Konza Technopolis, Kenya

April 2010

Master Plan Report – 1 Site Analysis and Concept

Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – 1: Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

REVISION RECORD Report Ref:
HTTP://COLLABOR8/PROJECTS/A12260/DOCUMENTS/SITE ANALYIS REPORT JAN 2010/MASTER COPY/20100209 IFC TECHNOPOLIS SITE ANALYSIS AND MASTERPLAN CONCEPT REPORT.DOC

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Interim draft report: Site Analysis and Master plan concept Final draft report: Site Analysis and Master plan concept Final draft report: Site Analysis and Master plan concept Final draft report: Site Analysis and Master plan concept Final draft report: Site Analysis and Master plan concept

11/02/10

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This report is to be regarded as confidential to our Client and it is intended for their use only and may not be assigned. Consequently and in accordance with current practice, any liability to any third party in respect of the whole or any part of its contents is hereby expressly excluded. Before the report or any part of it is reproduced or referred to in any document, circular or statement and before its contents or the contents of any part of it are disclosed orally to any third party, our written approval as to the form and context of such a publication or disclosure must be obtained

Commissioned by:
Deloitte Consulting LLP 1919 North Lynn Street Arlington Virginia, 22209

Prepared by: Pell Frischmann 5 Manchester Square London W1U 3PD England

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – 1: Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 CONTENTS 1. 2. PREFACE .................................................................................................................. 1 PREAMBLE ............................................................................................................... 4 2.1 SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY ........................................................................ 4 2.2 SITE VISIT ........................................................................................................ 5 VISION STATEMENT ................................................................................................ 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................ 8 4.1 OUTLINE MASTER PLAN CONSIDERATIONS ............................................... 8 4.2 INFRASTRUCTURE ....................................................................................... 10 4.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASSESSMENT ......................................... 16 MASTER PLAN CONCEPT ..................................................................................... 22 5.1 PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SITE ...................................................... 22 5.2 PLANNING POLICY CONTEXT...................................................................... 30 5.3 INITIAL LAND USE AND CONCEPTUAL ZONING PLAN .............................. 34 5.4 TRANSPORT STRATEGY.............................................................................. 46 INFRASTRUCTURE STUDY ................................................................................... 57 6.1 WATER........................................................................................................... 57 6.2 WASTEWATER .............................................................................................. 71 6.3 STORM WATER ............................................................................................. 81 6.4 POWER .......................................................................................................... 83 6.5 SOLID WASTE ............................................................................................... 89 6.6 TELECOMMUNICATIONS.............................................................................. 97 6.7 ROAD TRANSPORT STRATEGY ................................................................ 100 6.8 AIRPORT ...................................................................................................... 101 6.9 RAIL LINK..................................................................................................... 101 6.10 SUMMARY INFRASTRUCTURE COSTS ..................................................... 103

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 1. PREFACE In response to a commission from Deloitte Consulting the following Master plan report, outlining a site analysis and design concept for a new city to support the development and growth of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) activities in Kenya, has been prepared. In addition a separately submitted outline Environmental and Social Baseline Study for the site has been prepared. In order to assist the reader the following key issues are appropriate;  Masterplan Larger Than Demand Assessment – The attached conceptual plan shows how the whole earmarked site might be developed. This exceeds the more limited brief for BPO and supporting social infrastructure which is used for the Demand Assessment prepared by Deloitte Consulting.

The terms of appointment for this study are set out in detail in the main report. The preparation of a refined Master plan is planned as a follow-up once the Government of Kenya (GoK) have considered this report alongside the Demand Analysis and Forecast prepared by Deloitte Consulting and the recommendations of IFC for taking this project forward. This master plan report was drawn up to demonstrate development features for a “green field” location to accommodate the enlarged supplementary brief provided by GoK in December to our team visiting Kenya. This work was carried out prior to the Demand Assessment, which is based on the more specific and limited initial scope of work, being available. Consequently the two reports, the master plan report and the Demand Assessment, require explanatory alignment. The design concept report has been prepared as a “top down” depiction of how the chosen site of approximately 2,000 hectares (5,000 acres) could absorb the schedule of uses listed in the following preamble. The land allocations shown are a coefficient of gross site size, client development aspirations and average space planning standards. The allocation and arrangement of uses has been prepared using best practice of new town and techno focused developments elsewhere and are accordingly founded on providing a flexible framework which can be adopted to meet emerging market demands. The phasing used in the design document is based on a theoretical growth pattern which assumes continuous development demand. The Demand Assessment, on the other hand, has been prepared on the premise of a “bottom up” profile of estimating foreseeable market interest for BPO and associated social uses needed to establish a minimal threshold of urban viability. As a result, while the master plan provides for the needs indicated in the Demand Assessment, it incorporates a much broader vision of what could be achieved on the chosen site.  Descriptive Nomenclature – The differences between the concept plan and the Demand Assessment in scheme size and content have led to the adoption of various titles for development components as explained below.

The key components of the Demand Assessment for development can be categorised as:

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010   “KMIP” – (Kenya Multi-Use Information Technology Park) the area within the plans available for demand-driven Business Process Outsourcing “Techno Village” - the area needed to create a supportive community of housing, schools and social infrastructure to sustain the KMIP and drive associated demand, referred to in the Demand Assessment as Critical Demand Catalysts. “Technopolis” - the remainder of the development site available for development inclusive of the KMIP and Techno Village

This segmentation of the project has been introduced to the Design Report to correspond to the Section 9 descriptions of development in the Demand Assessment and to allow cost comparisons. However the Concept Plan, as set out in Section 5, contains more detailed descriptions of development which overlap with the Demand Assessments definitions. The following descriptors are used to explain this finer grain of development sections;    “BPO/Technopark” – the enlarged area, as requested by the GoK in their December briefing, used for BPO and associated uses which includes the KMIP. “CBD” – the more traditional “town centre” location where large retail, offices, hotels, recreational and certain social uses might be found. This area would contain the non-residential uses of the Techno Village but on a larger scale. “Phases 1, 2 and Future” – refers to a growth pattern which anticipates a concurrent development of all uses grouped in three nominal sequences.

Technopolis serves as the overarching whole city development in both the Demand Assessment and the Concept Plan  Public Sector Development Leadership – It is apparent from the Demand Assessment and this report that a BPO Techno Park supported by a new city cannot be built solely by the private sector.

The Demand Assessment model developed by Deloitte seeks to profile likely growth patterns based on market demand determining phasing and implicitly limiting the exposure of GoK to financial risks while encouraging economic expansion and job creation. The Vision 2030, seen as a driver for this project, and of economic growth for Kenya as a whole, necessitates direct involvement and sponsorship by GoK. This has already been initiated with the site assembly and purchase. However, the long term role for Government is undefined. The respective approaches of the Demand Assessment and whole town design illustrate the importance of defining the blend of central and local government involvement with private sector investment. The magnitude of development costings, most specifically for the KMIP and Techno Village, is shown indicatively in the Infrastructure section of this report. The challenge for moving forward will be to clearly define the depth of commitment which can be provided publicly and privately to this project.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 A private sector only approach will result in a rate and size of development which is determined by market responsiveness and may be viewed as a high risk baseline for minimal development. The whole town concept offers a dramatically enhanced growth rate which is predicated on stimulating demand for a much wider range of uses which would be underpinned by a greater Government involvement in underwriting infrastructure development and public uses with significant financial risk transfer. This wider Government role could take the form of creation of a Development Agency which would oversee economic invigoration. Such an Economic Development Authority, which has many comparables internationally, would in the short term subsidise start up businesses, attract overseas investment and coordinate public sector investment. The following is an abstract of gross costs, (excludes sales of land and buildings income and initial cost to GoK for site) which brings together infrastructure and building estimates for the construction of the KMIP and Techno-Village which is the focus of the Demand Assessment.These figures also exclude the further development beyond the two sectors mentioned. BPO and Light manufacturing figures are provided by Deloitte's Demand Assessment of anticipated private sector investment by developers or occupiers, including both plant and equipment

Costs in USD million Indicative growth rate BPO Light manufacturing Housing and Auxiliary Uses (based on 80% of 60,000 jobs) Housing Infrastructure KMIP Infrastructure Total costs

Year 1 3% 41 39 16 3 99

Year 2 5% 60 77 27 5 170

Year 3 7.50% 75 8 135 41 7 267

Year 4 10% 118 9 251 55 10 443

Year 5 14% 139 11 348 77 14 588

Year 10 61% 356 28 1526 334 60 2304

Year 15 89% 640 49 1719 487 87 2982

Year 20 100% 813 80 1932 547 98 3470

A detailed cost model is outside the scope of these initial reports. However indicative costings suggest that the core development elements for the combined KMIP and Techno Village would require gross investment in excess of USD3.5 Billion over a 20 year period. Income from house and BPO/Industrial unit sales will offset this figure in the long term to a significant degree. However, cost recovery may lag behind investment due to the high risk for a new business/living location, resulting in a need for deficit financing in the short term. It is unlikely that the private sector will shoulder this level of investment or risk without significant GoK support.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 2. PREAMBLE The Government of Kenya has expressed interest in the development of a privatelyled special economic zone about 60 km outside of Nairobi, Kenya, to leverage a growing regional and global ICT sector. Deloitte Consulting LLP has been contracted by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) of the World Bank Group to provide advisory services for the development of a feasibility study, market plan, regulatory reform and public relations for the Athi River Technopolis. The overarching objective of this report is to support the development of a detailed Feasibility Study for the proposed zone and develop a promotional video in support of downstream marketing efforts to prospective developers. The GoK‟s Technopolis project represents a strategic opportunity to spur the growth of economic activities that fuel high value employment generation and growth. The original vision for the zone, which included a strong emphasis on IT and IT-enabled services, has been dramatically broadened by the Government to include a wide range of commercial and support activities. The project location has been recently relocated from Athi River to a level “green field” site some 60km south west from Nairobi along the A109 road to Mombasa. The government‟s vision will be validated and, to the extent possible, quantified in the Contractor‟s demand assessments, but in its present form includes:          2.1 Ready-built structures to house BPO and IT-Enabled Services Commercial office space Large scale commercial shopping malls Recreation and entertainment venues Hotels and Convention centre Community support services, including health clinics, green space, educational institutions, houses of worship, etc. Transportation infrastructure World class ICT infrastructure Utilities, roads and other infrastructure

Scope and Methodology Deloitte Consulting LLP has engaged the services of Pell Frischmann to undertake a conceptual master plan in support of the development of a Technopolis at the “Ol Donyo Malili” site outside of Nairobi, Kenya. The development of the concept master plan, detailed in the draft terms of reference dated 16th December 2009, is being done in a two stage process: Stage 1: Site Analysis and Master Plan Concept Stage 2: Final Concept Master Plan The first stage includes the analysis of various aspects of the existing conditions including infrastructure, planning, environment and social issues based on a site visit. This stage report evaluates the broad opportunities and constraints and also proposes a high level concept or preliminary physical framework to demonstrate the physical “capacity” of the site and initiate the feasibility process.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Deloittes then plan to conclude market research to investigate the demand and refine the land-use needs to be accommodated within the master plan along with a phasing program The Final Concept master plan (Stage 2) will be developed with the output from Deloitte‟s Market Research. This report is the Stage 1 Report on Site Analysis and Master Plan Concept 2.2 Site Visit The PF core team visited Kenya 6-17 of December 2009. The site and surrounding areas was visited on two extended occasions and meetings, principally with Government of Kenya officials in Nairobi were held. Although considerable assistance was provided access to some site data was limited and is being sought for further stages. This report is based on actual visit to the site, interviews with various personnel and the data which was collected through the IFC representatives in Kenya.

Notes: The cost estimates in this report are of a preliminary nature and should not be used for budget planning purposes. Land Allocations in this report are a coefficient of gross site size, land uses by suggested by client and average planning standards.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 3. VISION STATEMENT Vision 2030 seeks to close the gap between Kenya and other middle income countries in terms of quality of life by transforming employment markets, enhancing social infrastructure and underpinning national harmony through good governance. Technopolis has the potential to be a beacon of excellence for the whole country which sets a benchmark for emulation and becomes a showcase to the world for the emergence of Kenya on to the world stage of commerce and prosperity. The Government of Kenya decision to locate the ICT Park project in an undeveloped area offers the prospect for the creation of an exemplar city which reflects national aspirations for economic, social and political advancement on a large scale. The development would be based on the lessons for “New Town” projects drawn from around the world. New Town development does not have a track record of total success. Uneconomic and socially deprived urban conurbations can result from poorly planned and inadequate commercial awareness. Lessons learned from other successful new town developments suggest that master plans need to be ambitious and farsighted. The rate of development implementation is driven by a combination of market demand, which must be firmly rooted in sound economics, and the political leadership and backing provided by government. Examples exist where the natural demand for commercial and employment uses can be accelerated by government investment in physical and social infrastructure. Equally important is the establishment of a public sector Development Authority with private sector support which is able to „cut red tape‟ and push the project through obstacles of bureaucracy and negative management. Starting with a whole city blueprint or master plan concept which illustrates the ultimate form of final development it will be possible to incrementally grow the project. Commercial development, starting with BPO uses, would be funded by private sector investment. This would be accompanied by the provision of limited housing and social infrastructure supported by GoK. Once a core critical mass of development has established the creditability of the business opportunities offered by a modern would class city later phases of commercial and infrastructure investment would increasingly be funded by public private partnership development special purpose vehicles. The structuring of new town development agencies is outside the scope of this report. However its importance can be illustrated by the considering how public sector infrastructure investment might be economically managed. The financing of the new town could seek creative financial models. Land within the designated area could be acquired at agricultural use value and developed with initial infrastructure and building funds by the GoK using long term loans. Interest on these loans could be rolled up, in the expectation that the growth in land values caused by the development of the town would eventually allow the loans to be repaid in full. Consequently retention of undeveloped land by the public sector until it is ready to be developed in later phases over the next 5 years plus will facilitate increasing sale prices to recoup the costs of infrastructure.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The concept master plan has been prepared as a whole city development with a mix of commercial, residential and social uses. An ultimate completed employment estimate of well over 250,000 jobs is provided for along with accommodation and social support for over 20,000 homes. Good design practice principals, flexible and adaptable planning layouts and effective development frameworks have been provided in outline. Water and electrical supplies are very problematic at this embryonic stage. The final report will look more closely at how short term supplies, perhaps from on site generation and bore holes, for initial development phases can be achieved while regional supply options are developed. Subject to funding and detail design, remaining infrastructures needs are realisable. Preliminary environmental and social work carried out has not revealed any significant constraints to development.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The following executive summary captures the essence of the report across its sections of master planning, infrastructure, environment and social study. 4.1 4.1.1 Outline Master Plan Considerations Physical assessment of the site The site allocated for the Technopolis is approximately 60km from Nairobi, located on the Nairobi to Mombasa Road, A109. The site is 4 km north of Konza, a small settlement where there is a railway station on the Nairobi to Mombasa line. The site is in public ownership, having been acquired by the Ministry of Information and Communications. The site area extends to 2,011.9 hectares (ha), equivalent to 4,971.8 acres. The site falls from a high point of approximately 1694m above datum in the north to a low lying flat area of approximately 1660m, which extends almost to the southern limit of the site. The site is crossed by two watercourses. In the northern half of the site a watercourse drains to the south west where it joins the Kamwenyela, before it in turn becomes the Stony Athi. To the south of the site, the Iviani flows across the site to the west, where it also joins the Stony Athi. To the east and west there are local hills that are locally distinctive landmarks. These are the Waami Hills to the west, which have three summits, the highest of which rises to 1921m, and to the east, the Kivani Hill, which rises to 1776m. The existing use of the site is marginal agricultural land and unused land forming part of the Black Cotton plains. 4.1.2 Planning policy context The proposed BPO Park is identified in a number of Government policy documents. These include:  Kenya Vision 2030, where it is identified as a flagship project to help drive the growth of the Kenyan economy.  The First Medium Term Plan 2008-2012 includes a goal of creating more than 20,000 direct BPO jobs.  The Nairobi Metro 2030 Vision document includes the development of BPO parks, with the aim of promoting Kenya as the top off-shoring destination in Africa. Development of the proposed BPO Park will need to comply with the laws and regulations for physical planning in Kenya, as set out in the Physical Planning Act 1996 and Physical Planning Subsidiary Legislation 1998. 4.1.3 Initial land use and zoning plan An initial plan has been produced based on the government‟s vision set out in our brief. The initial concept is:  A BPO Technopark occupying the northern parts of the site;  A central water feature and golf course/ parkland to the south of the BPO Park;  A Central Business District (CBD) with offices, shops, leisure, university, hospital and similar uses between the parkland and the Mombasa Road;  A residential community to the south of the central park.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

Figure-A - Concept Diagram

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Watercourses within the site are retained to provide for the proper drainage of the site and associated green space provides for potential wildlife corridors. Key landmarks visible from the site are the Waami hills to the west, Kivani Hill and Kiima Kiu hills to the east. It is proposed that views of these hills should be enhanced by the proposed alignment of key roads. We are also proposing a “Greenbelt” control zone of approximately 2km around the site. This would have a number of purposes: to protect the setting of the Technopolis and guard against the development of informal settlements on the boundary of the site; to reserve land for the possible future expansion of the Technopolis; and to institute rigorous control of development in the area around the site. The initial plan will be subject to revision when further information is available from the demand study and other technical work is carried out. The initial plan can be seen as a demonstration of what it might be possible to deliver on the site in terms of its development capacity and potential mix. The capacity of the site demonstrated by the initial plan is:   A BPO Technopark occupying almost 500 ha, with 135 ha in the initial phases. This would deliver over 68,000 jobs in the first phases and the potential to facilitate a total of almost 250,000 jobs. A Central Business District (CBD) occupying over 180 ha, with space for commercial offices, retail and leisure uses, hotels, a convention centre, a university campus, a district hospital, and other related uses. We estimate that the CBD could provide employment for 15,000 people. A residential community occupying almost 700 ha, providing almost 21,000 homes and accommodating a resident population of 100,000 people. This includes space for the provision of schools, primary health care facilities, churches and other religious facilities, local recreation space and play space, and local shops. Parks and strategic green corridors occupying 370 ha. Infrastructure, such as distributor roads and water treatment facilities occupying 150 ha.

  4.2

Infrastructure The proposed development site has little in the way of existing local infrastructure. Whilst this might be perceived as a challenge, the lack of existing infrastructure represents an opportunity to develop a fully integrated, modern infrastructure, designed specifically for the intended land use. Opportunities exist to incorporate sustainable solutions for water recycling, energy recovery and waste minimisation within the design, thus reducing the dependency upon raw resources and leading to a green eco-friendly development. The location of the Technopolis, beside the main Nairobi-Mombasa route, provides not only excellent road and rail transport links, but also direct access to Kenya‟s existing long-distance power and telecommunications transmission systems. Perhaps the biggest challenge for the development will be the identification of suitable sources of water. The Konza region, in common with most of Kenya, has a significant water deficit. Groundwater sources are available, though may require to be

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 supplemented by bulk transport schemes from dams. Further studies are recommended to confirm suitable sources, as will be discussed later in this report. 4.2.1 Water The demand for water has been forecast based upon the proposed land use allocation and phasing, together with typical water consumption data for domestic, commercial, irrigation and other uses. The peak demand has been estimated as 34.9 mega litres (Ml) per day after Phase 1, rising to 47.8 Ml/d upon completion of all forecast development. This demand is offset by the use of treated wastewater for certain irrigation uses. Allowances have also been made for leakage and for diurnal variability in supply to give a forecast average supply requirement of 28.6 Ml/d, rising to 41.5 Ml/d in future. In comparison, groundwater resources in the Konza region have been estimated as 29 - 41 Ml/d. Further studies are required to confirm the groundwater yield and the associated water quality, or to investigate other strategic options for water supply such as a bulk transfer from the proposed dam at Mikuyu. The proposed water supply and distribution infrastructure comprises a single centralised water treatment works and an associated network of trunk mains. The water treatment works will be located in Block B7 to capitalise upon the existing contours and provide a gravity supply to most areas. This site is also close to the main highway, facilitating access for chemical deliveries and providing a landmark when approaching the Technopolis from the North. The scale and complexity of the water treatment process will be dictated by the quality of available water sources and cannot be confirmed at this stage. The land take has been provisionally estimated as 10 hectares; based upon a conventional treatment process comprising flocculators-clarifiers, sand filtration, activated carbon and chlorination. The land area includes reservoirs to provide secure storage of 1½ days‟ supply. The distribution mains will be divided into five supply zones to enhance control and security. Provisional plans have been developed for both the water treatment works and the distribution system. Rainwater recycling may offer a means to offset further the demands for potable water. “Greywater” collected from roofs may be stored and used for non-potable applications such as toilet flushing and irrigation. The success and economic viability of this method depends upon the frequency and intensity of rainfall, as well as the relative costs of other water sources. For these reasons, greywater recycling schemes elsewhere in Kenya have had mixed success. Further studies may be appropriate. 4.2.2 Wastewater Wastewater will be collected in a network of sewers, separate from the surface water (i.e. rainfall) drainage system. The existing topography of the area facilitates a gravity sewerage system along existing ground contours to a single centralised wastewater treatment works located in Block I1 at the western side of the development area. A single, large pumping station will lift the wastewater at the inlet to the wastewater treatment works, allowing a gravity flow through the treatment stages and onwards to a discharge point into the Stony Athi. Page 11 Frischmann

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The wastewater treatment process will be based upon waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), in line with current strategies for wastewater treatment at other large population centres in Kenya. This process utilises long retention times and natural sunlight and oxygen to achieve the effective treatment of wastewater by removing pollutants and killing pathogens. The treated wastewater will be suitable for discharge to the river (subject to the necessary consents) or for reuse for irrigation of certain crops and landscaped areas. WSPs are particularly well suited to tropical and subtropical climates and offer a much more sustainable solution than alternative powerintensive wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge. They are also extremely simple to build, operate and maintain, requiring a minimum of equipment, and have a low risk of odour or noise nuisance. The sludge which accumulates in the ponds is removed periodically, after draining. It provides a valuable source of nutrients as an agricultural fertiliser. Methane can be collected from the initial, anaerobic stage of the WSP system. This gas can be used in combined heat and power (CHP) engines to generate electricity and provide hot water for local use. WSPs do, however, require a large area of land in order to provide the necessary retention times. The land area required for the wastewater treatment works has been estimated as 35 hectares for Phase 1, rising to 50 hectares in future. A provisional layout of the works has been presented, occupying Block I1. In addition to this area being close to the rivers and at the lowest level in the development, the proposed site is also downwind of the major development areas for both the summer and winter prevailing wind directions. Opportunities exist for recycling treated effluent for use in agriculture, aquaculture, arboriculture and the irrigation of public areas, subject to appropriate checks on the quality of the effluent and a consideration of any risks to public health. The reuse of treated wastewater will reduce the development‟s demands upon potable water sources. It is not, however, economic to treat wastewater to an acceptable standard for human consumption, notwithstanding the issues of public acceptability. 4.2.3 Storm Water The surface water collection system will be kept separate from the wastewater sewers to prevent contamination of the rivers or dilution of the wastewater. The network of drains and channels will permit the rapid collection and discharge of surface water into the dry rivers which pass through the development. Flood lagoons, placed at strategic locations on the dry rivers, will control the rate of flow in the rivers, improving flow efficiency and reducing the risk of scouring in flood conditions. The ornamental lake, which provides an attractive feature of the Central Business District, will also serve as an attenuation pond, reducing the impact of intense rainfall events.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 4.2.4 Telecommunications The Konza site is ideally placed for high speed, high bandwidth communications, being adjacent to the main route for long-distance fibre-optic cables between Nairobi and Mombasa. Mombasa provides access to the network of modern international submarine cables which is due to expand rapidly in coming years, offering greater choice and reliability as well as lower prices. Within the development itself, a state-of-the-art access network will comprise four exchanges, linked by dual-redundant fibre-optic networks, distributing outwards via star-configuration fibre-optic cables. This network will offer a complete modern telecommunications package of high-speed internet, telephony and video services. Kenya has a rapidly developing mobile telephone market with healthy competition and major investment by the major players, particularly Safaricom and Zain Kenya. The Nairobi-Mombasa highway already has good coverage by Zain Kenya, though not a 3G service. By involving the service providers in the development process, they can expand their coverage to suit the needs of the Technopolis. 4.2.5 Power The power demand for the site has been estimated using international codes and standards and knowledge gained from previous projects. The estimated total demand for all development phases is 617MVA. It has been assumed that the overhead line passing the site is the line which is being tendered for upgrade to 400kV and that this will be capable of supplying the site from two sources, Nairobi and Mombasa. Additional security of supply to BPO companies could be achieved through the provision of site based standby generation facilities, if required, although careful consideration of the integration of these would be required in order to make appropriate and effective utilisation of these assets. A main substation will transform the voltage from 400kV to 132kV and then a 132kV ring circuit will be installed around the site to strategically located substations at the load centres. These substations will transform the voltage to 33kV and a further ring installed around the site at this voltage. Local distribution will then be supplied via substations which transform the voltages from 33kV to 11kV. 4.2.6 Solid Waste The strategy for solid waste management is based upon principles of sustainable development and the protection of human health and the environment by producing less waste and by using it as a resource wherever possible. It is sought to achieve this by sustainable waste management, moving the management of waste up the „waste hierarchy‟ of reduction, re-use, recycling and composting, to use waste as a source of energy, and only disposing as a last resort. This plan aims to break the link between population and economic growth and the environmental impact of waste. Taking these principles the report identifies drivers and limiters to the provision of a sustainable fully integrated waste management strategy for the Technopolis. All of the proposals are based on developing a social consciousness of the importance of reducing the total waste generated wherever practicable and on organising the residuals for segregated collection. Upon this basis the strategy is developed utilising Page 13 Frischmann

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 the proposed transport system to rapidly and efficiently manage the collected waste streams. The first stage is to move the waste as it is collected to the strategic transfer stations and associated treatment system. The plan proposes a mix of technologies complementing each other to provide a range of recyclates and products for use locally plus energy and heat for local commerce and housing. Efficient operation of the integrated system will ensure the quantities of wastes generated by a development of the size of Technopolis is collected, treated, processed and disposed of without being noticed by the general populace. Vital to this system and underpinning it is the provision of a secure landfill for the disposal of residuals, the management of fluctuations in the waste stream and to act as a buffer for process down time.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

4.2.7

Summary analysis of Infrastructure Existing conditions
No existing infrastructure. Local water resources inadequate.

Infrastructure Element

Proposed strategy
Offsite major supply source. Central water treatment works and reservoir storage. Maximise water re-use and rainwater harvesting to supplement. Centralised treatment works using waste stabilisation ponds. Effluent reuse for irrigation. Sludge disposal to agriculture for reuse as a soil conditioner. Comprehensive network of storm drains. To obtain a 400kV dual supply to the site from an overhead line. (It is reported that this is currently being tendered). This will be transformed to 132kV, 33kV and 11kV at strategic points around the site. Identify suitable local site for landfill and collection points, develop commercial incentives for recycling and reuse (EfW) and managed collections in line with the integrated waste management philosophy. New fibre optic Access network, providing high speed internet, voice and video connectivity.

Available alternatives

Water

Deep lying groundwater sources.

Wastewater

No existing infrastructure.

Compact but energyintensive wastewater treatment using activated sludge technology. Further modelling required to confirm river capacity (increased attenuation may be necessary). If backup generation is required then a generator farm will be required local to the site but at this stage it has been assumed that a dual supply is available. 1. Develop large scale landfill and accept costly environmental impacts. 2. Transfer waste by road / rail to facilities elsewhere.

Storm Water

No existing infrastructure. Run-off flows to dry rivers. No existing infrastructure on the site.

Power

Solid Waste

No Existing infrastructure

Telecoms

Good GSM coverage & fibre optic cables nearby. Site adjacent to A109 Nairobi – Mombasa road JKIA about 50 km from site An existing metre gauge railway network runs nearby to the site

Road Transport Air Transport

-

-

Modern High Capacity Standard Gauge Railway planned for nearby construction in the near future between Mombasa and Nairobi. If there is sufficient traffic the route could pass through the proposed ICT park. The timing and certainty of construction of the rail link will be paramount to the successful development of the Technopolis.

A spur could link to the park.

Rail Transport

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4.3

Environmental and Social Assessment Introduction This Social and Environmental Strategic Assessment (SESA) which forms part of the demand feasibility study is designed to meet the requirements of IFCs Policy and performance standards on sustainability. The SESA is designed to assist the Government of Kenya (GOK) in developing the proposed project and ensuring that social and environmental objectives are met. The SESA has been split into two discreet phases with Phase 1 including a site visit and baseline assessment. Phase 2 will be undertaken as a subsequent phase and will include the impact assessment and proposed mitigation options once decisions on the master plan have been undertaken and the layout size and scope of the proposed development have been finalised. The baseline assessment covers the proposed site of 5000 acres located 60 km southeast of Nairobi just off the Mombasa Road. The assessment and utilises desk based review, consultation and observations from field visits. The SESA is being submitted separately from this master plan report.

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Figure 4-B - Site location Plan (Not to Scale) Baseline Data Geology The project site is part of the Kamba high Plateau, the geology below the site is Precambrian basement with tertiary volcanic to the west of the site. The geology of the site comprises quaternary volcanic and basement rocks with gneiss and quartzite predominating. Topography The site is generally flat, becoming more hilly and undulating to the east. No detailed land survey of the site exists, however a broad appreciation of levels can be obtained from the Government of Kenya Survey Department‟s mapping at 1:50,000 scale.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 This shows that the site falls from a high point of approximately 1694m above datum in the north to a low lying flat area of approximately 1660m, which extends almost to the southern limit of the site. Soils The soil of the study area is characterised by heavy black clay known as „Black Cotton‟ soil of East Africa. Climate and meteorology Nairobi is situated within Kenya‟s temperate highlands, with an annual rainfall of 790mm, with average temperatures ranging from 9o to 29oC in January and 7o to 26oC in July. Machakos District within which the site is located is generally hot and dry, with two rainy seasons; the long and short rains, with a mean average maximum temperature of 25oC and an average minimum temperature of 12.3oC. Ambient Air Quality There are no available studies on ambient air quality of the region at the time of writing this report. Research has shown Studies are available for Nairobi and have been ongoing since 1993. During Phase 2 of the work it is proposed to extrapolate data for the site area from the Nairobi studies in order to undertake the subsequent impact assessment. Surface and Ground Water Hydrology The area has generally inadequate surface and groundwater resources, „surface water is scarce and mainly derived from rivers of which are seasonal, and springs and dams‟ (Ministry of Roads, Public works and Housing, 2004) whilst ground water is not uniformly distributed due to varying rock formations in the Machakos District, and the area is classified as semi arid. Biological Flora The Machakos District is predominately extensive grassland with scattered Commiphora (c.africana and C.balvensis) and acacia trees. Grasses tend to be tetrapogon bidentalus and chrysopogan ariche, Themeda, Cypress, Digitaria, and Cynodon. Fauna Over 25,000 species of animals have been recorded with Kenya. Notable animal species found in the region of the proposed scheme include the African buffalo, baboon, black rhinoceros, Burchell's zebra, cheetah, Coke's hartebeest, Grant's gazelle, hippopotamus, leopard, lion, Thomson's gazelle, eland, impala, Masai giraffe, ostrich, vulture, and waterbuck.

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Herbivores, including wildebeest and zebra, use the Kitengela conservation area migration corridor to the south of Nairobi National Park to reach the Athi-Kapiti plains. The proposed site is situated within close proximity to a wildebeest migration corridor. There is a rich diversity of bird life within the region, with up to 500 permanent and migratory species having been recorded within Nairobi National Park. Man made features within the area, such as dams have provided additional habitat for birds and aquatic species. Socio-economic The proposed Project is situated on a communal ranch (Malili Ranch), 60 km southeast of Nairobi, which is currently being bought by the government of Kenya. It is virtually unpopulated (only 5 structures were identified) as are the farmlands directly adjacent to the site. The closest village is Konza, 4 km south-west of the site. Machakos is the nearest town (30 km towards Nairobi), situated between three hill ranges. The area between Machakos and Nairobi (along the Nairobi-Mombasa road) is more densely populated with several housing estates, industries and educational institutions. Population Machakos district has a population of 906,6441 (186,297 households), with high concentrations in the urbanised zones (421,945 live in urban centres) and sparse population on the lowlands (i.e. Project Site). The overall population density is 144 km².The village of Konza counts 1,447 people. Economic Activity In the District of Machakos agricultural activities (including livestock, forestry and fishing) account for 74.8 percent of all economic activities, wholesale and retail trading for 11.6 percent, manufacturing for 7.5 percent and transport and communication for 6.2 percent. In the village of Konza, agriculture is the main livelihood activity. Machakos junction (junction of the road to Machakos and the Nairobi-Mombasa road) is a small commercial centre with shops, food stalls and local hotels predominantly serving passing truck transport. Machakos District has 480 trading centres and 5,040 licensed businesses. There are 2,000 informal enterprises, 617 hotels and three cyber cafes. Other establishments include five commercial banks, 34 savings and credit societies (SACCO) and four micro-finance institutions. Standard of living The average earning for income earners in Machakos District is estimated at US$ 65 per month. The only available social protection is the government owned National Social Security Fund which caters for the employed. It was revealed by an

1

2007 figures from the Kenya Bureau of statistics. Estimates for 2009 are 1,117,671

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 assessment of the Ministry of Planning and National Development that more than 66 per cent of the population live below the poverty line2. Infrastructure Machakos Town is supplied by two main water supplies, namely Maruba Dam which is over 50 years old and Kilimanjaro, also known as Noolturesh Water launched in the 1980's. However this water provision is insufficient due to a rising population3. In Machakos District only 5.3 percent of the population has access to electricity. Rural electrification is minimal due to the high costs. The population is predominantly reliant on wood fuel for cooking (81.6 percent). Other sources include charcoal (8.6 percent), paraffin (5.8 percent) and liquefied gas (2.5 percent). 88.1 percent uses paraffin, and a few, use solar energy for lighting4. The Mombasa-Nairobi railway runs through Machakos District, with stops at Konza and Ulu villages. A project to upgrade the rail track between Mombasa and Nairobi to a standard gauge has been approved by the national Government5. The Phase 1 baseline assessment looked at the site and surrounding area through site visits and desk based review. Limited data is available for Machakos District and the 5000 acre site. In order to ensure accurate assessment of impacts is undertaken further investigation of the environmental and social baseline is likely to be recommended as part of the mitigation and further works section of Phase 2.

2 3

Well-Being Kenya Basic Report 2005/2006 District Development plan 2002-2008 4 Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey 2005/06 5 Wikipedia, Jan 2010, Kenya Transport

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MASTER PLAN CONCEPT

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 5. 5.1 5.1.1 MASTER PLAN CONCEPT Physical assessment of the site Location and extent The site allocated for the Technopolis, which includes the KMIP and Techno Village, is approximately 60km from Nairobi, located on the Nairobi to Mombasa Road. The site is 4 km north of Konza, a small settlement where there is a railway station on the Nairobi to Mombasa line. The nearest large town is Machakos, some 19 km to the north east, which has a population of 179,500. Athi River is approximately 37 km to the north on the main road to Nairobi. The location of the site in its regional setting is shown in Figure 1 overleaf. The site is in public ownership, having been acquired by the Ministry of Information and Communications. The site area extends to 2,011.9 hectares (ha), equivalent to 4,971.8 acres. The site is roughly triangular in shape, with its longest side along the Mombasa Road extending to in excess of 6.6 km. At the “base” of this triangle, the site measures some 5.2 km.

Figure 5-A - Site Location

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

Figure 5-B - Technopolis in its regional context

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 5.1.2 Land form and topography No detailed land survey of the site exists. However, a broad appreciation of levels can be obtained from the Government of Kenya Survey Department‟s mapping at 1:50,000 scale. This shows that the site falls from a high point of approximately 1694m above datum in the north to a low lying flat area of approximately 1660m, which extends almost to the southern limit of the site. Beyond the site boundary to the south, the land starts to rise again to approximately 1700m at the Kisungulu Estate. The site is crossed by two watercourses. In the northern half of the site a watercourse drains to the south west where it joins the Kamwenyela, before it in turn becomes the Stony Athi. To the south of the site, the Iviani flows across the site to the west, where it also joins the Stony Athi. To the east and west there are local hills that are locally distinctive landmarks. These are the Waami Hills to the west, which have three summits, the highest of which rises to 1921m, and to the east, the Kivani Hill, which rises to 1776m. Landform, topography and watercourses are shown in Figure 2 overleaf. Photos need to be lightened.

View to Kivani Hill to the east of Mombasa Road with wildebeest grazing in the foreground

Panorama of the site looking south east showing very little relief apart from mounds and hills on the horizon

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

The conical hill and Kiima Kiu hills to the south east can be seen from all areas of the site.

Looking onto the site from the Konza Road, showing its relatively flat topography with hills in the distance.

Wildebeest grazing on the site, with a single tree in the foreground, showing how little vegetation is present.

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Figure 5-C - Landform, topography and watercourses around Konza 5.1.3 Existing Land Use The site comprises the former Kivani Estate. The land is marginal agricultural land, forming part of the Black cotton plains. The site has some wells, including one under construction at present and very small areas under cultivation. The remainder of the site is unused and attracts small numbers of grazing wildlife, including wildebeest, gazelle and zebra. To the east, the site is bounded by the Nairobi to Mombasa Road. This is currently a single carriageway paved road, but is due to be widened to a dual carriageway. To the west, the site is bounded by the Konza Road, an all weather dirt road. Although classified as an all weather road, the surface breaks up and only 4 wheel drive vehicles can use this road after rainfall. At the junction of Konza Road and Mombasa Road, there is a small roadside hotel. There is also a dirt road to Machakos.

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Subsistence farming on the site, with the distinctive Kiima Kiu hills in the background

Train station at Konza

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Nairobi – Mombasa paved road: due to be widened to dual carriageway

‘All weather’ dirt road from Konza, unsuitable for most cars after rainfall

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Well under construction on site

‘Highway Hotel’, located at junction between Konza and Mombasa roads

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 5.2 5.2.1 Planning policy context Kenya Vision 2030 Kenya Vision 2030 is the country‟s new development blueprint covering the period 2008 to 2030. It aims to transform Kenya into a newly industrialising, “middle-income country providing a high quality life to all its citizens by the year 2030”. The economic vision and strategy set out in Vision 2030 aims to increase annual GDP growth rates to an average 10%. In order to achieve such an ambitious growth rate, the Vision recognises that it will be necessary to address a number of constraints that are at present hindering future growth. There is recognition that poor infrastructure and high energy costs need to be addressed. Vision 2030 identifies six key sectors that are expected to act as key growth drivers to 2030. These are: tourism; agriculture; wholesale and retail trade; manufacturing for the regional market; business process offshoring (BPO); and financial services. The proposed BPO Park is identified as the flagship project for this sector in Vision 2030. It states that it “will have world class infrastructure, developed by top international IT suppliers. Kenya will offer competitive incentive packages for companies to locate in the park, provide a one stop shop for administration and talent and serve as a “showcase” park to attract more top foreign IT companies.” 5.2.2 First Medium Term Plan 2008 – 2012 The Medium Term Plan identifies the key policy actions and reforms as well as programmes and projects that the Grand Coalition Government intends to implement in the period 2008-2012. It is the foundation for the first phase of implementing Kenya Vision 2030. The overall objective is to realise a higher and sustainable growth of the economy in a more equitable environment, accompanied by increased employment opportunities. With regard to Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), the Medium Term Plan notes that” this is an emerging and growing sector expected to become the sector of choice for employment among the youth and young professionals. The country will thus quickly establish the necessary capacity for BPO to flourish and catch up with other destinations in Africa.” The Medium Term Plan sets a five-year goal of creating more than 20,000 direct BPO jobs. In addition it proposes that a BPO Park will be established and supportive initiatives will be implemented within the period 2008-2012. This state-of-the-art BPO Park should “provide superior telecommunications infrastructure, easy access to international transport facilities, and affordable and readily available energy which are critical for a competitive BPO industry.” 5.2.3 Nairobi Metro 2030 Nairobi Metro 2030 is the Nairobi Metropolitan Region‟s statement that it aims to grow and develop into a world class African region that is able to create sustainable wealth and offer a high quality of life for its residents, the people of Kenya, and investors and offer an unmatched experience for visitors. The Vision document sets out goals under seven key result areas, as follows:

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Build an internationally competitive and inclusive economy for prosperity; Deploy world class infrastructure and utilities for the region; Enhance mobility and connectivity through effective transportation; Enhance the quality of life in the region; Deliver a unique image and identity through effective place branding; Ensure a safe and secure region; Build world class governance systems.

The first of these goals, to build a competitive economy includes the following proposals:         To build a regional and global financial services hub; To build a regional trade and business services hub; An initiative to promote regional manufacturing, industrial and technology parks; To build an “airport city” at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport; To build on Nairobi‟s strength as a diplomatic hub; To develop tourism; To create a regional and global research and education hub; To enhance service culture.

The Technology Parks Initiative referred to above includes Business Process Outsourcing Parks, with Kenya aiming to become the top offshoring destination in Africa. The aims set out in the Vision document are: to attract five major leading information technology (IT) companies; attract at least ten large multinational companies and global BPO players; strengthen at least five local players to become local champions through stand alone operations or joint ventures; and to provide the necessary spatial framework to enable the effective functioning of multi-media technology parks. The Vision document also recognises the critical problems of poor transport infrastructure and crippling congestion that affects Nairobi at present. It proposes a major effort to improve transport infrastructure in a number of respects, including:  New roads and improvements to existing roads;  Metropolitan mass rapid transit focussing on high occupancy vehicles and enhancing the commuter rail network;  Traffic management measures to optimise the functionality of the transport system;  Enhancing accessibility and the pedestrian environment in the CBD;  Demand management;  Logistics and supply chain management;  Land use measures including transit oriented development, higher density development, and promoting mixed use development.  Promote teleworking through enhanced IT;  Implement a metropolitan road safety campaign. 5.2.4 Physical Planning Act 1996 The Physical Planning Act 1996 sets out the regime for physical planning in Kenya. It includes:  The arrangements for the administration of the system including the powers of the

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Director of Physical Planning, as the chief Government adviser on all matters relating to physical planning (Part II); The procedures for production and approval of plans, including the establishment of physical planning liaison committees at national, metropolitan, district and municipal level, with responsibilities to determine and resolve physical planning matters referred to them, including planning applications and appeals (Part III); A description of the purpose and content of regional physical development plans (Part IVA); A description of the purpose and content of local physical development plans (Part IVB); The system for control of development, including the powers of local authorities to approve development applications, the requirement to submit environmental impact assessments for certain types of development that may have injurious impact on the environment (Part V); Miscellaneous provisions, including requirements for approval of plans for subdivision of land and the powers of the Director to issue orders prohibiting the demolition, alteration or extension of buildings of special architectural value or historic interest, among other matters such as confidentiality (Part VI).

  

5.2.5

Physical Planning Subsidiary Legislation, 1998 A number of rules and regulations were passed in 1998 by the Minister for Lands and Settlement under powers conferred on him by the Physical Planning Act. These set out more detail on the operation of the physical planning regime in Kenya. They include:         The Physical Planning (Building and Development)(Control) Rules, 1988; The Physical Planning (Planning and Endorsement Fees) Regulations, 1988; The Physical Planning (Development Plans) Regulations, 1988; The Physical Planning (Application for development permission) Regulations, 1988; The Physical Planning Order, 1988; The Physical Planning (Subdivision) Regulations, 1988; The Physical Planning (Enforcement Notices) Regulations, 1988; and The Physical Planning (Appeals to the Physical Planning Liaison Committee) Regulations, 1988.

The Building and Development Control Rules include rules governing siting of buildings, density, plot coverage, building lines, access, space in front of buildings, servicing etc. The rules also set out the procedure for applying to the local authority for approval and the plans that are required to be submitted with the application. The Planning and Endorsement Fees Regulations set out the charges payable for planning applications for various types of development. The Physical Planning (Development Plans) Regulations, 1988; sets out the procedure to be followed in preparing development plans. The Director of Physical Planning is required to notify the relevant local authority of his intention to prepare a development plan, its purpose and the extent of the area to be covered. The Director may then (in practise almost always will) invite stakeholders to participate in the plan

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 preparation process. The development plan will either be prepared by the Director (and his staff), or may be prepared by registered physical planners in private practice who possess an annual practicising certificate. Any Plan prepared by a commissioned registered Physical Planner must be submitted to the Director of Physical Planning for scrutiny and authentication. Upon completion of the Development Plan it must be publicised and an opportunity given for representations or objections to be made to the Director. The Final version of the Plan is then prepared taking account of representations received and is submitted to the Minister for approval. The Minister is required to give public notice that he has approved a Plan. The Physical Planning (Application for development permission) Regulations, 1988; sets out the procedure for applying for development permission. All applications for development must be made on forms issued by the local authority and must include plans and drawings to illustrate and describe the proposed development. The application must be submitted to the local authority, who will in turn submit it to the relevant liaison committee. Other authorities whose interests may be affected by the proposed development (e.g. highway authority), must be given not less than 30 days to comment upon any such application before a decision is taken. An applicant or his representative has the right to appear before and be heard by the liaison committee before any decision is made. Permission for development may be issued either unconditionally or subject to conditions by the local authority or liaison committee. The Physical Planning Order, 1988; sets out a schedule of permitted development and conditions which apply. Part I of the Schedule sets out the types of development that is permitted and Part II sets out standard conditions. These permitted development rights may be removed by the local authority or liaison committee if they deem it expedient to do so. The Physical Planning (Subdivision) Regulations, 1988; requires applications for subdivision of land to be made in accordance with the Application for Development Permission Regulations. The regulations require all subdivision schemes to facilitate drainage, provide wayleaves for watercourses, reserve land for open space, amenities, road reserves and other public purpose at no cost to the local authority, provide adequate widths for roads, provide plots of appropriate shape and size, and conform with other requirements of any physical development plan, advisory plan, or zoning approved by the Minister. The Director of Physical Planning has the discretion to prescribe maximum building density where a subdivision of agricultural land is proposed. The Physical Planning (Enforcement Notices) Regulations, 1988; sets out the procedure for serving enforcement notices under the provisions of section 38 of the Physical Planning Act. The Physical Planning (Appeals to the Physical Planning Liaison Committee) Regulations, 1988 enables any petitioner who is aggrieved by a decision of the Director of Physical Planning or local authority or liaison committee to appeal to the liaison committee. If he is not satisfied with the decision of the committee, he may appeal to the National Liaison Committee.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 5.2.6 Physical Planning Handbook The Ministry of Lands is in the process of producing a physical planning handbook with the aim of improving the process and practice of physical planning in Kenya. A draft is being reviewed prior to publication and includes guidelines, methodologies, standards and planning considerations to assist practitioners. The draft sets out the legal and institutional context, regional planning considerations, environmental considerations, urban planning, and standards for residential, industrial, commercial, educational, recreational, and development for public purpose. It also deals with public utilities, transportation and development control. 5.3 5.3.1 Initial land use and conceptual zoning plan The brief The government‟s vision set out in our brief is that the site should provide:           5.3.2 Ready-built structures to house BPO and IT-Enabled Services Commercial office space Large scale commercial shopping malls Recreation and entertainment venues Hotels Community support services, including health clinics, green space, educational institutions, houses of worship, etc. University, research centre and convention centre Transportation infrastructure World class ICT infrastructure Utilities, roads and other infrastructure

Initial Concept We have prepared a concept diagram, shown in Figure 3 overleaf, based on our analysis of the site, surrounding area and examination of the brief. Broadly speaking, the initial concept is:  A BPO Technopark occupying the northern parts of the site;  A central water feature and golf course/ parkland to the south of the BPO Park;  A Central Business District (CBD) with offices, shops, leisure, university, hospital and similar uses between the parkland and the Mombasa Road.  A residential community to the south of the central park. Watercourses within the site are retained to provide for the proper drainage of the site and associated green space provides for potential wildlife corridors. Key landmarks visible from the site are the Waami hills to the west and Kivani Hill to the east. It is proposed that views of these hills should be enhanced by the proposed alignment of key roads. We are also proposing a “Greenbelt” control zone of approximately 2km around the site. This would have a number of purposes: to protect the setting of the Technopolis and guard against the development of informal settlements on the boundary of the Page 34 Frischmann

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 site; to reserve land for the possible future expansion of the Technopolis; and to institute rigorous control of development in the area around the site.

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Figure 5-D - Concept Diagram

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 5.3.3 Initial Land Use Plan The initial Land Use Plan is shown in Figure 4 overleaf. It must be borne in mind that this is an initial plan, which will be subject to revision when further information is available from the demand study. In the absence of such information at this stage, the Plan can be seen as a demonstration of what it might be possible to deliver on the site in terms of its development capacity and potential mix. The Plan will also be further revised to consider alternative layouts such as a ring-radial system rather than the grid proposed at this initial stage. There will also need to be space/land allocations to meet other transport needs - such as parking, interchanges (for junctions with main regional highways), bus terminal(s)/interchanges, etc. It will also be necessary to provide a pedestrian/ cycle network, and we would hope to include this level of detail at the next stage of the planning process. Key features of this plan are:  A central water feature, surrounded by a town park and a golf course, which serves as the focus for the entire Technopolis;  A Central Business District to the east of the town park, with frontage onto Mombasa Road. This CBD will contain commercial offices, shops, market, a university, a district hospital, hotels, restaurants, leisure and entertainment facilities and other facilities of this nature. An area for future expansion of the CBD is also indicated to the north;  A BPO Technopark to the north of the town park. This provides an attractive setting to attract inward investment into this sector, in accordance with the Government‟s Vision 2030. A large area for future expansion of the BPO Technopark is shown to the north;  A residential community to the south of the town park. This will provide accommodation for employees and their families who will work in the BPO Technopark, as well as in the CBD and in the various local community facilities. The residential community will include appropriate provision for schools, health care facilities, churches and mosques, play facilities and sports facilities, etc.;  Green corridors are proposed along the alignment of the watercourses which are protected in the Plan. This will help to avoid flood risk to the new buildings and also provides additional open space. These could also serve as wildlife corridors through the site.  The Konza Road is proposed to be paved to provide easy access for all vehicular traffic.  A network of roads is proposed within the site in a grid layout at approximately 1km intervals. These are intended to be sufficiently wide to serve as public transport routes, with a 25m reservation proposed.  The alignment of some of these roads has deliberately been set to provide distant views of the Waami Hills to the west and Kivani Hill to the east. The site includes a high voltage power line. Whilst this might be realigned in the future, for the purpose of the Plan at this stage a no-build reservation of 60 m has been incorporated.

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Figure 5-E - Initial Land Use Plan

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Table 5-1 below includes a schedule of land areas. The area codes are shown in the Plan overleaf, Figure 5-F. Table 5-1 Schedule of Land Areas Block No. Gross area, ha BPO Business Technopark B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Sub-total B 64.97 71.43 90.06 78.77 20.83 47.01 108.23 7.90 489.20 Block No. Gross area, ha Residential community R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 Sub-total R 70.77 64.36 52.03 70.51 85.65 40.31 10.03 32.53 32.70 10.68 36.23 91.52 95.75 2.00 695.07

Central Business District (CBD) C1 93.73 C2 22.04 C3 58.47 C4 10.08 184.32 Sub-total C Parks, recreation and open space O1 88.65 O2 86.01 O3 19.31 O4 22.02 O5 12.36 O6 10.73 O7 1.20 O8 7.16 O9 41.20 O10 8.18 O11 21.84 O12 16.76 O13 4.67 O14 33.86 373.95 Sub-total O

Undeveloped area/ buffer zones U1 19.69 U2 52.16 U3 17.88 U4 21.93 U5 8.84 120.50 Sub-total U Infrastructure/ water treatment I1 57.75 I2 11.54 Sub-total I 69.29 1,932.33 Sub-total excl roads Road corridors TOTAL SITE 79.58 2,011.90

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Figure 5-F - Key Plan

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 5.3.4 Components of the Plan BPO Technopark The initial land use plan shows an area slightly less than 500 ha allocated for business process outsourcing. This is divided between the blocks as shown in Table 3.2 below. Phases 1 and 2 comprise in excess of 135 ha. located just to the north of the proposed lake and golf course. A density of development for this area has been assumed at a floor area ratio (FAR) of 0.4. This is equivalent to 4,000 m2 of built floor space for every hectare and is a common density for prestige business park developments. On this basis Phases 1 and 2 would yield a built floor space of 545,600 m2 (c. 5.9m sq. ft.). Employment density in these types of business operations is usually quite high. Based on similar operations elsewhere, we have adopted an assumed employment density of 8 m2 per job. Thus the first and second phases when fully developed would enable the creation of 68,200 jobs. A large area has been set aside for future expansion of the BPO Technopark. If all of this area were fully developed for BPO businesses, it would yield almost 2 million m2 of built floor space and provide employment for almost 250,000 people. However, this may never be achieved and so there is the flexibility to use this land for other employment generating uses, if required. Table 5-2 below sets out the schedule of areas and estimates of built floor space and jobs. Table 5-2 - BPO Business Technopark Block No B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Total B Land Use Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Business (BPO) Phase 1 2 Future expn. Future expn. Future expn. Future expn. Future expn. Future expn. Area, ha 64.97 71.43 90.06 78.77 20.83 47.01 108.23 7.90 489.20 Density (FAR) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Floor space, m2 259,880 285,720 360,240 315,060 83,320 188,040 432,920 31,600 1,956,780 m2/ job 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Jobs 32,485 35,715 45,030 39,383 10,415 23,505 54,115 3,950 244,59 8

In order to help understand the scale of the proposed BPO Technopark, we have shown below a comparison of scale of the Phase 1 and 2 areas of the BPO Technopark, with inset the development at Dubai Internet City, one of the most

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 relevant comparators. Dubai Internet City has 139,500m2 (c. 1.5 m sq. ft.) of prime commercial office space, in which over 850 companies with over 10,000 employees are based. As can be seen, this fits in about half of one of the blocks.

Figure 5-G - Comparison of scale, BPO Technopark and Dubai Internet City Central Business District (CBD) The initial Land Use Plan shows an area in excess of 184 ha (c. 455 acres) for the Central Business District (CBD). It is divided into four areas, as shown in the Plan and in Table 5-3 below. Table 5-3 - Central Business District (CBD) Phase 1 1 Future expn. 1 Area, ha 93.73 22.04 58.47 10.08 184.32

C1 C2 C3 C4 Total C

CBD CBD CBD CBD CBD

Area C1 is the largest of these areas and is intended to be the main focus for the CBD. Area C2 is the only development proposed between the reservation for the high voltage overhead power line and the Mombasa Road. This area is proposed for roadside uses that will benefit those travelling on the main highway. It will also help the viability of businesses that would not survive without passing trade. Area C3 is reserved for the future expansion of the CBD, while Area C4 is proposed for the Convention Centre. This latter use will benefit from its attractive location overlooking the lake and golf course. We set out overleaf some more details of the proposed uses in the CBD in Table 5-4.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Table 5-4 - Uses, development and jobs in the CBD Use Blocks C1 & C4 Commercial offices Retail & leisure uses Hotels 3* hotels 4* hotels 5* hotels Convention Centre University Campus District Hospital Future expansion Sub-total, C1 & C4 Block C2 Roadside retail and services Block C3 Future expansion Area, ha 16.0 20.0 Density, FAR 0.5 0.5 Floor space, m2 80,000 100,000 M2/job Jobs

1.0 7.5 4.8 10.0 13.2 8.0 23.3 103.8 22.0

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

5,000 37,500 24,000 50,000 51,000

10 20 No. of beds 100 500 200 1,500 students 300 beds

8,000 5,000

100 500 200 500 200 200 14,700

58.5

In order to help understand the scale of the proposed CBD, we have shown in Figure 5-H opposite a comparison of the CBD with Machakos town centre inset. Machakos serves a resident population of 180,000. Thus, the area reserved for the CBD at Technopolis is certainly large enough to cater for both the future resident population and the working population.

Figure 5-H - Comparison of scale: CBD and Machakos town centre

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Residential Community how do we address the short fall issue? Blocks R1 to R14 are proposed for a new residential community. This will be a sizeable community and will help to provide homes for the employees who are expected to be attracted to work in the BPO Technopark, in the CBD and in providing other services to the businesses and other residents in the “Technopolis”. We consider that the new community should be sized as large as possible in order to promote a sustainable pattern of development, helping to reduce the need for workers to commute long distances to work in the Technopark. The total area allocated for residential development is 695.07 ha, as set out in Table 1. This should be considered as a new community, not just housing as it will need to include land set aside for schools, health clinics, local parks and play space, religious facilities and other community facilities. From our consultations with the Ministry of Housing, we are proposing three standards for housing provision on the site: management housing, medium housing and low cost housing. The average unit size for these categories of housing are 120m2, 70m2 and 33m2, respectively. We have assumed a density for each category in dwellings per hectare (dph) of 20, 50 and 100 dph. This would be equivalent to detached housing for the management style, town houses or apartments for the medium housing and walk up apartments of up to 4 storeys for the low cost housing. For this preliminary land use plan, we have assumed a housing mix on site of:  10% management housing;  60% medium housing; and  30% low cost housing. Based on experience elsewhere, we have allowed 60% of the residential community to be developed for housing. This then reserves 40%, which should be sufficient space for schools, parks, football pitches etc. On this basis and given the other assumptions and principles set out above, the residential community will have the following capacity, as set out in Table 5-5 below. Table 5-5 - Housing types, density and numbers and resulting population Housing type All Management housing Medium housing Low cost housing Total Mix, % 100 10 60 30 100 No. of houses 20,852 2,085 12,511 6,256 20,852 Density, dph 50 20 50 100 Site Average area, unit ha size, m2 417.04 104.3 250.2 62.5 417.04 120 70 33 Floorspace m2 Population

104,261 250,200 875,770 206,448 1,332,418

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The population derived in the final column is based on an average family size of 5. This is low by Kenyan standards, but we consider that the population attracted to live on the site will be generally better educated than the norm. Indeed, many of the employees at the BPO Technopark may be graduates. For this reason, we have adopted a lower assumed family size of 5, compared to the current average Kenyan family size of 8. Schools Based on the above assumptions about family size in the housing areas, we have derived the following requirements for schools and other community facilities. The Ministry of Lands Physical Planning Handbook sets out recommendations for school provision based on catchment population, enrolment targets, school and class size and land requirements. For primary schools in urban areas, based on 100% enrolment of children aged 6 to 13 inclusive, the recommendation is one school of 960 pupils (i.e. 3 classes per year group with 40 pupils per class) per total population of 3,500. In rural areas, allowing for pupils to attend from surrounding areas, the recommendation is one school per 4,000 population. However, these standards are based on typical, or average, household structure. As discussed above, we do not believe that the population living in the Technopolis will be representative of the norm, due to a higher proportion of graduates within the resident population. Since family size is estimated at 5 rather than 8, we need to adjust the standards for school provision, as there will be fewer children. Based on our assumptions, the average household will have 3 children, rather than 6. We therefore propose to halve the standard for primary school provision to one school per 7,000 population. Each primary school should have an area set aside of 3.9 ha. The Ministry of Lands Physical Planning Handbook sets out similar recommendations for secondary school provision. Unlike primary schools, enrolment is more variable, ranging from 20% to 100%, with an average of 60%. Based on the population profile we have postulated for the Technopolis, we have allowed for 100% attendance at secondary schools for the population in the 14-17 age group. Based on 5% of the local population falling into this age range and 100% attendance, with school size of 480 pupils, the adjusted standard becomes 1 secondary school per 9,600 population. Each secondary school should have a site allocated of 4.5 ha. We have already discussed the potential for a university campus on the site, which is proposed in the CBD. In addition, a college should be allowed, with a planned enrolment of 960 and a reserved land area of 10.2 ha. In addition to the above, provision should be allowed for pre-school facilities. Kindergartens and pre-primary schools will be required, well distributed within the residential areas to cater for children aged 2 to 6. Based on 7.4% of the population falling into this age group, each nursery school of 200 pupils will support a total population of 2,700. Each nursery school should have a minimum site area of 0.15 ha. The adoption of these proposed standards results in the provision of schools for the resident community as set out in Table 5-6 below.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Table 5-6 - Proposed school provision School type Nursery Description 200 pupils per school, site of 0.15 ha per school 960 pupils per school, site of 3.9 ha per school 480 pupils per school, site of 4.5 ha per school 960 pupils Standard 1 per 2,700 total population 1 per 7,000 total population 1 per 9,600 total population No. schools 39 Total area, ha. 5.9 Total pupils 7,800

Primary

15

58.5

14,400

Secondary

11

49.5

5,280

College Total

1

10.2 124.1

960 28,440

Other community facilities and recreation space In addition to schools, there will be a requirement to provide for primary health care, churches and other religions, local recreation space and play areas, community halls. These uses, together with space needed for local shops and local infrastructure will absorb the remainder of the area within the residential community. 5.4 5.4.1 Transport Strategy Site Accessibility and Connectivity The proposed site is approximately 60km from Nairobi on the A109 road, which is part of the international Lagos-Mombasa Highway and consists of a two-way single lane carriageway that is paved on its section from Nairobi throughout the site. There are currently plans to widen the A109 to a dual carriageway which would improve accessibility by increasing the road capacity.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

Primary Road Link Primary Rail Link Unpaved Road Links Site Boundary

Figure 5-I - Existing transport links to the site from Nairobi

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Figure 5-J - A109 Nairobi – Mombasa road: due to be widened to dual carriageway There is also a railway station on the main Nairobi-Mombasa Railway line, approximately 4km south of the site at Konza. Konza is connected to the site and the A109 by an unpaved road, practically only usable by 4x4 vehicles after significant rainfall.

Figure 5-K - Unpaved road from Konza, unsuitable for most cars after rainfall

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The site has the potential to be well-connected to Nairobi and thus to a significant population centre, but it is currently poorly served since there is little to no organised long-distance public transportation on the road network. Nevertheless, the location of the site on the A109 provides good accessibility for private vehicles including freight. The railway represents a more likely commuter mode to/from Nairobi. However the state of the road from the station to the site rules this out as impractical since the most likely mode of transport from the station to the site would be walking. The connection to-from the town of Machakos is shorter and represents a more practical commuter route than the one to Nairobi, however the limited size of the town will provide a relatively small pool of labour. Furthermore, the roads connecting Machakos to the A109 are in bad conditions. Implementation of good connections would therefore depend on redevelopment of the road network. The current primary form of public transport is the privately operated matatu network, which consists of many competing privately owned vehicles consisting of a range of light and medium trucks, buses, vans and people carriers that drive their own routes and operate largely on a hail and ride basis. They operate over short routes within Nairobi itself. It is noted that Kenya has a poor record of road traffic accidents, especially in regards to public transport vehicles (1990-2000 saw a rise of 35% in accidents with a 53% increase in fatalities) and according to the Kenya Roads Board this is still getting worse year-on-year. Efforts in the first few years of the 2000‟s to reduce the number of accidents had some effect but lack of enforcement and continued growth of vehicle numbers wiped out this improvement by 2004 at which point accidents and fatalities resumed their increase. 5.4.2 National Transport Strategy and Future Projects There is an Integrated National Transport Policy along with Kenya Vision 2030, which define longer-term national goals and strategies to improve the existing transport network. The Integrated Transport Policy aims to improve road and rail transport across Kenya, focussing on linkages to Airports and Ports as well as Internal Corridors and Urban Transport Corridors:  Ten road corridors have been identified including the „Northern Corridor‟ that includes the A109 between Nairobi and Mombasa and which passes by the site. This is to be carried out by both an expansion of the road network (such as widening the A109) and ensuring a better maintenance schedule is maintained (affecting road capacity and safety);  There is increased emphasis in centralising and expanding the public transportation network, especially in urban areas, but also on inter-city and urbanrural links. Part of this policy involves the discouragement of private vehicle usage in the CBD‟s or the large cities to encourage public transport commuting. Furthermore, over the next decade the Kenyan Government aims to phase out the matatu‟s in favour of larger and more efficient buses;

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010  It is the intention of the Kenyan Government to reduce the general level of road accidents and those involving public transport in particular, as public transport vehicles are 3.5 times more likely to be involved in accidents compared to other road vehicles according to statistics gathered for the formulation of the Integrated Transport Policy;  Key railway strategy objectives are to improve to the Kitale-Juba rail link and the Athi River – Arusha rail link. Under the First Medium Term Plan (2008-2012), a railway line will be constructed between the Nairobi Railway Station and Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) to provide light rail services to about 150,000 passengers. As this airport lies to the south-east of Nairobi along the A109 this may serve as part of a commuter link to the site as it would enable commuters from central and north Nairobi to bypass extensive urban congestion;  Due to the deterioration of both infrastructure and rolling stock there is an identified need for rehabilitation of infrastructure and rolling stock through investment as set out in the existing concession agreement with the railway operators. This would improve the safety and reliability of service to the site; and  There is a long-term goal of electrification of the railways to improve the environmental impact of the railway operations and also to reduce the amount of oil imports. It should be noted that these schemes depend on increased economic growth and extensive financial investment as well as attracting considerable private investment. Whilst many of the longer term schemes could result in improved transport access to the site, these schemes are long term and thus unlikely to offer any immediate benefits during the development and early operation of the KMIP. For example, the Nairobi Metro 2030 program aims to improve both the rail network and centrally planned public transportation, which will be of benefit to the rail commuter route and may also force private operators to consider offering a road link to the site. It may also offer an official public transport link using large-capacity vehicles that would make the road a viable means of large-scale commuting. There are no specific documents beyond the 2007/2008 period available from the Kenya roads board or Transport Department with regards to transport upgrades, maintenance or other related schemes. The Roads 2000 scheme includes a National Road Safety Action Plan dated from 2005 which covers the 2005-2010 period. 5.4.3 Travel Demand The following table represents the projected volume and type of employment based on the current Master Plan: Phase 1 47,000 21,000 50% 50% Phase 2 83,000 21,000 20% 80% Future Expansion 259,000 21,000 + Expansion to be considered

Number of Jobs Number of Houses On-site Workers Commuting Workers

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

5.4.4

Transport Strategy The transportation strategy proposed is based on the fact that the Technopolis will grow in an incremental fashion. The ultimate physical capacity of the site for 259,000 jobs strongly suggests a phased development where the percentage of workers living outside and travelling to the Technopolis will gradually increase from 50% to 80% as the Technopolis and its neighbouring regions develop: Transport to/ from site: During Phase 1 commuting workers will reach approximately 20-25,000, and during Phase 2 they will reach 60-80,000. This represents a major challenge for external transport to and from the site, given the existing transport network conditions:  Nairobi/Mombasa railway is a single track which is poorly maintained; and

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010  Bus services are currently largely privately operated and will require significant inducement to make the journey. If the existing tracks at Konza station were used to store arriving trains in order to allow multiple commuter services, the railway has the capacity to send approximately 5 trains in each commuting period and thus no more than 5,000 people could be delivered to Konza station providing sufficient rolling stock was available. It will be impossible to exceed this figure without extensive redevelopment on the railway, especially double-tracking the route to and from Nairobi. This means that at least 15,000 people a day will need alternative transportation to and from the site. If local matatu services were considered then at least 1,000 journeys will be required daily at Phase 1, rising to 3,000 at the end of Phase 2. Given the distance involved and the capacity of the road this is not a viable option. If larger buses were used alongside matatus as well as private vehicles, then approximately 200-250 bus journeys, 100-150 matatu journeys and 300-400 car journeys would be made, which is within the capacity of the A109 road system. However, significant facilities for dealing with the arrival of so many vehicles would be needed. In Phase 2 over 1200 bus journeys would be required in addition to other transport forms. This represents an unlikely level of bus ownership and thus significant investment but is still within the capacity of the road network, assuming sufficient facilities are available on-site to deal with the arriving vehicles. Once the site reaches full capacity it will be physically impossible to transport sufficient commuters to the site without massive expansion of the road and rail network and significant investment in high-capacity buses. Expansion of the residential area will mitigate this effect. Transport within the site Since the number of houses and thus on-site workers remains constant for Phase 1 and Phase 2, transport within the site will remain largely consistent from the south. Given the distances involved it is likely that the majority of on-site workers will use non-motorised methods of transport, largely walking, to get to and from work in the first Phase. Local bus service could be considered running in a loop through the residential communities and to the employment areas operated by the KMIP operators. 5.4.5 Transport Network Development Subsequent stages of the Master Plan process will set out a detailed land use scenario which will need to be supported, integrated and realised through a high quality transport system. The objective of this section is to suggest some directions and opportunities which should be considered in the development of the Master Plan. The KMIP will contribute massively to the regional economic development (as it is the location for a major commerce, jobs, services etc.) and it is therefore vital that the

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 transport system allows the industrial park and the larger Technopolis, to function efficiently. The objectives of the Transport Strategy within the Master Plan are:  To propose a transport system which provides for the movement of people and goods in an efficient and sustainable manner. The transport system should meet travel demands to-from the KMIP; and  To support and integrate with the land use development patterns proposed for the Master Plan. The Transport Strategy should encompass all modes (public and private transport) and all facilities (highways, traffic systems etc). Road Network In the planning and design of urban roads, classification schemes are important to provide a logical framework to guide network expansion, development and improvement. The road network should be developed as illustrated below, on a hierarchal basis containing:  Primary Roads – these would form the main arterials of the KMIP. All longer distance traffic movements within the site and through traffic movements should use these roads;  Secondary - District Distributors Roads – these roads would distribute traffic within the development residential, employment, commercial and other areas and form the major local area connections. The roads would form the link between the primary roads and the local distributor roads;  Secondary - Local Distributor Roads – these would distribute traffic within local areas and form the link between the district distributors and access roads. These roads would provide access to non residential areas such as commercial premises and employment areas; and  Access Roads – these roads form the direct link and access to-from residential units.

Road Hierarchy

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The physical elements of the road network should be designed to a high standard as there are no physical, land or property boundary constraints. Traffic Management It is clear that a comprehensive traffic management programme (covering junction controls. signals, channelisation, road marking etc) must form part of the transport strategy. Particular attention will also need to be paid to parking policy (this will require the necessary institutions to set up and operate the policy). On street parking control policy must be adopted. Public Transport It is essential that the Transport Strategy place a strong emphasis on a public transport policy. An indicative costing exercise has been undertaken to establish an order of magnitude (OM) for the provision of infrastructure. These estimates have been prepared using current cost bases from Africa and provide a fair generic yardstick for strategic planning purposes. It must be emphasised that at this early stage of plan preparation and in the absence of building designs these rates are limited to derived unit costs suitable only for conceptual purposes. As outlined in the preface the conceptual Masterplan has been prepared on the basis of a theoretical development of the whole city without regard to market demand constraints. The cost schedule, under the headings of Phases 1, 2 and Future, shows the spread of infrastructure investment for this approach. The schedule then goes on to show an alternative costing scenario, under the headings of KMIP, Techno Village and Remainder for the market driven development pattern suggested in the Demand Assessment. The significant differences between the two approaches is that the latter tends to be “back loaded” as a slower rate of development is assumed. For planning purposes both are assumed to eventually build-out the site to the ultimate densities in the concept plan.

Public transport within the larger Technopolis could be provided by bus or light rapid transit (rail based). There is great merit in pursuing the bus system option. The Technopolis will be developed by phases and thus will be undergoing rapid change. A high quality bus system can (i) be implemented rapidly, (ii) is flexible in its response to changing patterns of land use or passenger demand, (iii) is affordable, (iv) can offer higher capacity than any LRT at a fraction of the cost and (v) if necessary and justified could be converted to an LRT system at a later date. The general principles of the integration of public transport strategy are:  To develop high density corridors which are served by high quality public transport;  To connect the high density corridors to the key employment, service, retail etc areas such as the proposed KMIP and so forth; and;  To provide feeder services which access the main public transport corridors. It is proposed that a number of strategic bus corridors should be developed which will inter-connect the proposed development areas. The strategic corridors should have as their focus the proposed commercial, retail and community facilities proposed

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 under the Master Plan. The corridors will also be available for general traffic movements but extensive priority will be afforded to buses.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

INFRASTRUCTURE STUDY

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6. INFRASTRUCTURE STUDY The proposed development site has little in the way of existing local infrastructure. Whilst this might be perceived as a challenge, the lack of existing infrastructure represents an opportunity to develop a fully integrated, modern infrastructure, designed specifically for the intended land use. Opportunities exist to incorporate sustainable solutions for water recycling, energy recovery and waste minimisation within the design, thus reducing the dependency upon raw resources. The location of the larger Technopolis, beside the main Nairobi-Mombasa route, provides not only excellent road and rail transport links, but also direct access to Kenya‟s existing long-distance power and telecommunications transmission systems. Perhaps the biggest challenge for the development will be the identification of suitable sources of water. The Konza region, in common with most of Kenya, has a significant water deficit. Groundwater sources are available, though may require to be supplemented by bulk transport schemes from dams. Further studies are recommended to confirm suitable sources, as will be discussed later in this report.

6.1

Costings An indicative costing exercise has been undertaken to establish an order of magnitude (OM) for the provision of infrastructure. These estimates have been prepared using current cost bases from Africa and provide a fair generic yardstick for strategic planning purposes. It must be emphasised that at this early stage of plan preparation and in the absence of building designs these rates are limited to derived unit costs suitable only for conceptual purposes. As outlined in the preface the conceptual Masterplan has been prepared on the basis of a theoretical development of the whole city without regard to market demand constraints. The cost schedule, under the headings of Phases 1, 2 and Future, shows the spread of infrastructure investment for this approach. The schedule then goes on to show an alternative costing scenario, under the headings of KMIP, Techno Village and Remainder for the market driven development pattern suggested in the Demand Assessment. The significant differences between the two approaches is that the latter tends to be “back loaded” as a slower rate of development is assumed. For planning purposes both are assumed to eventually build-out the site to the ultimate densities in the concept plan.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Indicative costings break-down of Infrastructure (Costs in USD million) Kenya Technopolis Preliminary Infrastructure costs Phase Phase Techno Remain Future KMIP 1 2 Village der Konza Site Area (ha) Konza Site Area (ha) 1107 373 531 125 700 1186 Cost (Million USD) 195 66 94 22 123 208

Item

Components

Roads

Primary, collector and local Cost and route TBA

Water transport scheme Road Landscaping Storm water drainage Water Supply

34

12 36 5 4 7 12 2

17 51 7 6 10 17 3

4 12 1 1 2 4 1

22 67 9 8 14 22 4

37 114 15 13 23 37 6

(excluding source)

channels and culverts reservoirs, pumping stations, pipes distribution network treatment

107 14 12 22 35 6

Wastewater Irrigation Power (excluding generation) Telecommunications Solid waste Sub-total Contingency (20%) Total USD substations, network cabling and street lighting

239 45 12 721 144 865

81 15 4 243 49 291

115 21 6 346 69 415 1,571

27 5 1 81 16 98

151 28 8 456 91 547

256 48 13

772 154 927 1,571

Total USD Note: Water transport costs not input as source is to be identified

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.2 6.2.1 Water Overview Kenya, which is considered as a water scarce country below 647 cubic metres of water per capita compared to the international benchmark of 1000 cubic metres per capita, faces serious challenges with regard to protection of water resources, water supply and sanitation services. Progress has been made with the national water infrastructure since the 2002 Water Act, which separated the responsibilities of providing water to consumers and the role of water production and management. Despite the resources that have been provided so far, the demand for water services continues to rise largely as a result of the increasing population, the need for more hydropower, and the growing demand for industrial uses among other purposes. The pressure to manage the country's water resources more efficiently and ensure that water services are availed equitably among the diverse uses is bound to increases as the country gears itself towards meeting the Vision 2030 goals. The National Water Services and Strategies promote water re-use/ recycling. Table 6-1 - Water Resource Distribution Renewable Annual Drainage Areas Served Water Basin Resources (billion m3) Lake Western, Nyanza, 11 Victoria North and South Basin Rift Rift Valley Greater Baringo, 2.7 Basin Nakuru, Keiyo, Turkana, West Pokot, Narok and Nyandarua Athi Basin Kajiado, Nairobi, 1.3 Kiambu, and lower Ukambani to the Coast region Tana Basin Central Kenya, 3.7 Meru, Embu, Mwingi, Kitui, Garissa and Tana River Ewaso Laikipia, Samburu, 0.34 Ng‟iro North Isiolo, Moyale, Basin Marsabit and North Eastern

Percentage of total Kenyan Water Resource 58%

People Served (million) 16

Water Resource Balance

14%

3

water deficient

7%

6

water deficient

19%

10 *

water sufficient

2%

2.7

water deficient

* Figure includes the city of Nairobi, which is supplied from Ndakaini Dam (80%) and Sasumua dam (16%)

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

KONZA

YATTA

The proposed ICT Development is located within the Athi Basin and the water resources are managed by the Tanathi Water Services Board. Even with good rains, three regions (Rift Valley, Athi and Ewaso Ng‟iro North) still experience water deficit. There has been sharp decline of rains in the last 3 years with 2009 being worst. Currently there is very serious water deficit in Rift Valley, Athi, Ewaso Ngiro and Tana (which caters for Nairobi). About 14 million people are facing water shortage, of which 2 million are in Nairobi (60% of the city‟s population). 12 million livestock are under water stress. Areas seriously affected are; Greater Baringo, Nakuru, Turkana, W. Pokot, Keiyo, Marakwet, Narok and Nyandarua.  Nairobi, Kajiado, Machakos, Makueni, Taita Taveta, Kwale, Mwingi, Kitui, Laikipia, part of Nyeri, North Eastern Province, Upper Eastern and Kilifi.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The Ministry of Water and Irrigation is implementing emergency measures, including a programme of new borehole drilling, procurement of additional water tankers and negotiating with private borehole owners in Nairobi to share water. In addition water rationing in key urban areas has been established and steps are being taken to eradicate illegal water connections. The present water crisis facing the country has been due to lack of investment in water storage infrastructure. The Ministry is currently constructing 5 large dams namely Kiserian, Umaa, Chemususu, Badasa and Maruba which will store 20 billion litres of water which will be used for irrigation, livestock and domestic purposes. 6.2.2 Outline of Resources in the region The Tanathi Water Services Board‟s area is 100% arid & semi arid. There are two permanent rivers, the Athi River which cuts across the Board area and Tana River which forms the far eastern boundary.  At the upper reaches of Athi River, the flows are seasonal and suffer heavy pollution from Athi River & Nairobi city and hence not feasible source.  Tana River is located 320Km and thus un-economically feasible as a source There are high yielding springs notably; Nol Turesh which is located at the eastern base of Mt Kilimanjaro whose flow is 60% tapped for Machakos, Kajiado, Athi River towns and en route consumers. A second pipeline proposed to be funded by the Spanish government will boost supply to the latter towns and rural areas of Ulu, Kasikeu, Nguu, Masimba and Loitoktok town. Other springs notably Umanyi, Kiboko and Makindu are currently the sources serving the greater Kibwezi district. 6.2.2.1 Future Sources: Dams The area receives moderate rainfall averaging 800 to 1000mm per annum and has excellent sites for dams. Currently the Board has identified 8 sites for development of dams for domestic, livestock, industrial and agricultural use. Two dams are under state funding while a third one shall be funded by the African Development Fund at a cost of Euro 22 Million beginning Jan 2010. Mikuyu dam in Mukaa district is one of the sites the board has identified with a consultant as an excellent site for development to provide water to the residents of lower Mukaa and specifically residents of newly settled areas of Aimi Ma Kilungu and Malili Ranches where the ICT city shall be located. The proposed dam site has excellent protected catchment and ideal for dam development. Other dams are scattered all over the Board‟s area of jurisdiction. 6.2.2.2 Aquifers-geo-hydrology Potential in the Board area is moderate to poor within the Kapiti plains where the ICT city shall be located. The potential is moderate with drilled boreholes yield averaging 8 – 28 m3/hr (0.2 – 0.7 Ml/d). The quality is generally good with relatively high content of fluoride, chloride and manganese salts. In the lower Zones of the Board area potential is fair and water quality poor.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.2.2.3 Rainwater Harvesting Potential exists to offset the water demand from surface and groundwater sources by harvesting rainwater, which can be used for greywater applications such as toilet flushing or irrigation. The suitability of rainwater harvesting in the Technopolis is discussed further in Section 6.4.3.2. 6.2.2.4 Mzima Pipeline Springs are located 280km from the proposed ICT city. The springs have been proposed for further development/ tapping for the coastal city of Mombasa whose current supply only meets only 22% of the demand. Due to ground elevation and huge pumping head, it is not technically & economically feasible to supply the ICT city. 6.2.2.5 Trunk main water supply Nol Turesh pipeline traverses the supply area. Bulk flow designated to serve Machakos & Athi River towns. No reserve available as water is rationed 4 days a week. 6.2.3 6.2.3.1 Assessment of Demand Methodology The infrastructure associated with water treatment and distribution is sized according to forecasts of the peak demand. Operating costs are based upon the average demand. Forecasts of the peak water demand have been based upon typical per capita consumption figures for the various land uses and the population and worker densities referred to elsewhere in this report. The assumptions are tabulated below. Land Usage Residential housing Commercial premises 1-star - 3-star Hotels 4-star - 5-star Hotels Convention Centre University Schools Hospital Commercial areas (future phases) Parks, open spaces, churches etc. Peak Water Demand 240 50 180 240 0.02 72 24 720 0.05 0.02 Units litres per capita per day litres per capita per day litres per capita per day litres per capita per day Megalitres per hectare per day litres per capita per day litres per capita per day litres per patient per day Megalitres per hectare per day Megalitres per hectare per day

The Nairobi Metro 2030 strategy forecasts a per capita water demand of 200 l/c/d by 2030. A peak demand of 240 l/c/d has been adopted to allow for fluctuations in demand and for inaccuracies in the population estimation process. The proposed Technopolis is also likely to attract relatively affluent residents, who are likely to consume more water than average. The figures for commercial and academic premises have been derived from British Water data. Page 62 Frischmann

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 From the above assumptions, the water demand for the various land uses has been forecast as follows: Relevant Population / Area 32,500 36,000 182,000 8,000 5,000 100 700 10 ha 1,500 30,480 300 11,650 11,000 29,250 113,475 169 ha 27.2 3.4 34.9 36.7 47.8 0.6 1.5 0.4 0.25 0.02 0.17 0.2 0.11 0.7 0.22 0.6 Peak Water Demand (Ml/day) Phase 1 1.6 1.8 9.1 Phase 2 Future

Land Use BPO Phase 1 BPO Phase 2 BPO Future Phase CBD Offices Retail & Leisure 3-star hotels 4 and 5-star hotels Convention Centre University Schools Hospital Future Expansion (C1 & C4) Roadside Retail & Services (C2) Future Expansion (C3) Residential Areas Parks, open spaces, churches, etc. Cumulative Total

The above estimates for the water demand include allowances for irrigation of landscaped areas, parks and open spaces. Opportunities exist for the reuse of treated wastewater for certain irrigation uses, thus reducing the demand for potable water. The demand for irrigation has been estimated as 6.3 Ml/d. The recycling of treated wastewater for irrigation is discussed further in Section 6.3.5. An allowance of 20% has been included within the calculated residential water demand to cater for inaccuracies in the population forecasts. Whilst the water treatment works and the distribution system must be sized according to the forecast peak water usage, the average water consumption will be lower. A peak to average ratio of 1.2 has been assumed. The average water demand is relevant when considering operating costs. An allowance of 20% has been added to the forecast peak potable water demand to account for leakage in the water distribution system. The water supply forecasts for the development are summarised below.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Volume (Ml/day) Phase 1 Peak Water Demand Deduction for effluent reuse for irrigation Potable Water Demand Leakage allowance Potable Water Supply 6.2.4 Peak Average Peak Average 34.9 -6.3 28.6 23.8 5.7 34.3 28.6 Phase 2 36.7 -6.3 30.4 25.3 6.1 36.5 30.4 Future 47.8 -6.3 41.5 34.6 8.3 49.8 41.5

Capacity & Ability to Meet Demand Currently the developed water resources only meet 42% of the existing water demand for the Tanathi region. The Board has developed a strategic plan for the period 2008 – 2012 to increase available water resources from 42% to 60% of demand. The Capital investment works proposed include Mikuyu and Yatta dams. The Technopolis will create a significant additional demand upon the water resources, requiring additional investment in groundwater and surface water sources.

6.2.5

Strategic Supply Options Ground water resources in the Konza region are likely to yield a proportion of the large demand of the Technopolis, projected at 29 - 41,000 m3/d. Estimation of the yield of groundwater would require further studies into the region‟s hydrogeology, which would also provide data on the likely quality of the groundwater. At this stage, it is assumed that ground water development can supply only a minority fraction of the total demand, and that a surface water source will also be required. The just concluded feasibility study for Mikuyu dam & Water Supply is understood to provide the best avenue to meeting the demand for the ICT city & surrounding environment. We have been unable to obtain a copy of the Feasibility Study into the dam development from the Tanathi Water Board to confirm the feasibility of this source (the Ministry of Water and irrigation has confirmed availability of information and requested the Tanathi Water Board made this available 29 January 2010). The Mikuyu dam is believe to be sited in the Machakos hills some 30km from the ICT city (confirmation is sought from the Tanathi Water Board).

6.2.6 6.2.6.1

On site and off - site infrastructure Raw Water Transfer Raw water transfer pipelines and pumping stations will be required to transfer untreated water from source to onsite treatment facilities.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.2.6.2 Treatment Plant Further, more detailed studies will be required to identify suitable ground and surface water sources to meet the anticipated water demand. These studies will determine the quality of the water sources and hence the appropriate treatment techniques to ensure a wholesome supply of water. For the purposes of the Master Plan, the footprint and cost forecasts are based upon a full conventional water treatment plant incorporating the following stages:  Coagulation and flocculation, using chemicals to assist with the sedimentation of solid material  pH adjustment  Sedimentation in settlement tanks  Sand filtration to remove additional solid and colloidal material  Activated carbon filtration to remove taste or odour  Disinfection using chlorination, a contact tank and de-chlorination. Allowance has been included within the plant footprint for a lamella settlement tank for thickening the sludge arising from the settlement and filtration stages. The dewatered sludge may then be transported to the wastewater treatment works by road tanker or pumped directly. Alternatively, the sludge may be discharged into the sewer network, subject to the adequacy of gradients to prevent settlement. A provisional layout for this treatment works has been developed to estimate the land allocation required. The layout is based upon the water being sourced offsite and pumped to the treatment works, and includes space for treated water reservoirs to provide 1½ day‟s storage. The size and distribution of reservoirs throughout the Technopolis requires a consideration of demand from each sector, as well as the topography. Other factors, such as the ground conditions and risks of seismic activity or terrorism, may also need to be considered. There is also space on site for an elevated water tower to ensure a constant pressure in the water distribution mains. The construction of a water tower is not absolutely necessary (pressure could be maintained through the use of variable speed pumps) but the structure would add security and could serve as a prominent architectural feature when approaching Technopolis from the north.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

The water treatment works will be located in Block B7 to make optimum use of the existing topography of the area. The land is at a level of approximately 1685m, permitting gravity distribution to much of the Technopolis. This location also permits easy access from the main highway for the delivery of water treatment chemicals.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.2.6.3 Distribution Potable water will be distributed around the Technopolis via a network of trunk mains, branching into progressively smaller mains serving blocks, streets and individual properties. The trunk main capacity has been determined by estimating the daily demand of each block, based upon the allocated land use, population density and consumption forecasts. Table 6-2 - Water Distribution Forecasts for the BPO and CBD Area (ha) 65.0 71.4 90.1 78.8 20.8 47.0 108.2 7.9 489.2 15.9 20.0 13.3 13.2 8.0 23.30 22.04 58.47 0.08 10.00 184 Total Daily Demand (Ml/day) 1.62 1.79 2.25 1.97 0.52 1.18 3.00 0.20 12.5 0.40 0.25 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.58 0.55 1.46 0.002 0.20 4.05 Peak Instantaneous Demand (l/s) 37.6 41.4 52.2 45.6 12.0 27.2 69.4 4.6 290 9.2 5.8 4.4 4.6 5.0 13.4 12.8 33.8 0.03 4.6 93.6

Block No. BPO B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Total CBD C1 offices C1 retail C1 hotels C1 University C1 Hospital C1 Future Expansion C2 offices C3 offices C4 offices C4 Convention Centre Total

Population

32,485 35,715 45,030 39,385 10,415 23,505 59,890 3,950 250,375 7,960 5,000 11,650 11,020 29,235 40 500

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Table 6-3 - Water Distribution Forecasts for Residential Areas Peak Instantaneous Demand (l/s) 90.0 81.8 66.2 89.6 108.8 51.2 12.8 41.4 41.6 13.6 46.0 116.4 121.8 2.6 884

Block No. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 Total

Area (ha.) 70.8 64.4 52.0 70.5 85.6 40.3 10.0 32.5 32.7 10.7 36.2 91.5 95.8 2.0 695.1

Houses 2,123 1,931 1,563 2,115 2,569 1,209 301 976 981 320 1,087 2,745 2,872 60 20,852

Population 10,615 9,654 7,810 10,576 12,847 6,046 1,504 4,879 4,905 1,602 5,434 13,727 14,362 300 104,261

The water treatment plant is located at the far north end of the proposed development area. In order to distribute water to other parts of Technopolis various river crossings, pumping stations, water towers and storage reservoirs will be required. Refer to the drawing below for indicative numbers and locations for these facilities. The proposed trunk mains have been designed to create five separate supply zones for maintenance purpose.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

Figure 6-A - Water Distribution Infrastructure

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The proposed trunk mains are sized by considering the forecast water flow and the pipeline velocity to achieve an optimum balance between pumping efficiency, capital cost of the assets and provision for variations in demand. The trunk main diameters are summarised below. Trunk Main Main 1 Main 2 Main 3 Main 4 Main 5 Proposed Size (mm diameter) 400 350 500 550 450

The minimum velocity required for water supply mains is determined by the required chlorine residual concentration and the risk of containment. Hydraulic design for water supply pipelines must ensure the total retention time will be less than 12 hours. The velocity should not exceed 2.0 m/s for trunk mains and 1.5 m/s for distribution mains. To prevent the risk of pollution from infiltration of groundwater, water supply pipelines should be maintained at a minimum pressure of 0.6 bars at any location within the network. For fire fighting purposes, a minimum pressure of 1.5 bars should be maintained in mains equipped with hydrants. The maximum water pressure in the water mains should not exceed 3.5 bars. Tall buildings, where the mains pressure is inadequate to supply upper floors, will be equipped with their own dedicated water booster sets. 6.2.7 Pipe materials Soil surveys should be completed at detailed design stage to examine the soil characteristics and determine an appropriate material for the water pipework. Polyethylene (PE) is suitable for most soil types. Ductile iron (DI) pipework is susceptible to accelerated corrosion in certain aggressive soil types. Other materials, such as GRP and steel may be used for large diameter pipes (greater than about 450mm diameter) Pipelines should be installed with a minimum of 0.9m cover in open ground and 1.3m cover beneath roads. Larger water mains should be laid with at least 500 mm separation in all directions from other pipework or services. Thrust blocks will be required at all bends in pressure pipes. 6.2.8 Costing Budget cost estimates for the infrastructure associated with water treatment and distribution have been prepared as follows. No allowance has been made at this stage for the transfer of water from the source to the treatment works, as the location of appropriate source(s) has not been confirmed.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

Item Water treatment works Water storage Water distribution network Extension to water treatment works (Future Phase) Water Storage (Future Phase) Water distribution network (Future Phase) 6.3 6.3.1 Wastewater Overview

Description Clarifiers, sand filters, chemical dosing, sludge treatment and associated pump stations for a peak capacity of 40 Ml/d Two 30 Ml reservoirs and a water tower

Additional clarifiers, sand filters and associated plant to increase capacity to 55 Ml/d Additional 30 Ml reservoir Extensions to the water distribution network to serve newly developed areas

The concept adopted for wastewater collection and treatment is a 5 step approach as follows: 1. 2. 3. Rapid and effective collection of wastewater and transfer to a centralised treatment facility. Minimisation of wastewater flows by the separation of surface water in a dedicated storm water drainage system. Effective treatment of wastewater to achieve an acceptable standard for discharge to the environment, whilst minimising the power demand, carbon footprint and the potential for odour nuisance. Maximise the opportunities for re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation of public spaces, agriculture, arboriculture and water features. Ensure an adequate land allocation to permit future extension of the treatment facilities to match population and commercial growth.

4. 5.

The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) Water Quality Regulations 2006 require full treatment of domestic, industrial and agricultural waste to the standards set by a licence before discharge into any public water body or environment. The standards are likely to include limits for the concentrations of BOD, ammonia, suspended and settleable solids, pH and coliform bacteria. The topography of the Technopolis is suitable for a single, centralised wastewater treatment works (WTW), located in the western sector (Block no. I1). Treated effluent will be reused or discharged to the Stony Athi, the largest watercourse in the immediate area, to maximise the benefits of any dilution. A secondary benefit of this location for the WTW is that the prevailing winds are from the north east and south east. Hence Block I1 is downwind of the main populated areas based on both prevailing wind directions. Nevertheless, appropriate measures will be necessary as part of the WTW design to minimise the risks of odour and insect nuisance. Page 71 Frischmann

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010

Wastewater collection systems will comprise a network of gravity sewers serving each of the residential and commercial areas. Surface water, arising from rainfall, will be collected in a separate system, to minimise the volume of water requiring treatment prior to disposal. Surface water is discussed in Section 0 of this report. The terrain within the Technopolis varies in level between 1,635m and 1,695m. Most of the sewer network will operate under gravity, though some lift pumping stations will be required to maintain adequate gradients in the sewers. 6.3.2 Sludge Disposal Policy The National Water Services Strategies promote re-use of wastewater products for bio-gas generation, composting, etc. However this has not been implemented in the Board‟s wastewater disposal systems. Current sludge treatment involves drying of sludge on beds and reuse as a soil conditioner. These practices enable nutrients to be recycled for use in agriculture but represent an elevated risk from contamination of crops by pathogens in the sludge, or from pollution of watercourses in the event of sudden rainfall after sludge application. 6.3.3 Outline of Resources in the region There is no existing infrastructure for wastewater collection or treatment in the development area. There are facilities for sewage sludge recycling in the major population centres of Nairobi and Mombasa, but a greater benefit may be obtained by recycling the material locally, to enhance the fertility of soils. Hence, the Technopolis will include its own dedicated infrastructure for wastewater collection, treatment and sludge recycling. 6.3.4 6.3.4.1 Assessment of Demand Wastewater Generated Estimates of the volume and composition of wastewater have been calculated from the residential and commercial density data in the previous Master planning note. The following assumptions have been used as part of the estimating process: Wastewater Volume The volume of wastewater is estimated to be 75 – 85% of the potable water demand, on the assumption that 20 – 30% of water supplied is not discharged to sewer (i.e. it is used for garden watering, etc.). An average figure of 80% has been adopted. An additional allowance of 10% has been added to account for infiltration of groundwater or surface water into the sewer network. Hence the overall volume of wastewater has been estimated as 90% of the water demand. The design of the wastewater treatment facilities has therefore been based upon a forecast peak flow of 26 Ml/d for Phases 1 & 2 and 37 Ml/d for future phases. Wastewater Composition The strength of wastewater is characterised by the biochemical oxygen demand Page 72 Frischmann

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 (BOD), which is an indicator of the quantity of oxygen required to biodegrade the organic material. The BOD is thus used to measure and control discharges of treated wastewater to the environment, so as to avoid oxygen-starvation (and the consequent environmental damage) in the receiving watercourse. The standard daily BOD load for a person living and working in the same catchment area is 60 g. Different per capita allowances are used to account for people living outside the Technopolis, but commuting into the area for work or other purposes. These allowances are summarised in the table below. Source Residential housing Commercial premises 1-star - 4-star Hotels 5-star Hotels Convention Centre University Schools Hospital and BOD 60 25 80 100 25 N/A 120 Units g per capita per day Comments

Only non-residential workers g per capita (assumed as 50%) are included per day for calculation purposes g per guest Assumed that 80% of beds are per day occupied g per guest Assumed that 80% of beds are per day occupied Only non-residential visitors g per capita (assumed as 50%) are included per day for calculation purposes No net influx of students from outside towns is assumed g per patient Assumed that 80% of beds are per day occupied

Applying these factors to the forecasts of residential and other land uses in the development area provides the following estimates of the pollution load. It has been assumed that 50% of workers in the commercial areas will live within the residential areas of the Technopolis site. If future phases of commercial development are implemented without a simultaneous enlargement of the housing allocation, more of the workers will have to commute from elsewhere; it has been assumed that about 75% of workers are commuters. Land Use BPO Phase 1 BPO Phase 2 BPO Future Phase CBD Offices 3 and 4-star hotels 5-star hotels Convention Centre Hospital Contributing Population 16,250 18,000 136,500 4,000 480 160 2,500 240 BOD Load (kg/day) Phase 1 Phase 2 Future 406 100 38 16 63 29 450 3,413 Page 73

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Contributing Population 8,738 5,500 21,938 104,261 BOD Load (kg/day) Phase 1 Phase 2 Future 138 6,260 7,050 8,500 218 548 11,679

Land Use Future Expansion (C1 & C4) Roadside Retail & Services (C2) Future Expansion (C3) Residential Areas Cumulative Total 6.3.5

Opportunities for Treated Effluent Recycling Waste stabilisation ponds generate a good quality effluent with generally low levels of pathogens due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. The treated effluent may be beneficially reused for irrigation in agriculture or arboriculture, or for aquaculture. The effluent contains low concentrations of nitrates, phosphates and other trace elements which generally increase crop yields when compared with fresh water irrigation. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has published extensive guidance on methods for determining appropriate standards for bacteria, viruses and other pathogens in water intended for use in agriculture (“WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater”, 2006). The assessment requires consideration of the whole food production process, including methods of farming and the preparation of food, to estimate the total pathogen risk to consumers. This approach is more pragmatic, though also more complex, than earlier methods which simply applied a fixed pathogen limit to water intended for restricted or non-restricted irrigation. Recycled effluent is likely to be available for the following uses although further, more detailed studies will need to be undertaken to confirm suitability and to identify appropriate precautions to prevent contamination of crops and to control exposure of the population to airborne or water-borne pathogens.       Irrigation beside highways Irrigation of sports pitches, golf courses, etc. Irrigation of vegetable and cereal crops (except shortly before harvesting) Sub-surface irrigation of trees and parks in public areas Water features (ponds, lakes, etc.) without fountains Aquaculture (i.e. fish farming)

6.3.6 6.3.6.1

On site and off - site infrastructure Treatment Plant

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Waste stabilisation pond (WSP) technology is the preferred option for wastewater treatment in tropical and subtropical climates. Waste stabilisation ponds are widely used in Kenya; a large installation at Dandora treats 30,000 m3/d of wastewater from Nairobi. Other ponds are planned or have been recently installed at Bondo, Siaya and Othaya. Page 74 Frischmann

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The technology exploits the warm ambient temperatures and plentiful sunlight of these regions to avoid the need for large amounts of electrical power. WSP provides effective treatment of wastewater with minimal requirements for power and machinery and is therefore a low-cost, low-maintenance and sustainable solution. The treatment process is driven by direct solar energy, rather than being reliant upon mechanical aeration. The minimum monthly average temperature in the Konza region is 16°C and the minimum monthly sunlight is approximately 4.5 hours per day (July – August). This coincides with the dry season. WSP systems comprise a series of different types of shallow ponds, generally constructed from earth mounds. Soil permeability is critical. Some seepage into the soil can be accommodated by natural biodegradation processes. However, if the soil permeability is too high then there is a risk of rapid transit of untreated wastewater through the soil resulting in pollution of the groundwater. In such cases, the ponds (particularly the initial stages) must be lined. Prior to treatment in the WSP system, wastewater must be screened and settled to remove plastic and other debris as well as grit. The screening process comprises mechanical screens with closely-spaced bars or mesh panels, typically with 6mm apertures. Material removed by the screens will be washed and dewatered prior to separate disposal in a landfill or incinerator. Grit removal comprises a series of constant-velocity channels or circular settlement tanks from which settled grit is removed, washed and dewatered. The first stage of the WSP process is an anaerobic pond where settleable organic matter will accumulate and ferment in the absence of oxygen. This process removes about 60% of the organic pollution, measured as Biochemical Oxygen Demand or “BOD”. In the absence of oxygen, organic material is converted into a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane, known as biogas. Covering the anaerobic stage and collecting the biogas provides a useful source of fuel, which may be used in combined heat and power (CHP) engines as a sustainable method to generate electricity and hot water for community heating or other uses. Biogas tends to be odorous, particularly if there is a high sulphate concentration in the wastewater. Collecting and using the biogas therefore assists to minimise the release of odour. With careful design and operation, the risks of odour nuisance outside the site are minimal. The second stage is known as the facultative stage, where organic matter is broken down further by the action of bacteria. The oxygen required by the bacteria is provided by a combination of diffusion at the surface of the pond and by the growth of algae, which also serves to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater. The large surface area and long retention time of the facultative stage allows sunlight to penetrate, helping to remove pathogenic bacteria, viruses and helminths by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light. The third stage is the maturation stage. This comprises shallow ponds (1 - 1.5m deep) which provide effective pathogen reduction as well as further reductions in BOD. Successive maturation ponds may be used to achieve progressively higher standards

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 of effluent quality. Each successive maturation stage achieves approximately a 25% reduction in the BOD and up to 1 log reduction in pathogens. The WSP system illustrated in Figure xx would achieve an effluent quality of approximately 40 mg/l BOD and 104 E. coli per 100 ml, which meets the estimated requirements for irrigation or for discharge to the river. Periodically the ponds are taken out of service to remove accumulated silt, which comprises a nutrient-rich, biologically-stable material suitable for recycling as an agricultural soil conditioner or fertiliser. The main disadvantage of WSP systems is that they require a large area of land. In the case of the Technopolis, the estimated land area required to serve Phase 1 of the development is 35 hectares. The additional population and commercial inputs associated with Phase 2 and subsequent identified development contribute to a total future land area requirement for wastewater treatment of 50 hectares. The recommended location for the wastewater treatment works is Block I1 of the Land Use Plan. This block is at a low level relative to the majority of the development area, and is downwind from the main residential and commercial areas for both prevailing wind directions (north east and south east). The block has been sized to accommodate the forecasted future volumes of wastewater as well as allowing space for administrative offices, workshops and car parking for workers. A provisional layout for the wastewater treatment works is shown below.

Figure 6-B - Layout for Waste Stabilisation Pond Wastewater Treatment An alternative method of wastewater treatment was considered, based upon activated sludge technology. This is a much more compact process, but it relies upon mechanical aeration to provide the oxygen needed for biological treatment of the pollution. The power requirement is therefore considerable, and there is a much greater reliance upon mechanical equipment within the treatment plant.

In the context of the Technopolis, where the availability of land and the climate favour waste stabilisation ponds, activated sludge would not be regarded as a sustainable option. The average power demand for the activated sludge treatment option has

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 been estimated as 300 kW. Nevertheless, for indicative purposes, a potential layout is included below. The layout includes the settlement and aeration tanks for the main activated sludge process, as well as storage tanks and digesters which would be required to convert the resulting sludge into a stable form, suitable for agricultural use.

Figure 6-C - Layout for Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment 6.3.7 Sewerage The concept for the sewerage network is for a branched network of gravity sewers, congregating at the new sewage treatment works in Block I1. The main trunk sewers will be laid along the dry river corridors for ease of access and to avoid sterilising land which might otherwise be developed. Carrier sewers from the residential and commercial blocks will gravitate along existing land profiles to one of these two trunk sewers. This approach eliminates the need for pumping stations within the catchment, though the flow must be pumped once at the inlet to the wastewater treatment works. With limited existing ground information and lack of topographical survey details, it is assumed that the lowest point is around 1,650m AOD at the river between Block I1 and R12. The proposed sewer network is separate from the surface water drainage system. It has been designed with a minimum velocity of 0.75 m/s to prevent settlement in the pipework. For pipeline installation, the minimum cover should be 0.9 m in open ground and 1.2m beneath roads road. Sewers should generally be laid below the road

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 carriageway with a minimum of 1m distance from the kerb line. Manholes should be provided at a maximum of 100m intervals on straight pipes and any changes of direction or junctions.

Figure 6-D - Sewerage Infrastructure Estimates of the peak sewage flow from each of the residential and commercial areas has been calculated based on the associated water demand and applying peaking factors according to the likely water usage patterns for each land use.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Table 6-4 - Design Foul Flow from BPO and CBD Blocks Block No. BPO B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Total CBD C1 offices C1 Retail C1 hotels C1 University C1 Hospital C1 Future Expansion C2 offices C3 offices C4 offices C4 Convention Centre Total 15.9 20.0 13.3 13.2 8.0 23.3 22.0 58.5 0.08 10.0 184 24.0 14.4 17.2 12.8 18.8 32.2 30.8 62.4 0.2 13.4 226 65.0 71.4 90.1 78.8 20.8 47.0 108.2 7.9 489.2 67.0 70.4 83.0 76.2 29.6 53.6 98.8 13.8 492 Area (ha.) Peak sewage flow (l/s)

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Table 6-5 - Design Foul Flow from Residential Blocks Residential R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 Total 6.3.8 Scope of Work Scope of works for the infrastructure associated with wastewater collection and treatment have been prepared as follows. Item Sewerage network Wastewater treatment works Treated effluent recycling Total Extension to sewerage network (Future Phase) Extension to wastewater treatment works (Future Phase) Total (Future Phases) Description Inlet pump station, screens and grit removal, anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds plus associated administration facilities. Pumping station and distribution network Extensions to the sewerage network to serve newly developed areas Additional waste stabilisation ponds for a total capacity of 37 Ml/d Area (ha.) 70.8 64.4 52.0 70.5 85.7 40.3 10.0 32.5 32.7 10.7 36.2 91.5 95.8 2.0 695.1 Peak sewage flow (l/s) 178.2 162.0 130.9 177.4 215.6 101.4 25.2 81.8 82.4 26.8 91.2 230.4 241.0 5.0 1,749

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.4 6.4.1 Storm water Overview In the absence of a local topographic survey and rainfall record, the design of storm water drainage is based on assumptions of the rainfall intensity. The design has been based upon a 1 in 30 year return period storm of 30 minutes duration. The existing ground levels on the site exhibit gradual falls towards existing dry river beds. These dry rivers will be used as the receiving watercourse. Four flood lagoons have been included within the design to attenuate storm flows in the rivers. The sizes shown on the plan are indicative at this stage, in the absence of detailed topographic and rainfall data. The advantage of flood lagoons over attenuation ponds is that they can be built within the river valleys and do not compromise the development area. Some straightening or revetment work may, however, be required in the rivers upstream of the lagoons to improve flow efficiency and reduce the effects of erosion. A combination of pipelines and shallow channel systems will be used to drain surface water from impermeable areas towards the rivers. A proportion of the surface water will also be channelled towards the water feature (lake) near the Central Business District, which will serve as additional storm attenuation capacity. The lake may be topped up with treated wastewater during the dry season. 6.4.2 Block No. BPO B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Assessment of Demand Area (ha.) 65.0 71.4 90.1 78.8 20.8 47.0 119. 8 7.90 Design Flow (m3/s) 26.9 29.56 37.3 32.6 8.6 19.4 49.6 3.3 Area (ha.) 15.9 20.0 13.3 13.2 8.0 23.3 22.0 58.5 0.08 10.0 Design Flow (m3/s) 6.6 8.3 5.5 5.5 3.3 9.7 8.3 24.2 0.03 4.1 Block No. Area (ha.) Design Flow (m3/s) 29.3 26.6 21.5 29.2 35.4 16.7 4.2 13.5 13.5 4.4 15.0 37.9 39.6 0.8 Page 81

Block No. CBD C1 offices C1 Retails C1 3* hotel C1 University C1 District Hospital C1 Future Expansion C2 C3 C4 office C4 Convention Centre

Residential R1 70.8 R2 64.4 R3 52.0 R4 70.5 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 85.7 40.3 10.0 32.5 32.7 10.7 36.2 91.5 95.8 2.0

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.4.3 6.4.3.1 On site and off - site infrastructure Stormwater Drainage The stormwater drainage network to accommodate the above estimates of peak flow is illustrated below.

Figure 6-E - Surface Water Drainage Infrastructure

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.4.3.2 Rainwater Harvesting Rainwater harvesting can be used to provide “greywater” (i.e. non-potable water) for applications such as toilet flushing or irrigation. The concept is particularly relevant to new-build applications, when the necessary storage and pipe work infrastructure may be included at the design stage. The economies of scale tend to favour large commercial premises, though rainwater harvesting can also be applied on individual houses. The harvesting system typically comprises an underground storage reservoir, pump and filter. A top-up system from the mains supply is required, as well as an overflow to the surface water drainage system. An additional benefit of large-scale rainwater harvesting is that the storm run-off response is lessened. Thus the size of the storm water drainage network may be reduced. Rainwater harvesting has been applied very successfully in the Molo District of Kenya, where changing rainfall patterns during the last decade have adversely affected the crop yield. Studies by Egerton University have demonstrated that farmers can not only improve yield but also diversify into more water-intensive crops such as bananas, pumpkins, vegetables and fruits. Rainfall patterns in the Konza region are typified by a rainy season during March – May, followed by a dry season during July and August. The approximately 8-fold variability between monthly rainfall patterns is a significant challenge to successful rainwater harvesting, since, unless a very large storage tank is built, it is likely to be overwhelmed during wet months and to run out during dry months. Further, more detailed studies on the viability of rainwater harvesting are therefore recommended to verify the economic viability of this concept. Harvesting rainwater from commercial premises in Nairobi is illegal according to local by-law, though harvesting from domestic premises is permitted. It is presumed that no such by-laws would apply to the Technopolis. 6.4.3.3 Scope of Work Scope of works for the infrastructure associated with wastewater collection and treatment have been prepared as follows. Item Stormwater drainage network Total Extension to stormwater drainage network (Future Phase) Total (Future Phases) 6.5 Power Description

Extensions to the drainage network to serve newly developed areas

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.5.1 Overview Kenya‟s installed electrical power generation capacity is 1,300MW, the current demand is 1,200MW. Hydro-power constitutes around 60 per cent of the total electricity generated in Kenya. The bulk of this electricity is tapped from five generating plants along the River Tana. The five stations combined - Kindaruma, Kamburu, Gitaru, Masinga and Kiambere - have an installed capacity of more than 400 MW. Turkwel Gorge Power Station in north-western Kenya has an installed capacity of 106 MW. There are also several small hydro stations with a combined generation output of 40 MW. Geothermal energy is generated using natural steam tapped from volcanic-active zones in the Rift Valley. Some 127 MW is fed into the national grid from three plants located at Olkaria. Thermal (fuel-generated) energy is generated in power stations at Mombasa and Nairobi. The demand for the new site is estimated to be 617MVA which will be phased. The first phase is estimated to require 358MVA and the second phase 393MVA. It has been indicated by the Ministry of Energy that there are a number of schemes which have been tendered which will provide an increase to the current generation capacity. It is assumed that these schemes will provide the required capacity for this development. As far as the power supply to the site is concerned the Ministry of Energy is already looking at sustainable sources such as hydro and wind turbines. Within the development sustainable solutions should be investigated for the development as a whole (including the buildings) which could include the feasibility of solar power, wind power, ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling, air source heat pumps. These solutions would be implemented at the development and would be local sources of energy. Depending on the feasibility there may be some capacity to export power back into the electricity network but these could not necessarily be relied upon as the main source of energy. The national grid is operated as an integral network, linked by a 220 kV and 132 kV transmission network. The national grid impacts on the future growth of the energy sector because any new generation capacity must take into consideration the existing network and its capacity to handle new loads. KPLC reinforces the power transmission and distribution network by constructing more lines and substations. Although the network has been growing at an average rate of 4 per cent over the past five years, lack of funds has hampered accelerated expansion. There are, however, plans to expand it substantially to ensure reliable energy transmission. These include the ongoing construction of 132 kV transmission from Kipevu to Rabai, and the planned 220kV line from Kiambere to Nairobi. The Ministry of Energy have also advised that a 400 kV line has been tendered between Mombasa and Nairobi and it is assumed that this is the line which passes the site. This power line will be diverted into a substation on the proposed site for development. It has also been assumed that this line will be capable of providing the

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 617 MVA total load required, which could be phased depending on the development programme. It is therefore not proposed to install a generator farm on this site. Efficiency of the transmission and distribution network continues to be enhanced in both technical and non-technical aspects. Planned technical improvements include reconductoring of lines, installation of capacitors, and construction of additional feeders and substations. Non-technical improvements include introduction of electronic meters, improvement of meter reading accuracy, fraud control and resolution of billing anomalies. KPLC is also undertaking a loss-reduction study to complement measures aimed at reducing the total system losses, currently at around 20 per cent. 6.5.2 Horizon I Projects Expected Commission Date 1 April 2009 1 April 2010 April 2012 October 2012 1 Oct 2011 1 July 2010 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2013 1 Jan 2013 1 Jan 2013 1 Oct 2010 1 Aug 2009 Capacity MW

A. Hydro 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 1 1

Project Type

Useful life

Kiambere optimisation Tana Development Raising of Masinga Dam Kindaruma 3 Unit Sangoro Geothermal Olkaria II 3rd Unit Eburu 2.5 MW Olkaria IV – New Olkaria I – New Plant Olkaria I Life Extension Thermal Thermal Plant – 120MW Wind Ngong wind
rd

50 50 50 50 50 25 25 25 25 25 20 25

20 20 15 25 21 35.0 2.5 140 70 70 120 5.1

This represents 544 MW of additional capacity phased over the next few years.

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6.5.3

Assessment of Demand An assessment of the typical electrical demand for the new development has been carried out and is summarised below. The figures used to calculate these loads are typical figures gathered from similar projects and industry standards. Table 6-6 - Power Demand Forecasts Land Use BPO Phase 1 BPO Phase 2 BPO Future Phase CBD Offices Retail & leisure 3 and 4-star hotels 5-star hotels Convention Centre University Schools Hospital Future Expansion (C1 & C4) Roadside Retail & Services (C2) Future Expansion (C3) Residential Areas Cumulative Total Demand (W/m2 floorspace) 120 120 120 120 140 140 140 140 130 130 145 120 140 120 120 160.1 344 379 603 Page 86 15.4 35.1 9.6 14.0 6.0 3.4 7.0 6.6 86.4 4.6 14.0 Power Demand (MW) Phase 1 Phase 2 Future 31.2 34.6 174.7

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The total demand is estimated to be 603 MVA which is phased such that Phase 1 will require 344 MVA and Phase 2 will require 379 MVA. These figures exclude any demand required for water and waste water treatment works but there would be sufficient capacity on the main substations for the power demands associated with these works. 6.5.4 6.5.4.1 On site and off - site infrastructure Generating Plant A dual source supply would be required to give some security. At this stage it is assumed that there will be a dual 400kV supply possible feeding from either Nairobi or Mombasa. If this is not the case then it will be necessary to install some on site generation at strategic points on the network. These would automatically supply the site upon failure of the main power supply. Additional security of supply to BPO companies could be achieved through the provision of site based standby generation facilities, if required, although careful consideration of the integration of these would be required in order to make appropriate and effective utilisation of these assets. 6.5.4.2 Distribution It is proposed that the supply to the site will come from the tendered 400 kV line proposed between Mombasa and Nairobi. A new 400/132 kV substation will be constructed to connect the site to the grid. This substation will consist of two 450MVA transformers which will be used to supply two 132 kV loops. This substation is likely to occupy a plan area of 200m x 200m and access for heavy machinery should be provided to a major road. It is proposed to predominantly install underground cables for the 132 kV network and in particular in the residential and commercial areas. The 132 kV network will connect to several 132/33 kV substations each rated at 120 MVA and consisting of two 120MVA transformers. Each of these substations is likely to occupy a plan area of 80m x 60m. From these substations there will be loops to several 33/11 kV substations which will each be rated at 35MVA and consisting of two 35 MVA transformers. At this stage it is uncertain where the load centres will be so these are suggested locations only. Further distribution substations will be required to transform the voltage from 11 kV to 400 V for final distribution. These will each have a maximum capacity of 2 MVA. A proposed distribution layout is detailed in Figure 6-F.

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Figure 6-F - Power Distribution Infrastructure

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.5.4.3 Scope of Works 400/132 kV Substation Location of Substation Residential Community Area Fed by Substation Whole site Units Item Quantity 1

132/33 kV Substation Location of Substation Residential Community BPO Technopark Central Business District BPO Technopark (Future) Area Fed by Substation Residential Community BPO Technopark Central Business District BPO Technopark (Future) Units Item Item Item Quantity 3 1 1

Item

2

33/11 kV Substation Location of Substation Residential Community BPO Technopark Central Business District BPO Technopark (Future) Ancillaries Description 400kV Cabling 132kV Cabling 33kV Cabling 11kV Cabling Solid Waste Units Item Item Item Item Quantity Area Fed by Substation Residential Community BPO Technopark Central Business District BPO Technopark (Future) Units Item Item Item Quantity 9 2 2

Item

5

6.6

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.6.1 Overview The Nairobi Metropolitan Region‟s 2030 Statement envisages establishing a Waste Management Authority to ensure the effective and efficient management and disposal of solid, liquid and other wastes. It will endeavour to promote waste to energy initiatives as part of the integrated waste management strategy for the region. 6.6.2 6.6.2.1 Solid Waste Disposal Strategy Overview The current solid waste disposal route is to sanitary landfill, although in the longer term it is hoped to promote energy from waste plants. The national strategy for solid waste is governed by the Environmental Management and Coordination (Solid Waste Management) Regulations 2006. The proposed layout for Technopolis could be accommodated without any detriment to the delivery of the required future waste infrastructure. This degree of flexibility is inherent in the management of solid waste as development of waste infrastructure is fundamentally based around a dispersed collection system coupled to bulking and onward transport. Indirectly, there will be impacts on specific locations which can be mitigated by co-locating with other relevant facilities, for example:  There are advantages with co-locating municipal waste anaerobic digestion and composting facilities adjacent to waste water treatment works adequately sized for treating the discharged liquors.  There are advantages in locating thermal treatment facilities adjacent to substations or other electricity generating facilities to feed into the distribution network. This section focuses on developing the detail of the mixture of facilities required to deliver the integrated solid waste management infrastructure. This envisages establishing a Waste Management Authority to ensure the effective and efficient management and disposal of solid, liquid and other wastes. 6.6.3 6.6.3.1 An Overview of Waste Management The Waste Hierarchy The recycling of waste is something that we do with an item when it has reached its end of life. However, before we consider recycling, we should look at two more sustainable options: reduction and reuse. Known as the waste hierarchy, this approach is a stepped order of preference for the management of waste:

6.6.3.2

Sustainable Planning for Solid Waste Management

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The overall objective of this section is to set out in the strategy for sustainable development. This can be achieved through more sustainable waste management by integrating the management of waste in the „waste hierarchy‟ and only disposing as a last resort. Any waste management strategy is underpinned by two key principles; firstly to collect and sort the waste streams; and secondly the requirement to landfill the fraction not treated by other means. This practical application of the waste hierarchy is best represented by the Integrated Waste Management Model. The key to this and any sustainable solid waste management system is the focus on collection systems and sorting the wastes for onward diversion and treatment. Working out from this central priority the preference is on treatment methods with energy recovery to technologies without energy recovery. There is no particular preference for individual sections other than developing a balance between the sections to give a sustainable mix all of which is underpinned by a landfill facility to absorb the variations in waste flow and to handle the material which cannot be readily diverted. To achieve this, significant investment in waste management facilities is required. The planning and local and national legislative systems are pivotal to the adequate and timely provision of the new facilities that will be needed: 6.6.4 Developing an Integrated Waste Strategy The proposed management system will built upon the source segregation of the waste streams, these will when collected be transported to strategic Transfer Stations. Each Strategic TS will bulk up the segregated wastes for onward treatment or disposal to the landfill. As the operation of the solid waste management plan is implemented it is anticipated that each Transfer Stations will be associated with a treatment system. These transfer stations providing bulking and pre-treatment, will be supporting each other with segregated materials for treatment. The residuals form each site will then be either prepared as a feed stock for the proposed energy from waste (EFW) facility or for land filling. 6.6.4.1 Waste Treatments – Collection and Sorting In order to deliver the integrated waste management strategy it is essential that the collection system delivers full coverage for municipal waste. Commercial and industrial wastes will also need to be handled but on a commercial footing with fees consummate to the cost of collection, handling and long term management of those wastes. As the collection fleet within the city is brought into operation then the parallel implementation of systems for sorting wastes as they are placed out for collection and for the organisation of specific collection points needs also to be developed.

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6.6.4.2

Civic Amenity Sites It is proposed that the Technopolis will provide a network of local material handling facilities to support the household recycling activities. These sites are initially proposed to provide householders somewhere to take their larger waste items for recycling and composting. They also provide a place for wastes that are not suitable for recycling, and some special wastes such as, waste electrical goods, fluorescent tubes and batteries.

6.6.4.3

Transfer Stations The next stage in the development of an integrated waste management system will be the transfer stations. Strategically located, these facilities offer the opportunity to sort and bulk up wastes, reducing the requirement for the collection fleet to travel long distance to empty their contents for treatment or disposal. The proposed operation of these facilities will realise a reduction in the total vehicles on the road, increased performance of the collection fleet and savings in operating costs for the Technopolis.

6.6.4.4

Landfill Landfill is the backbone of the Integrated Waste Management System. There will always be wastes that cannot go through a reuse, recycling or composting process. The landfill also gives a buffer capacity as the waste generation rate varies and a disposal outlet in the event of processing plant being off line for maintenance or repairs. Also incineration bottom ash and fly ash are end products which will still need to be disposed of.

6.6.4.5

Waste Treatments - Biological Treatment The most recent assessment of generated wastes in Kenya indicates that the waste in Kenya has a high organic content (55 to 75%). The two main forms of biological treatment for organic waste are Composting and Anaerobic Digestion. Composting green waste produces a product of rich dark soil which is beneficial to gardens and general land uses as a soil improver. Centralised composting facilities can accept a large volume of material and utilise a variety of methods of processing to create a usable product. Anaerobic Digestion involves the fermentation of organic material in the absence of oxygen to produce a biogas - a mix of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide - and a digestate that, with further processing can be used as a soil improver. The gas can be used to generate renewable electricity and heat the reaction vessel.

6.6.4.6

Waste Treatments - Mechanical Biological Treatment

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) systems involve a combination of the mechanical sorting of materials for recycling and the biological treatment of organics/residuals. Typically, waste is fed into a highlymechanised front-end sort, designed to remove metals, plastics and other materials. This maximises the diversion of recyclable materials and separates the organic element. The biological process is either a composting or anaerobic digestion process both of which give a residue which still has to be managed. If contamination levels are sufficiently low, it may be used as a low-grade compost or reclamation material. Alternatively, the residue can be used as feedstock for a combustion process or it will need to be landfilled. 6.6.4.7 Waste Treatments - Thermal Treatment There are a number of thermal treatment technologies available, some of which are more advanced in their development and implementation than others. These methods include mass burn incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Conventional mass burn incineration with no energy recovery is proven and deliverable with many facilities proposed and in planning through-out the world. The mass-burn, moving grate, technology is the most common, and has the advantage of being robust and relatively inexpensive. Modern thermal treatment plants are designed to generate power and often heat from the combustion process. The efficiency of the operation in capturing energy varies between different types of facility, and is also dependent on the nature of the waste entering the plant. There are many variants on the two principal advanced thermal treatment processes, pyrolysis and gasification, and, indeed the two may be found combined. Both these systems operate by partially burning the feedstock in limited or no oxygen to generate a fuel or syngas which is then cleaned, and burnt to generate power and heat. 6.6.5 Decision- Making Principles In the delivery of an integrated, sustainable solid waste management infrastructure, the facilities proposed and locations assessed should be reviewed against key principles:  Solid waste management should be considered alongside other spatial planning concerns, such as transport, housing, economic growth, natural resources and regeneration, recognising the contribution that solid waste management can make to the development of sustainable communities.  The planned provision of new capacity and its spatial distribution should be based on clear policy objectives, robust analysis of available data and information, and an appraisal of options.  Indicators should be monitored and reported and reviews should reflect any changes to the national waste strategy and occur at least every five years or sooner if there are signs that capacity and provision become misaligned.  Consideration during the planning phase should be given to the principles of Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) and the social needs of the communities of the Technopolis.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010  Protection of Water Resources based on the proximity of surface and groundwater.  The suitability of locations subject to flooding will also need particular care. Locations, and/or the environs of locations, that are liable to be affected by land instability will not normally be suitable for waste management facilities.  Considerations will also need to be given to traffic and transport links; air emissions, including dust; odours; vermin, feral dogs and birds; noise and vibration; litter; potential land use conflict. 6.6.6 Waste requiring management In considering the need for waste management within the Konza region, an initial assessment has been undertaken to identify the tonnages of waste requiring management for the following waste sectors:  Construction, demolition and inert wastes  Municipal, commercial and industrial  Hazardous wastes. 6.6.6.1 Construction, Demolition and Inert Wastes Wastes arising from the construction and onward maintenance of the Technopolis will be very difficult to quantify and predict as they will vary greatly as the social environment stabilises and the investment within the technology park and its population grows. As a consequence of this no attempt has been made within this document to quantify the amount or types of material likely to be generated. However, the following key principles should be applied and supported by a planning system to ensure construction waste is, as far as reasonably practicable, re-used in the site development. Where this is not feasible, local facilities should be developed to provide a means to sort and recycle the excess materials for re-use locally based on the proximity principle. 6.6.6.2 Municipal, Commercial and Industrial Wastes The amount of waste currently arising from the population of Kenya is difficult to assess fully as a result of the diverse collection and disposal methods. However, based on the available data from within the region, as collection systems are put into place, and from further afield, an assessment has been undertaken to enable initial planning to be undertaken for the capital investments. Waste generation rates were derived from a combination of national statistics and on information previously presented by the UN as presented below:

Waste Generation Per Head of Population

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 City Nairobi
6

kg/year 183 220 511 840 1011

kg/day 0.50 0.60 1.40 2.30 2.77

Amman Average European Dubai USA

Based on the above national generation rates and given the current socio-economic issues within the region, it could be taken that the current population generates approximately 0.5 kg/person/day of municipal waste. However, in line with the stated desire for the new Technopolis to be a western economically comparable development, it is assumed the generation rate will be 1.40 kg/day of which 50 to 60% will be Organic. There is currently little information on the collection of commercial and industrial wastes and where it is available it indicates the amount generated is considerably less than that of the municipal waste stream. However, as a first approximation, it has been assumed that the commercial and industrial waste generation is equivalent to about 75% of the municipal waste generation and that this proportion will rise to approximately 150% of the municipal generation. Therefore, planning for solid waste management facilities should give consideration for the supporting infrastructure to handle the commercial and industrially generated wastes as well as that for municipal waste.

Which will give the mixture of management options:

6

UNEP & NEMA Report - Selection, Design And Implementation Of Economic Instruments In The Kenyan Solid Waste Management Sector – Final Draft 23/02/2005

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6.6.6.3

Hazardous Wastes and Clinical Wastes Hazardous and Clinical waste management will be a growing issue as the state of the economic region improves and should be addressed as a national initiatives to ensure a sustainable and economic distribution of facilities are developed around the country to meet the developing needs.

6.6.7

Costing Budget cost estimates for the solid waste management infrastructure have been prepared as follows.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 AD / Compost Capital (at 2007) USD M MRF Capital (at 2007) USD M Incineration Capital (at 2007) USD M Advanced Thermal Capital (at 2007) USD M Capital (at 2007) USD M 2 2 5 1 5 24 11 1 Capital Cost USD M 2 2 21 12 8 5 25 11 Cumulative USD M 2 3 24 36 44 49 49 74 85 85 85 85 85 89 97 97 97 97 108 110 110 110

Year

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 11 Year 12 Year 13 Year 14 Year 15 Year 16 Year 17 Year 18 Year 19 Year 20 Year 21 Year 22

16 11 8

4 8

4 8

11 2

11 2

6.7 6.7.1

Telecommunications Outline of Resources in the region There are four fibre optic cables passing through or close to the proposed development site. These are long-distance cables linking Nairobi to Mombasa, which serves as a hub for international submarine cables (see Section 6.7.3.3. One of the cables is operated by Kenya Data Network (KDN). Ownership of the other three has not yet been determined. Mobile phone coverage along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway is provided by Zain Kenya. There is no access network infrastructure in the development area.

6.7.2

Assessment of Demand

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 The vision for the Technopolis is based upon state-of-the-art telecommunications, placing the development among the most advanced ICT and BPO centres in the world. The telecommunications infrastructure will support services such as voice (fixed and mobile telephony), video (TV and Video-on-Demand) and high-speed data. The infrastructure will be readily expanded to support growth in demand as well as future technologies. 6.7.2.1 Voice The mobile telephony infrastructure will be based upon third-generation (3G) services and be ready for future expansion to fourth-generation services (4G) and beyond. Fixed line telephony services will support IP telephony to benefit from the low operating cost arising from efficient use of the transmission network. IP Telephony encompasses all of the technologies which use Internet Protocols to exchange voice (VoIP), fax and other telecommunications. 6.7.2.2 Video High speed IP-based networks will deliver video services such as cable TV, high definition (HD) TV, interactive TV, Video-on-Demand (VoD) and video conferencing over cabled or wireless networks. These services could be used to improve communication, training, education and even government services, as well as providing entertainment. 6.7.2.3 High-Speed Data High speed internet (HSI) will be provided over both cabled and wireless access networks, providing readily-accessible broadband services throughout the Technopolis. 6.7.3 6.7.3.1 Proposed infrastructure Access Network The access network will be based around fibre optic technology. This solution is driven by the high levels of bandwidth demanded by voice, video and data applications, and by the need for future-proofing the infrastructure against developments in technology. Fibre optic cables can support bandwidths up to 10 Gbps over single or dual-strand fibres. The cost of fibre optic solutions has fallen dramatically in recent years and is now competitive with conventional copper-based networks on Greenfield developments, whilst offering substantially better capacity. The fibre optic cable network will be supplemented by a wireless infrastructure to enable full coverage within the Technopolis. The wireless infrastructure will be based on Bluetooth/UWB, Wi-Fi, WiMAX and 3G/4G cellular networks. The local access networks will be supported by approximately 4 telecommunications exchange buildings, networked to two core switch exchanges providing dualredundant gateways to the external transmission networks. The single mode fibre

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 optic network between these exchanges will itself provide dual-redundancy to ensure continuity of service. 6.7.3.2 Mobile GSM Services Mobile phone coverage is provided by local masts, each networked into the wider telecommunications system and installed and maintained by the service operators. As such, no allowances have been made for the costs of the mobile phone infrastructure, though it is recommended that the network operators are consulted at an early stage of the detailed Technopolis planning process to ensure that good coverage and network capacity is achieved. The major mobile service provider within Kenya is Safaricom, with 78% of the market share. Safaricom offers 3G support and has 1,749 base stations, providing coverage to 81% of the population. Other service providers are Zain Kenya, Orange (Telcom Kenya) and Econet Wireless Kenya. Zain Kenya (formerly Celtel Kenya) embarked on a rapid expansion programme during 2008 and offers coverage for more than 90% of the population via about 5,000 base stations. Coverage includes the main highway between Nairobi and Mombasa. (Source BMI-Techknowledge Communication Technologies Handbook, 2009). 6.7.3.3 Transmission Networks As at 2008, the international bandwidth capacity for Kenya stood at just over 1 Gbps. Most of this capacity was via expensive satellite links. Recent major investments have been made in high speed national and international data connections, in particular four fibre optic cable systems which will bring competition (and hence lower data transmission costs) to the market over the coming months.  TEAMS (The East African Marine System), provides a direct fibre optic link from Mombasa to Fujairah in the U.A.E. with a future capacity of 1.2 Tbps. The submarine cable reached Mombasa in June 2009 and offers a current capacity of 120 Gbps.  SEACOM (South East Asian Communication) is a network of cables extending from London, UK, via France and Egypt to Kenya and Tanzania, and onwards to Mumbai, India. Separate twin high-speed connections link Kenya and Tanzania to South Africa. The system became available in July 2009 and has a total capacity of 1.3 Tbps, of which 100 Gbps is currently active.  EASSy (East Africa Submarine System) runs from Mtunzini in South Africa to Port Sudan in Sudan, via Kenya (Mombasa) and 18 other African nations. It is forecast to enter commercial service in mid-2010.  The Kenya Data Network-Reliance cable links Mombasa to Yemen and is planned to extend the cable to South Africa. Flag Telecom owns and manages an extensive optic fibre network spanning Asia, Europe, the Middle East and USA. The ease of access to these high-speed international communications systems is a major advantage for the Konza site.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.7.3.4 Scope of Work Scope of work for the proposed telecommunications infrastructure have been prepared as follows. Item Access network Total Description Dual redundant fibre optic networks with core and exchange stations

6.8

Road Transport Strategy Included within previous Master Plan Section

6.8.1

NCTIP and its objectives The Northern Corridor Transport Improvement Project (NCTIP) is an infrastructure improvement project funded by the International Development Agency (IDA) of the World Bank group. The project covers both road and air transport. The air transport is administered under the Kenya Civil Aviation Authority and Kenya Airports Authority while the roads component is under Kenya Highway Authority. The objective of the NCTIP roads component is to improve the road corridor known as the Northern Corridor. This corridor runs from Mombasa to the Great Lakes region. The corridor is an important road link for trade and communication in the country and in the region. The project also seeks to link the neighbouring countries with Kenya such as Tanzania and Sudan.

6.8.2

Ongoing Contracts There are several ongoing works contracts.

6.8.2.1

EARNP 5/2009 The rehabilitation of the longer Sultan Hamud – Ulu – Machakos Turn off road (51 km) is being financed by the World Bank under the Northern Corridor Transport Improvement Project at a cost of US$ 39.2m. Construction commenced in September 2006 and is expected to be completed in February 2009.

6.8.2.2

Machakos Turnoff – Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (A109/A104) The 29-km long Machakos Turnoff – Athi River – JKIA road is of bitumen standard in poor condition. The road is located in Machakos and Nairobi Districts of Eastern and Nairobi Provinces respectively and part of Corridor No. 1. The 12-km section between Athi River Township and the turnoff to the Airport is currently being upgraded to a dual carriageway in order to address the serious traffic congestion.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Rehabilitation of the road is being financed by the World Bank under the Northern Corridor Transport Improvement Project at a cost of US$ 61.6m. Works commenced in September 2006 and are expected to be completed in August 2008. 6.8.2.3 Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) Turnoff – Uhuru Highway – Museum Hill (A104) The 12-km long section is of bitumen standard in a fair condition. The Highway is located within the city of Nairobi and is part of Corridor No. 1. This road section is proposed for concessioning together with the Machakos Turn Off – JKIA and Southern bypass roads in order to relief the City of Nairobi of traffic congestion. 6.9 Airport Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) is one of the busiest in Africa serving as a major hub in East Africa for cargo and tourist passengers. In 2006 the airport handled in excess of 4.4 million passengers. In December 2005 the Kenyan Airport Authority (KAA) declared their intention to expand and improve Jomo Kenyatta International to make it a premier regional hub in East Africa and prolong its usefulness until at least 2024 (when projections expect over nine million passengers a year). In addition the airport is an important cargo hub in East Africa. The amount of cargo handled at the airport increased from 192,300t in 2004 to 220,900t in 2005 and the trend in 2006 is upward. 6.9.1 Current JOMO KENYATTA Facilities JKIA terminal has three sections catering for both arrivals and departures. Sections one and two are used for international flights and section three is used for domestic flights. 6.9.2 JKIA Expansion Plans In October 2005, the Kenya Airports Authority announced the final plans for the expansion of JKIA. The project will double the current size of JKIA from 25,662m² to 55,222m² with the new Terminal 4 building. Aircraft parking will be improved by an increase in apron space from 200,000m² to over 300,000m², and also additional taxiways will be constructed. The arrivals and departures sections are to be separated for increased security, and the waiting areas are to be renovated. It is still under debate at government level as to whether the airport needs a second runway. Currently there is only one runway (06/24) which is 4,117m (13,507ft) paved in asphalt and ILS (instrument landing system) equipped. The current runway is sufficient to accommodate over 80,000 landings and take-offs a year but at the moment the number is only 60,000. Rail Link

6.10

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 An existing metre gauge railway network runs nearby to the site, the network is on average 100 years old with limited quality of service and carrying capacity for freight and passengers. It is concessioned to the Rift Valley Railways for 5 (five) years and 25 (twenty five) years for passenger and freight services respectively during which period the concessionaire will undertake investment to improve quality of service and increase hauling capacity. In its present condition it accounts for less than 6% of transportable freight from Mombasa with the balance of 94% going by road and causing extensive damage to the roads in the Northern Corridor. In 2008, the Port of Mombasa handled 17 million tonnes of transportable freight, which is more than the maximum capacity of the existing metre gauge railway. Freight Volumes available for transport have grown beyond previous projections and already outstrip available transport capacity (both roads and rail) causing perennial congestion of freight at the Port. The situation is bound to worsen with freight volumes at the port projected to grow at an average rate of 8% reaching at least 32 million tonnes by the year 2030. The existing transport infrastructure, both road and rail, can no longer support economic growth envisaged in the Vision 2030. The Government of Kenya intends to enhance capacity in the transport sector in order to improve efficiency, cost effectiveness and competitiveness of the sector to facilitate rapid economic growth. The Governments of Kenya and Uganda have agreed in principle to develop a Modern High Capacity Standard Gauge Railway between the two countries. The Government of Kenya has set aside funds within 2009/2010 budget to initiate the development of the Railway through undertaking a Preliminary Design and Environmental and Social Impact Analysis studies. The route will pass through Konza. The exact route has not yet been determined, if there is sufficient traffic the route could pass through the proposed ICT parks or a spur could link to the park. The speed proposed for passenger trains will be 160km/h. Nairobi to Sultan Hammond would take less than 1 hour. If it is decided to proceed with the construction of the standard gage railway construction is expected to be complete by 2017.

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Knoza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 6.11 Summary Infrastructure Costs Indicative costing of Buildings and Infrastructure for the KMIP and Techno-Village. Costs in USD million Indicative growth rate BPO Light manufacturing Housing and Auxiliary Uses (based on 80% of 60,000 jobs) Infrastructure KMIP Total costs Notes:Infrastructure costs exclude water but a detailed breakdown is given in section 5.1 of the report. BPO costings in the table above are from the Deloitte demand assessment. Year 1 3% 20 2 38.64 16.41 2.94 79.99 Year 2 5% 33 4 77.28 27.35 4.9 146.53 Year 3 7.50% 51 7 135.24 41.025 7.35 241.615 Year 4 10% 71 13 251.16 54.7 9.8 399.66 Year 5 14% 92 18 347.76 76.58 13.72 548.06 Year 10 61% 409 79 1526.28 333.67 59.78 2407.73 Year 15 89% 594 118 1719.48 486.83 87.22 3005.53 Year 20 100% 797 668 1,932 547 98 3504

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Konza Technopolis, Kenya DRAFT Master Plan Report – Site Analysis and Concept 6 April 2010 Indicative costings break-up of Infrastructure (Costs in USD million) Kenya Technopolis Preliminary Infrastructure costs Phase Phase Techno Remain Future KMIP 1 2 Village der Konza Site Area (ha) Konza Site Area (ha) 1107 373 531 125 700 1186 Cost (Million USD) 195 66 94 22 123 208

Item

Components

Roads

Primary, collector and local Cost and route TBA

Water transport scheme Road Landscaping Storm water drainage Water Supply

34

12 36 5 4 7 12 2

17 51 7 6 10 17 3

4 12 1 1 2 4 1

22 67 9 8 14 22 4

37 114 15 13 23 37 6

(excluding source)

channels and culverts reservoirs, pumping stations, pipes distribution network treatment

107 14 12 22 35 6

Wastewater Irrigation Power (excluding generation) Telecommunications Solid waste Sub-total Contingency (20%) Total USD substations, network cabling and street lighting

239 45 12 721 144 865

81 15 4 243 49 291

115 21 6 346 69 415 1,571

27 5 1 81 16 98

151 28 8 456 91 547

256 48 13

772 154 927 1,571

Total USD Note: Water transport costs not input as source is to be identified

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