 110 (42) Al-Sulami. = Sh. ibn a ".of NY Press. ed. Luma. not She enjoinsdisinterested in wererowdiesin Alexandienceto God (Abi Nu'aym. to Memorial Ser. Ernst. Abo Yazid of thefriends God. Wordsof Ecstasyin Sufism(Albany:StateUniv.part I. (40) See CarlW. perpet- of traditionists used (collectors hadith (38) Al-Sarraj." unlikeignorant he alsohasmuch sayabout to hierarchies soundmystical. apparent in obemadwomen who is clad in wool. everystate thereis an etiquette. 119. characteristically.andS-frvah Essai. in with the peopleoflove. 58 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.Brill. 1985). the the with next example. 34. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .W. ".associated miracles. 260.are classicexamplesof the mystical but sensibilAbo Yazid. at last. founder classicalSufism Khurasan. of in is mystical his Characteristically and is of recognition specialtimes places : " Sufism (al-tasawwuf) a matter of etiquette for (adab).J.although calleds2fiyah. 131-133. in to awliya'). Gibb according al-Kindi.90). can is the God. Unquestionably His celebrated as outbursts "Thereis nothing shatabat . is (d.168.v. I have seen onlyone Sufiwho was anygood. but not of " Sufis". Cf. ranking associated blessings.E. servant awarethat is God reciprocates the (40). Muhammad 10 1982): 166.W. Hafs is the first al-Sulami's ". and Yahya ibn Mu'adh al-Razi. 162. " in collection identify to Abo his Significantly. Earlierreferences " Sufis" by figures for Sulayman Tabaqat al-safiyahtendto be depreciative."Abdal".90 = Sh. Tabaqat. Abo " al-Darani.s. the remark Yanus ibn 'Abd al-A'lh(d. notedearlier. Siyara 'lamal-nubala' 25 vols.(Beirut Mu'assasatal-Risalah). the mountains in nearAntioch.when I am a poor slave: the onlywonderis yourlove forme. Of course.suchscandalous in thisgarment God " . (ed. Ibn Abi al-Iawari begins. (Leiden: E. LouisMassignon in safi. of (43) Abu Nu'aym. laterSufiusage.223 on edn. obedienceto God yet. signof loving (al-Sulami.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT ual recollection (dhikr)(38).J. For everytimethereis an etiquette. Gibb Memorial K Ser.1912).by I. as Abo Haf? al-Naysabori 270/883-884 is presented virtually ?) the (d. Abu Nu'aym Nu'aymal-' 9: the student al-Shafi''s:" I haveseen no self-possessed (aqil) among safiyah of man Egyptian : save Idris Yahy al-Khawlani apud al-Dhahabi. The earliest 9: saftayah Egypt driawho" enjoined good " and rejected governor's the in the authority theyear200/815-816. example. E.. 264/877). 20 (39) Often"Bistami but see al-Sam'ani. For abdal (" substitutes to indicate mostsaintly ") see EncyclopaediaofIslam. 340). al-Ansab. his IbnAbi al-Hawarl that said God must havelovedhisservant before servant love God.. that spiritual for lowest abdal. 'Abd Allahibn would-be Marzoq"(43).72. With ity his love: "The wonderis not mylove foryou. 19 (London: Luzac.

223 on Tue.62-64. al-Tustari. deis claredMuhammad Baghdad..Kalam.263/877?). 727.. cf.208: Abo Nu'aym.250.Anyheart soulinwhich sees a needfor or he other than him. Kopruilti ?).Geschichte Kultur u.TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM Sufis" (al-mutasawwifah recogal-jahilan)(44). 202f = Sh.itslistening him..Ahmadanswered. to (d. love him.72. des islamischen n. Sahl al-Tustari Basra. = Sh. ?) 277/890-891 was disciple Dhi al-Non inEgypt wellas totheSyrian 'Ubayd as Abo and Sari al-Busri.3a. to. 9 (Berlin: Walterde Gruyter. Baghdad 4: 277.Abo Nu'aym.. oftenrefers al-Tustari a mystic. He sees a constant danger condemnation:" There is no heartor soul save thatGod is watching overitnight and day. 283/896?) likewiseseems to fallmainly (d. al-Mubasibi. Gerhard and On see The B6wering.Whose heartdoes not love the world. itstalking him (4). 59 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.1 : 647) is fully ascetical themuch of al-Sulami AboNu'aym. lHilyab10: 197.Theheart not greater than God than. al-Saqati. example. other An he in al-Sirr seems Iraqis. (45) Chabbiobservesthatthebiographer appliestheterm"afi " al-Hakim al-Naysabori to no one earlier thanAbo Bakral-Wasipi after to (d. 423/1031-1032 ed. apud IbnAbN Ya'li. Whether not Haf?'stravelling Baghdadand meeting we accept al-Sulami's of musthave appliedthe termto quotation Abo Iraqi mystics Haft.notto distinguish that wering himfrom ascetics rather thebasisof themystical but on elements hisoutlook.s. Abo Haf? 320/930). worldliness stillascetical. al-Muhasibi. Al-Sulami's second generation Sufiscomprises of The mainly mystics. buthis enjoining forbidding is forbidding moresevere(ashadd) ". Likevan Ess concerning Orients. to as withlikejustification." Whose soul does not love the world". avoidanceof wrongrecommending the doingover activegood works: " As forworksof piety." thepeople of theearthwill (d. Studienzur Sprache. earliest this of are Ibn whose othergeneration thebrothers Abi al-Ward. Tabaqat al-hanabilah1: 325. also AhmadIbn the Hanbal. is to and with " Al-Kharraz Baghdad. 200f= Sh. on the asceticalside of the spectrum.168. experience describes hisKitab clearly mystical (50): 104 (44) Al-Sulami. in (50) Apud al-Khatib Tarikh al-Baghdadi. is. (Istanbul) (49) Al-$aqah ca. was power led byhisconcentration God alonetowards on close something tomys" tical for will deemanything communion. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . preferable ormore magnificent itsbeholding (mighty andglorious he). (47) Al-Sulami. he gives overitto thedevil like Sahl "(48).Whenaskedwhether Prophet's " and (amr. by to (for or al-Junayd whichsee note55). (48) Al-Sulami. themselves aboutthe 260's/873-883.the people of heaven willlove him" (46). 209. Yes. 40f. Still. Cf.. In Aba Haf.113. 194. piousand the alike perform them. = Sh. The overall toneofal-$aqallh's collections as as smaller selections (Sezgin. MysticalVisionof Existencein Classical Islam.whereasno one avoids acts of rebellion reprobate save therighteous of (siddiq)"(47). naby) wherenot thesame.Al-Sulami's attributionjustified thestory Abo is of ". B61980). suggesting herthat was a Malamati who wouldnothave made suchremarks aboutSufism al-Sulami as attributes to him: "Remarques 31. in 248 (46) Al-Sulami. al-Sulami nized a mystic himself like (45). 10: (d.

new edn.. (51)." Djunayd".he wouldsay" God ".J.On a sessionfortrading and see 107f= Sh. tr. = Sh. clearly experience " (56). mystical: "Joining theTruth parting everything as partwith with is else figure ing everything isjoining it" (5).. survey. Goldziher.26f..220 (Ar. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . camp. Luma. the of CE.and if his are with hislimbs would " God". is famous saying. being transported gnosis aim never them to an infinite "(57). (54) Al-Sarraj. IHilyah 270. and of (d. " on him. Arberry. writings al-Junayd many as is to of butdifficult: A.168.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT Ifone ofthem was asked.J.He always in by speaks respectfully "I a standard all hisassociates: of thelaw. n. one ofthemost direct typically with is from else. 35. It was he whofirst and spokeoffana' (annihilation) baqa (remaining) all of the first to describe contemplative's losing consciousness hisown Al-Nuri Baghdad. RogerDeladrierehas pointedout the characteristic to in (Paris: Sindbad. quotations than but is tend be clever to rather clear. among ascetics. to Introduction (59) Al-Sarraj. example. Journalof the Arberry. Arberry " His style involved thepoint says. teachers hisintroduction al-Junayd. that transition asceticism mysticism a from to took then.ed.1947).s. A. see Ignaic Princeton Univ. 10: (58) Abo Nu'aym. (51) Al-Sulami. RoyalAsiaticSociety. It appears. Arberry (53) Al-Sulami. "The Book of theCure of Souls".v.for members filled God. he refers mystical whenhe to obscurity Still. Luma' 177. althe whomI havereckoned however. 60 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 295/907-908). Pages Fromthe"Kitabal-Luma' ' ed. al-Sulami. (57) Al-Junayd. figures missing 228.I loveGod andGod loves he for persecution me" (a'shaqu Allah wa-Allah Al-Sulamil's ya'shaqun)(52). Tabaqat. by A. ofAboYazid(54)andentertained lectured the on ecstatic shatabat Junayd are Abo Hafsal-Naysabori The extant of (55).A.Sh.223 on Tue.72. secondnamein al-Sulami's isplainly themystical in Becauseitdrew down second generation. the (d. (52) Al-Sarraj. 166. On qari' as " ascetic".).117f. and Law.J. & tr. al-Muhasibi. at 12: definitions whichal(55) Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi. 1937. 346. century Thishasbeenno explaceat about middle theninth haustive Somenotable are from al-Sulami's list. 153 . 221f.When he talkedhe wouldsay " God ".butal-Nori substantial for of satisfaction. for of whither " by (ma'rifah) speaks.226 (tr. Al-Nori theearliest inal-Sulami's tospeakofthis ): others might joining speak Tabaqat (jam oflonging God.1983). 223 (London: Luzac.Andrasand RuthHamori(Princeton: Islamic Theology humor al-Junayd's of 1981).)..Press.yetdidnotrequire high of thanan wouldrather keptcompany a good-natured be debauchee by " ill-natured ascetic (59). (56) EncyclopaediaofIslam. Junayd Abo Haf5were themostprominent speakers."Whatdo youknow? ". Enseignement spirituel 5. ?) 298/911 wasa disciple Sarial-Saqati Al-Junayd Baghdad.He knowledge ('ilm) transported wasoncedisabled ecstasy Mecca(58). in thensubsisting contemplation finitude. they say spoke. 127.J. when he looked he would say "God ".

norof close commuwould." Rabi'a et le puramourde Dieu ". P. Essai. al-Khanji. Fatimahal-Naysaboriyah on the way to Mecca. finds thesewomenoutstandingly ascetical:Womenin Islamic (65) RuthRoded similarly Collections of (Boulder.neither she nor any otherfemale ment. s. call themselves Sufis. sober examination. and his 235/849-850). MahmodMuhammad (Cairo: Maktabat 1993). 260-272. the heresiarchIbn Karram (d. Rabi'ahal-Shamiyah. wifeof Ibn Abi al-Hawari.whereYahyai Mu'adhis included amongthem.but his lost a and an extract Tarikhal-safiyahevidently mentioned number. 60.thereis the story her apologizing Ibn Abi al-Hawari. David P.: LynneRienner. has Were theremystics amongthem? Rabi'ah al-'Adawiyah been cited as inventor a new love I was unableto answeryou " (64). Nishapur. the to In the Tabaqat. " Sufism by Peter Awn. cerning tells of notable female ascetics like Rabi'ah al-'Adawiyah(d. 1994). example. Brewster. Colo. his teacherAhmadibnHarb beforehim(d.asceticalconcern forsingleminted devotion to God(62).In sum.1928). Encyclopedia Religion. 229/843-844). (63) Al-Sulami. of Religion6 (1976): 31-47. consulted bothDho al-NonandAbo Yazid."I was preventedfromanswering you by my heart'sbeing withjoyat God (be he exalted). al-Shamiyah Damascus. J.TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM for example.Othersayings. ". a mystic However. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Basra. ibn (60) See Massignon.Towardsa Methodology ". of On her though. soundstheclosestto For of to mysticism. about 185/801-802 celebratedby Westernscholarsformanysayings ?). (d. Caspar.he been discovered (61).who had visionsof heaven.For a discussion the Biographical 61 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. al-safiyat. Dhikral-niswah. herbeingconstantly ascetical.94f. Cf.are perfectly asceticsoundsfarin advance of her male contemporaries developing in an Islamicmysticism (65).255/869). ed. conthemhas recently and published There.and Rabi'ah 223/837-838).168.Margaret Smith.223 on Tue. absence of suspectedhereticsshouldnot affect locationof a transition mysticism. and love betweenherself God.Press.However. 61f. al-Tanahi (62) See R. IBLA (Tunis) 121 (1968): 71-95. ". Palestine." Remarques 30. Dhikr al-niswahal-muta'abbidat (61) Al-Sulami. "The Studyof Sufism.of reciprocal like reminded theLastJudgeof nion.Rabi'ahal-Shamiyah byrapture. in & Rabi'a theMystic Her Fellow-Saints Islam (London: Cambridge Univ. Therefore.nothing thatit was partof alsuggests apologeticpurposeto conceal early Sulami'sand the otherbiographers' the tendenciestowardmysticism. al-Sulami omitsto mention any women. sayingsplainlyexpress just the common. (64) Al-Sulami. The reported sayings of Fatimah are consistent withasceticalconcern al-Naysaboriyah likewiseentirely forsingle-minded devotionto God (63).v. the love of God.72. by (d. also Chabbi. followers after So are figures the earlierninth of who did century (60). filled that was I have takenit as a signof mysticism al-Junayd once disabled neverquitespeaks.

thatis. Abo Hamzahsays. Damascus. lower leaving things leaving pre-occupation with what notGod.(Beirut:Dar al-Farabi. Hilyah 9: 256. 63-69. CounterpartsReligion20 (1990): 233-247. The Legendof Rabi'aof Basra: ChristianAntecedents. the eighthcentury:" stations ". comthe the explete dependence thatis arguably essence of mystical religious we to Finally.full-blown It may be objectedthatthe verytechnical Islamicmysticism appear veryearly. Later. al-Naza at al-Maddiyah (70) Massignon. Julian of see Baldick.748/1348) clearly traditionist biographer remarked difference the (67): ofcreated Theoriginal meant them Sufis by (fana' andbaqa' theforgetting the and soul'scompletely them. thatwillputhimintotawakkul(reliance)". perience 62 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.As Abo Sulayman in al-Daranisaid " If theservant goes to an extreme zuhd (renunciation).24f. Cf.forexample. same earlydate? I would answer " Not necessarily Mysticsare well in thegiventradition Therefore.1983).or even (pace al-Dhahabi) (68) Of course. thesenot indicatea mystical at Do sensibility the ". Siyar 15 (ed.MarijanMole. (69) See. Mystical sions ofIslam (ChapelHill: Univ. 168-173.Press. Katz. al-Zaybaq.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT. ft HusaynMuruwah. " states". Mamluk and al-Dhahabi(d. termsof later. shouldhave a social explanation accountforthe wideThe evidence of time. Ibrahim neverleftIslam. 173. mostcases.168. of The were alwaysmystical. al-falsafahal-'arabiyahal-islamiyah..of New York Press. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . is as This is ascetical single-mindedness opposed to mysticalcommunion(68). 2 1979). not used intheliterature jurisprudence. Annemarie Schimmel. butseems untenable has (69). thatwillbequeathto ittawakkul love of theworld. 1992). vols. An Indian it connection been proposedforAbo Yazid. William Chittick recently has hereto assert "In that." If the heartis pureof the (71) Abo Nu'aym. experienceat a certain spreadexpression mystical " two Rabi'ahsas figures legend. SUNY Seriesin Islam(Albany StateUniv.of North Carolina Press. narrow and identificationmysticism passivity " strange of with ": Chittick.1975). 3-60 in Katz. If a predominantly Islamicpietydid appearforthe first time mystical in the ninthcentury. moreover. Character Mystical of (66) See StevenT. knownforfinding esoteric (66). would suggest thatself-mortification individual level conduces to the experienceof mystical states. zuhd willenterit. can hardly persuasive explainDho al-Non. meaning " we mustnot assume thateven termslike "stations and " states".223 on Tue. Massignon's has but dismissal remains it (70).72.esp.Mytheset religions Dimende (Paris: PressesUniversitaires France.Sufilife gone from to and practice have nothing do withmysticism This is based on an excessively ". Experience pp. and so forth. will be asked fromwhere it came.ultimately.asceticalsingle-mindedness Sufism.47f. psychic phenomena William : Faithand PracticeofIslam.and ifzuhd enters.or I at the even al-Kharraz. (67) Al-Dhahabi.2: 177. Mysticism ReligiousTraditions and (Oxford: OxfordUniv.1965)." The 'Conservative' ". The idea of a Persianconnection recurred. 1983): 393.ed. Muslim ". Les Mystiques musulmanes. ": (71).

72.GuySwanson. 296). Alreadyin a warning the khanqah appearsas a specialplace forasceticsnot onlyto meetbut to receivealms(7) : Whoever youhasworn muraqqa'ah of the (distinctive has patched garment) of or has begged. 547.but. 271/884-885).1983): 434.1967).Economyand Society.whoever youhassatinthekhanqah themosque begged. First. the asceticreligion: theGarden In amongSufiswho had transcended earlier AboSulaymain tr.Tor Andraementions ". and Regime A Sociological Accountofthe : Religion Reformation (Ann Arbor:Univ. If you knowforcertain thatyou are better thanthey. least.TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM is exiguous. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Richard by AboSulayman:" Abo Sulayman al-Darani Oriens 33 (1992): 22-85. 10: (75) Abo Nu'aym.the mystic characteristically relies on others'working the worldin orderforhimto leave it(74).who lived exactlyat the turning point.Press.the asceticsof Isfahancould expect administered the qadi C6).1987): 57-60. In otherwords. of thatthe development a fully Second. thetwosuggestionsoffer admittedly I and are tentative. Brigitta a signof properhumility. concentration arbitrary of has oftenseemedto encourage political power of checkson the concentration political mysticism. people at By the laterninth century. has careful collection sayings of Tabaqat. 'AllAbo Zayd. do notdeal withthem" (73). 63 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 46.. Weber pointsout. whoever youhasreadtheQur'an of from (public) the bound copyorso that hear might hasbegged. 296 . (73) Al-Sulami. power to encourage asceticism Probably.of Mich. in and lacking rigor chronology terminology. of thisworld. increasing the political power of soldiersover (72). in fromAbo Turab al-Nakhshabi 245/859-860). (d.168.likemany and itsantecedents. Hamdonal-QaS~ar (d. .Muslim Spirituality SouthAsia (New York: StateUniv.Sh.223 on Tue. Nishapur.of New York Press. it seems likely mystical piety followedfromthe development institutions the material of for support of religious As specialists.together withthe cultivation humility.Sh. characteristic of are of the mystical outlook.exof admonished follower hiswho was troubled having deal a to pressly by " withsoldiers..His is a delightful treatments Sufism of book.125. a theninth toward century encouraged turn mysticism. regular by stipends he probably does mean tawakkulin the mystic's sense of unquestioning trust (al-Sulami. (72) Cf. Gramlich made a full. (76) See al-Dhahabi. one normally to ought deal with Toleration sinners of and the mighty them. Siyar 13 (ed. in of Myrtles. Tabaqat. 116 (74) Weber.

al-Fluraf apud Ibn HIajar. n. Al-Suyatui. Vision. rabad: MajlisDa'iratal-Ma'arif.buttheseems veryearly(d. 2: 347. repudiated al-Non accused IbnHanbalaccused al-Saqati unbelief AboYazidwasexpelof Sari (78). suchwarnings comefrom early the (83).231. Tabaqat.d.).(Damascus: Rawdat al-Sham.said Sarial-Saqati. One indication growing of between ascetics mystics is and difficulty the appearance of warnings "Whoever asserts againstantinomianism. is al-Kharraz Whom see claiming (rule) null proclaimed a state (84). to hisyetmoreprominent Muhammad 268/882).d. Naqd (Cairo). 'AliMubammad ed.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT II. 190. account he on Tustari forced flee ofrelating conversations angels.plainanachroa (r.Probably.). Mystical (83) Aba Nu'aym. n.223 on Tue. he denounced Dho al-Nanto thecaliphal-Mutawakkil 232-247/847-861).apud al-Dhahabi. knowledge " themselves.3: 14. names'AbdAllahIbn 'Abd al-Hakam (Beirut:Dar al-Wa'yal-'Arabi.162 = 'Al. " (78) Ya'qob al-Hanball. difficulties hadbeenfor there sometime.ed. B6wering. Old Cairofor of of the writing mystical experience. (79). son. al-khulafa'(Beirut:Dar al-Thaqafah. was theleaderin question. Naqd al-'ilm wa-al-'ulama' aw n. ".1: 429. 64 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. bottom. Conflict Between Mysticism and Asceticism new was afootby themiddle theninth of To thing century.72. 378. voiceofGod inthecawing a crow Al-Kharraz forced of of was out (80). Hilyah 10: 121. Ya'qob mayhave been an associateof v. be sure. peopleofOld Cairo Dho and himofsecret unbelief Ahmad (77). 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. see (81) For Egypt. AboHamzah years was from Tarsus recognizing for the 269/882-883) expelled Baghdad. apud Ibn al-Jawzi. (79) Al-Sulami al-Bajawi.1. (82). Tahdhib" Tarrkh Dimashq " abr. likewise on names'Abd Allahibn'Abd al-Hakam adds thedetailthat but drawing al-Sulami. (82) Ibn al-Jawzi. 321. 164 = ed. 214/829). For Mecca.'Abd al-QadirBadran. went and into exilefor several (d. anddevils with jinn. Ibn Al-Jawzi as leaderof the opposition Dho al-Nan. vols. 226 = Sh. 10 (80) Aba Nu'aym. (84) Al-Sulami. nism: Tarikh 1970 ?). you (77) Al-Sulami. Naqd (Cairo). see Ibn 7 'Asakir. 161 = Talbis Iblis. 4 vols. Ibn al-Jawzi. Lisan "al-Mizan 7 vols. 'Ah.(Cairo: 'Isa al-Babial-Ialabi.). to where died. Mihan al-srifiyah.59-63. Meccafor slighting of ordinary believers Eventheusually ascetical Sahl al(8).168. Everyesotericinsight thatcontradicts exoteric an mystics " betweenasceticsand mystics confirms somethat Growingdifficulty "he is mistaken" Mostoften. goodness from was to Tustar Basra.187. 197. 1963). Khayral-Din 'All TalbisIblis (Cairo: al-Tiba'ahal-Muniriyah. that esoteric the contradicts exoteric rule".2 from Mizan al-i'tidal. Abo Sulayman al-Darani was from Damascus saying he had seen angels for that and been expelled addressed them.(HydeK. awliya')to the for he the (of led the prophets. Possibly bya Maliki jurisprudent. (d. Abial-Hawari later Ibn was forced fleefrom to the by samecity saying preferred friends God. Tabaqat al-banabilah 1: 233. 1329-1331). (Mihan).d. for led from that ascension like Bastam saying he hadmadea heavenly theProphet's. al-Muhasibl's: Ibn Abi Ya'la.

GhulamKhalilprevailed themother-in-law to followhis orof the shadow caliph. 393-395.onlythe our sourcesforthe Inquisition not mention though. leavingBaghdad to reside in al-Raqqah forfourteen years. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he says. quoting Siyar14 (ed.W. so he providedhim with a list of seventy-odd Baghdadisto be Most of we shall see. him on forhisausterity Atlast.He appealed to boththecourtand thegeneral. (88) Ibn al-Nadim withJohannes Roedigerand AugustMueller(Leipzig: F. 1983) : 71. The people of love assertedthattheirlove of God was In Baghdad. good and forbiddingthe bad. 'Umar'Abdal-Salam Tadmuri.465)thatI willendeavorto revive stories Dho al-Nanbeforethe caliph of 10: 250 f. and 275/888) was a traditionist popularpreacherwho came from Wasit to Baghdad at thebeginning 264/Fall877 and whose Inquisition of took was alreadyunderway in Basra beplace the same year(86). (87) This accountof the Inquisition its Basranantecedents Tabaqat al-nussak. apud al-Dhahabi. do not go near".The religious religious 10: (85) Abo Nu'aym. of Carl Ernsthas explainedthe Inquisition GhulamKhalilby contemcriseslike the Zanj rebellion. Akram Bfishayyi. Baghdad. al-Baghdadi.168. whileal" that 5 Khatib al-Baghdadi reports he date(Beirut Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi. Vogel.abl al-hadith). Siyar 13: 284. (90) Ernst. and based on Ibn al-A'rabi. 65 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. : 80. GustavFliigel. 261-280): 212.ed..72. 1987-). " The general is a goodEnglish " to term works wellto translate 'ammah(recall 'Twas caviare thegeneral Hamlet so althat ". al-Nori (85). Abf Nu'aym.some were arrested arrested. There are similar (89) Abo Nu'aym. hostility do them. issuesalone can explainboththeInquisition issues.then addressing caliphsuch thathe released themaltogether The happyendingis castin doubtby al-Nari's (89). although thedate is notin Hilyab 10: 250. and "the people of love" (ahl al-mahabbah).C.GhulamKhalilbeganto preachagainst people of love. whichpresumably created porary political is a climateof fear(90). 1872). cf.ii.Thus.the Inquisition not evidence of toward mysticism.GhulamKhalil (d.H. (86) Al-Dhahabi. 277.20 (A. northesame passageas quotedby al-Khatib al-Baghdadi. 252f. warned in between asceticsand mystics Baghdad finally came to a Difficulty of head at the Inquisition GhulamKhalil. 186. the that one mightlove fellow creaturesbut thatGod mustbe asserting who admired feared. 8: al-Mutawakkil.223 on Tue. Tarikh al-Islam wa-wafayat al-masbahZr : 40 wa-al-a 'lam. make the muhtasib ders. and imprisoned. such that fear had fallen away fromthem (87). listsGhulamKhali amongthe Sufisin hisFibrist. (88). Wordsof Ecstasy. it. vols.TRANSITION FROM ASCETICISM MYSTICISM TO with God thatpushes him outsidethe Law. Destructiveas these politicalcrises were. ed.A conflict tweentraditionalist ascetics used to enjoining the (nussak. II. al-Khatib e. Stories are told of al-Nori'saddressing the qadi so graciously thathe became to the unwilling execute them.g. Tarikh Baghdad 5: 134. 101.

thedifficultyal-Junayd's of A could language. apud al-Dhahabi. 185. 192f.12. Siyar 14: 250.Brill. was expressly ascetics(zubbad). 1957). 189.The relation betweenSufism 319/931?).on whomsee Sezgin.J. al-Ka'bi Balkh. " Abu jafs al-Naysabori have been a Mu'tazili: Arberry. 346. (Leningrad. 17 (Leiden: E. E. who led the outcry to against according al-Sulami Y0suf ibn al-Uusayn.Some scholarshave creditedhim with cifically of goingon to develop a Sufism sobriety:the normalstate of the Sufi and drunken wasnot sukr but (drunkenness) sahw (sobriety). (94) The tradition 465/1072-73 Kashfal-mabjab. 319/932)from Svyar14: Tirmidh (d.J.167 = ed.ed. of Islamic Association Research Assoc. Hamzah fromTarsus.J.193.230. develop language deal did to a to with I havealready that not mentioned mystical experience would offend. Miban al-safiyah).226. it should not surprise thatnumbers asceticsshouldbe upset. ". ( Ravy.on theone hand. ' van de du ser. 11.223 on Tue. Matba'ati A. 525). 1 (1948): 34n. (91) Also.W. Tehran:Mu'assasah-i Amir-i 1926. GibbMemorial Ser.New Material theKitab on may A. 318/930)from (Ibn Hajar.Reynold Nicholson. Kabir. 1911)." Une Lecture rebours l'histoire Mu'tazilisme Revuedes dtudes ". & al. onlythepredominance the religious central roleplayedby ascetics. older-style III. Valentin Zhukovskii A.later. The Mu'tazili al-Baghdadi. al-Fihrist Ibnal-Nadim IslamicResearch Miscellany.callsforfurther century study. He of assertedthathe was not a Sufiat all buta student jurisprudence. by was Abo al-Qasim (96) Al-Khatib TarikhBaghdad 7: 243. (probably (93) Ibn 'Ata'. toopposeal(94). leaderof theMu'tazilah him praise (96): Abo Yazid's mysticism something into to him)converted unthreatening ascetics.In all. See alsoJosef Ess. to of different for Junayd AboYazidas proponents fundamentally paths.72. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 66 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.and al-Kharraz of issuescan explainthe moreover. al-Junayd Abo be more to the around accurate saythat (and... al-Junayd no doubt. spethatof Abo Thawr(93). theInquisition Ghulam Khalil. AboYazid's wasnotto be imitated It seemsdubious.apud Ibn al-Jawzi. ibn Balkh(al-Dhahabi. and Mu'tazilism. ?). islamiques46 (1978): 182. al-Iakim al-Tirmidhi after in of it the (92) Controversy Basra. noticed Ernst. style though. 235 = tr.Aba in Baghdad and the expulsionsof Abo Sulayman fromOld Cairo and Mecca (91). (95) Al-Sarraj.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT fromDamascus. Luma. 'Ali. policemen not (92). repr. circle Whatthey was.Lisan 5: 308). al-Junayd's Reconciliation One mystic who escaped arrest the Inquisition at was al-Junayd. of whichmatured thelateninth both in C. Naqd (Cairo). goes back to Hujviri Lahore.168. GaS 1: 622f. admired Yazidandlectured hisshatahat It would on (95).itseems saferto thanpolitics.E. the870's was aboutwhenfull-blown If stress mysreligion us of ticismfirst appeared in Iraq. (d. 50. Muhammad al-Fadl(d.

and On the before.TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM I haveseena shaykh youinBaghdad. so on (98).Fortheevolution tawakkul an outward. for with.29 vols.. does Reinert not W.It was now compatible a supporting family (101).223 on Tue. to secretaries likely have "Asceticism see to as opposed other-worldly (98) On inner-worldly mysticism. forexample.Mueller. " seemmore beenmeant. (99) Al-Sarraj. Abo befallen Hamzah Also to 10: (100) AbuNu'aym. to lose consciousnessof himself upsetting divinetranscendence) but to ascetics. then return a transformed to (reassuringly ascetics)as sobriety. 74. Sufik. his of Ibn (101) Ahmad Hanbal lifestyle. al-Junayd his school seem to have pushed a in an inwarddirection. is called for He and eyes al-Junayd.168. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . mutakalliman for of (theologians) themastery hislearning.264-266. (e..72. criticism.but location to propose locate general inthe around at in thechange tawakkul thelateninth stayup by night pray).al-Junayd his school put a new stresson outwardly behaviourand self-description. 1984-1989). (al-bulagha').226. particularly circle transition.tawakkul of behindboththestern (relianceon God) has left purgation theascetics trust theearlymystics of ibn (e.his fiveprinattitude but living beginwithausterities end withan inward ciplesofright (to of trust:" to fastby day.e. Benedikt mystical dependance God to an inward. of as I his to from a transition asceticismmysticism.failure only regretted onefeature Bishr al-Hafi's asfrom of tomarry: 7: al-Khatib al-Baghdadi. century. ". des GeschichteKultur zur vom in Lehre Tawakkul derklassischen Studien Sprache.g.. and Moreover. dependence.Ibrahim Ad'ham)and thefoolish to Abo Hamzah. Rawhiyah 28: Dar & (Damascus: al-Fikr. islamischen 1968). and of study jurisprudence. Here. asceticsmustoften The less sophisticated have foundabstruseness the to hence al-Junayd became invulnerable their to pointof impenetrability. sincerity.g. thefalasifah(philosophers) the subtlety his concepts. waiting a lion to rescue him(100)). al. al-Khurasani Hilyah 320f.73. my havenotseenhislike. offering styleof mystical pietythat mysticism of the so would not interfere clearlywiththe collection hadithreports. " state "glosses 14: the (97) " I. (an go so far. however. Luma' 228. which IbnManzer. MukhtasarTarikh Dimashq ed. used to emphasizing development now described to consciousnessof reality. eloquent al-Dhahabi (Siyar 67) .s. Triadslike separation-unionacceptable separation (farq-jam'-farq) and subsistence-annihilation-subsistence Hence the Sufimight (baqa'-fana'-baqa') replacedthe old u. 290/902-903). 245. Orients. controlone's actionsby constant " in oneselfto God withconfidence all circumstances(9).who refused callforhelpwhenhe had fallenintoa well. n. of confirms location a general my 67 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 3 (Berlin: de Gruyter.The katabah (writers go to himfor locutions his (97)) for of the (alfaz). al-Nabbas. said have " " for see (d. say. Die see on cetical act withtotal and to commit to vigilance.

so-called second was an of In words. cured hisillness. asserts.Theolder was to reluctant associate Sufis. al-Junayd hiscircle spokeso differentlanguage that al-Nori theold-style of and that couldscarcely commystics al-Nori withthem. with acts winejarsboundforthecaliphal daring likebreaking palace.It isnotlicit disciple onetime Sahlal-Tustari. 295/907)".Ibnal-A'rabi him thenewtalk second of and affirmed the that Al-Niri separation sobriety. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . havecheated and havegiven the them. Saint-Joseph l'universitd (105) Sharh "Kitabal-Sunnah'. 1132. so they'streatise obscurity al-Sulami's is of Paul Maqamat al-qulhab farmorelucidthananything thesortwe have from al-Junayd: inedits (m. apud Ibn Abi Ya'li.168. tween andal-Nori 270/883-884. Siyar 14: 74f. " cheated the Several stories associate al-Nfiri [ghashshal Muslims(105). 251f. Al-Nfri askedabout so told of al-Junayd. Massignon as issue as the between frankness al-N&ri's the of and guesses. Opposition old-style mystics. at must However. Mason. later visited Al-Junayd al-Junayd al-Nori al-Nori whenhe wasill. apud al-Dhahabi.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT of Notall theSufis Baghdad acclaimed deferential al-Junayd's style. from to unconcernedmollify seems ascetics. tr. however.Press. they (102) Abo Nu'aym.223 on Tue.J. ina tobe crystallized number stories of about al-Nori. anyone [nasihahl or in of Whoever refrains has righteous otherwise. (106) Thisandthefollowing basedon IbnAl-A'rabi.(Princeton: Univ. Ibn and in later. contrast language the dissimulational-Junayd's of disarming (104). counsel and" cheatingmay (" Giving havehadspecial reference to " " bad the laterHanbalileaderal-Barbahari [d. "Textes mystiques d'Abo-l-IHasan al-Nori (Beirut)44 (1968) : 117-154. he to as Therefore. and a from Indeed. at them.Arberry's characterization al-Junayd's of to ". Tabaqat al-nussak. Tabaqat al-banabilah 2: 26. separation really aspect joining. him in whenal-Nfri still refugee a was inal-Raqqah.1982).. 4 vols.ed.Herbert The ser. 68 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. al-A'rabi twofriends Eight years spotted al-Nnri Baghdad. (104) Louis Massignon. to refrain giving from counsel to anyoftheMuslims. not sat but al-Nari only byhisbedside. with Memmystic initially oriesof betrayal theInquisition haverankled. condemning behavior: " at to for 329/9411. M6langes de Nwyia.Bollingen 98. counselled visited whenhe wasill. municate The Sufibiographer Sa'id Ibn al-A'rabi (d. the matter faith.Theunderlying wasprobably. 1: 79. A. other had newwords describe familiar coined to the al-Junayd merely mystical experience (106). so they you I and threw stones me" (102).72. however. complained Al-Nori "You to al-Junayd. prose has been quoted already:" involved the pointof obscurity I have foundsimilar in selectionof the sayingsof al-Nori. Abi a of ?) that 340/952 relates discussion terminology passedbeMecca. 10: (103) Al-Khatib 5: al-Baghdadi. mayhaveobjected al-Junayd's quietism wellas his evasive language). Passion of al-Hallhj. well(103).

.someone asked him about the separation (farq) thatcomes after joining the (jam). second sobriety. for a tripartite of division mainly (107) See above.and talkin a I fashion am notused to: letme listen and getto knowwhatyoumean" was to Al-Junayd's terminology unfamiliar him. He to and I have heard number that anyone hadseenal-Nari a for who since return his from say without seenhimbefore might wellnothaveseen that as al-Raqqah having him all." You have used terms (alqab) thatI do not know. In an unpublished did work. but theyreturn what theyknow". 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and whatwas thedifference " betweenit and the first resorted ambiguity: It is to separation. they and he and al-Junayd tradedreminisfirst..but he musthave wished to discouragemystics his had.but he said. up joining. whatitssignswere. took a boat to where al-Junayd was. thenagain pressedal-Norito talk. everyonewelcomedal-Nori. provoking expulsionfromMecca: " The boastingas al-Kharraz sinsof those brought near are the good qualitiesof the pious"(107). love themin to spiteof it. Abo al-Husayn withdrew all of them spurned from and them. to but Al-Junayd urgedal-Nori addressthefirst question.wheretheyspentthe On the nextFriday. al-Nari to ".on account hischanging havemercy him).the Wasaya. cences and jikedwitheach other.. knowing of the second separation. of example.ifascetics were now steadfastness sobriety. senile. 69 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. the and new language mollified ascetical Muslims: it now reAl-Junayd's mainedto changetheoutlookofthemystics. and appeased by a mystical languagethatstressed themystics wouldhave to be shownsome reasonto respect For ascetics. so on. it appears thatal-Junayd come up withsomething the mystics.223 on Tue. and declined. Alcomplainedthatal-Noriwas asserting something to who might havebecome Junayd beggedthemnotto be unkind al-Nori. "nor is it sobering from ". concludesIbn al-A'rabi. stuck thedeserts graveyards.168.72. The SufisRuwaymand Ibn 'Ata' to and its contrary.note81. have besides. at of (God on Such was thepitiful of a mystic end who couldspeak onlyof joining and not how to speak the sophisticated new language drunkenness.In the upshot. He cannothave wishedto provokeillwill.Then all the Sufissat fora formal discussion.TRANSITIONFROM ASCETICISMTO MYSTICISM eventually persuadedhimto come to their mosque. He (al-Nori) became and went ill blind. At last.As a mystic. Thatis.he must foundit easy to overlookthe obtusenessof the ascetics. and prefer listen Al-Junayd the othersspoke a while longer. Al-Nori not one aspect of joining he mayhave takenover the new terminology fand' and the second baqa' fromthe mystic al-Kharraz the interest apin of from peasing ascetics.saying"I am justcome. At night.

al-Wasaya. 2a. lb. enjoy abovetherest. (109) AI-Junayd. comprises whohave the chosen and ritual (al-'ibadat wa-al-takhawwuf). three Thefirst those Al-Junayd distinguishes groups. wa-al-shawq wa-al-taqashshuf). equally of the but are scheme. and (al-zuhd longing.andthey speakofthetruths theunseen (109). second worship fear thosewho have chosenrenunciation. finally speculative like and and the Thereis no doubt that Sufis the favors around mystics al-Junayd. third.223 on Tue. (Istanbul) GaS. they part thesamegrand of samecommunitythefaithful. (Springfield. and Theselasthave chosenpoverty Sufism (al-faqrwa-al-tasawwuf). three groups to devout Ghulam like the Khalil. Efendi (108) Regit 1218/1. MELCHERT Christopher USA) Missouri. had their filled with loveas thehearts theservants of havenot hearts of The been.72. 70 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.See Sezgin. 1: 649.CHRISTOPHERMELCHERT a the theMuslims establishesplaceforthem that alongside others (10s). no.168. 4 Dec 2012 11:37:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . austerity the those who have finally. earlcorrespond precisely theordinary ierascetics al-Muhasibi Sarial-Saqati. 19.

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