Fisheries in the Philippines (I) and Urban Poor Sector (II

Asserting Rights, Defining Responsibilities Perspectives from Small-scale Fishing Communities on Coastal and Fisheries Management in the Philippines Cesar Allan Vera, Randee Cabaces and Leonard Reyes International Collective in Support of Fishworkers 27 College Road, Chennai 600 006, India Comprehensive National Fishery Industry Development Plan ((CNFIDP) Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, 2005

Types of Fisheries
The Fisheries Code classifies • commercial fisheries, • municipal fishers and • aquaculture. Municipal fishing as within municipal waters using fishing vessels of three (3) gross tonnage (GT) or less, or not requiring the use of fishing vessels.

Types of Fisheries
• Municipal waters are 15 km from the shoreline into the sea. The common gear used is passive gear, such as simple handlines, gillnets and traps. • Municipal catch are small pelagics (sardines, mackerels, anchovies, round herring, fusiliers and round scad), large pelagics (milkfish, marlin, swordfish, sailfish and barracuda) and demersals (shrimps and slipmouths).

Types of Fisheries
• Commercial fishing is classified into three, namely: • small-scale (utilizing passive or active gear on fishing vessels of 3.1-20 GT); • medium-scale (utilizing active gear and vessels of 20.1-150 GT); and • large-scale (utilizing active gear and vessels of more than 150 GT).

Types of Fisheries • The commercial fishers are usually based near large population centres where they land the bulk of their catch. trawl. The common species caught are roundscad and Indian sardines. • They roam wide areas in search for fish. ringnet and bagnet. The major fishing gear used are the purse-seine. .

and shrimps/prawns. tilapia.Types of Fisheries • The aquaculture sector includes fishery operations involving all forms of raising and culturing fish and other fishery species in fresh. . The primary harvests are seaweed. brackish and marine water areas. milkfish.

015. 2002 Operator 226.101 .849 2.Population per Fishery Sector Fishing Sector Aquaculture Municipal Commercial Total Source: National Statistics Office.057 7.781.195 1.

469 5.Agriculture.956 10. 2010 36..682 .Fishing INDUSTRY SERVICES Source: Bureau of Agriculture Statistics.035 M 11.487 1.Employment by Industry Group ALL INDUSTRIES AGRICULTURE ..398 18. Hunting and Forestry .

Poverty Status of Fisherfolks .

722 400 1.176 450 914 ..Wholesale and Retail Trade .Hotels and Restaurants .Financial Intermediation .035 1.. Renting and Business ..682 7.Transport.. Social and Personal Service Activities 18.Health and Social Work .Other Community.063 2..SERVICES . Compulsory Social Security .Public Administration and Defense..Education . Storage and Communications .847 1....Real Estate.147 1.


65 70.849.51 60...857.463.537.32 77..96 82..050.Marine Municipal Fisheries ..931.198....Commercial Fisheries .Aquaculture (In thousands of Pesos) 221..Municipal Fisheries .736.54 .456.454.506.Fisheries: Value of Production by Subsector PHILIPPINES FISHERIES .69 7.956.Inland Municipal Fisheries .






Status of Resources • Philippine coral reefs revealed that only 5. • Mangrove forest cover has been reduced from an estimated 400. 1985).000 ha in the early 1900s to only 200. destructive fishing practices and overfishing.000 ha in 1994 (Calumpong 1994).5 per cent are in excellent condition (Yap and Gomez. Forty-fi ve percent of this mangrove loss is attributed to fishpond conversion . • commonly attributed to siltation.000-500.

especially by the municipal fishing sector.Status of Resources • Fishery production began to level off during the early 1980s. steadily declined between 1991 and 1998. indicating that the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) has been reached. • Capture-fisheries production. .



• It establishes coastal resource management as the approach for managing coastal and marine resources. . management and conservation of the fisheries and aquatic resources of the country.Fisheries Code (RA 8550) of 1998 • The Fisheries Code is an act providing for the development.

• the adoption of MSY as a basis for fi sheries management. • the limitation on size and duration of leases of fishponds. • the prohibition on converting mangrove forests into fishponds and the reversion of converted mangrove forests. and • the creation of fisherfolk-led Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Councils (FARMCs) at different levels of government . • the reconstitution of BFAR from a staff agency to a line agency. • the decentralization of management of municipal waters to local government units (LGUs).Fisheries Code (RA 8550) of 1998 The salient new features of the Code include the following: • the expansion of municipal waters from seven to 15 km.


The Characteristics of Urban Poverty and Vulnerability • What is distinctive about urban poverty and vulnerability? • The specific character of urban poverty may be related to three distinctive characteristics of urban life: • commoditization. environmental hazard. . and social fragmentation.

.The Characteristics of Urban Poverty and Vulnerability • Commoditization. • Urban households are for the most part obliged to pay for their food and shelter (rather than rely on their own production). or insecure. insufficient. and • more dependent upon purchasing services such as transportation and education than rural dwellers. Shelter is frequently illegal and insecure. • Employment is frequently unavailable. One set of risks faced by urban dwellers arises from their integration into the cash economy.

and solid waste management. (b) Poor quality housing. Special characteristics of low-income communities include: (a) inadequate access to water. sanitation. The poor are disproportionately affected by urban environmental problems. (c) overcrowding. and (d) settlement on marginal or degraded land. drainage.The Characteristics of Urban Poverty and Vulnerability • Environmental hazard. .

• Urban areas are often characterized by higher levels of violence. The vulnerability of urban dwellers may also be high because community and inter-household mechanisms for social security are less likely to operate in urban than in rural areas.The Characteristics of Urban Poverty and Vulnerability • Social fragmentation. . and greater risk of motor vehicle accidents. and drug abuse. alcohol.

electricity) • The second focuses on social services and assistance: seeking to extend social services (health and education) and social assistance (often through conditional cash transfers) to the urban poor. reduce risks.Urban Poverty Reduction • There are three broad approaches to reducing urban poverty. . The first focuses on • habitat: seeking to secure housing tenure. sanitation. and address urban regulatory or policy challenges faced by the urban working poor. and/or provide housing infrastructure services (water. • A third focuses on livelihoods: seeking to increase incomes. provide housing finance.

Urban Poverty Reduction .

as a nuisance to be eliminated or contained. 3. and still others see them as dynamic entrepreneurs to be freed from cumbersome government regulations. . 2. while others see them as a vulnerable group to be assisted through social policies. • observers view informal workers 1.An INFORMED POLICY ON THE INFORMAL ECONOMY • the informal economy is growing in both developing and developed countries and taking on new forms.

policy makers tend to overreact to the informal economy. Capital/technology intensive .An INFORMED POLICY ON THE INFORMAL ECONOMY • Responding to one or another of these contradictory views. trying either to discourage it altogether or to promote it as a solution to economic stagnation • The Informal Economy Solution Dilemma: Labor vs.

resilience.An INFORMED POLICY ON THE INFORMAL ECONOMY • Given the size. • contribution. . it is important that governments develop context-specific policies that recognise its • size. and • composition in different locales or industries. and diversity of the informal economy.

. • Value chain analysis offers the opportunity to situate informal work within the economy of a country and to see at which points along the chain informal workers could get access to social protection.An INFORMED POLICY ON THE INFORMAL ECONOMY • Value chains and social protection: • Value chain analysis provides a way of understanding the significant contributions that • informal workers make to the economic value of a product or service.

An INFORMED POLICY ON THE INFORMAL ECONOMY • While informal work arrangements need appropriate regulations. . a number of other social • actors can intervene to promote the interests of informal workers including: employers and companies. Besides government. informal workers and their families. policies towards the informal economy should aim to • increase the productivity and improve the working conditions of those who work in it. consumers and the public. • non-governmental and community-based organisations. trade unions and cooperatives.

ILO 1972.Schools of Thought on Informal Economy • The dualist school sees the informal sector of the economy as comprised of marginal activities that are distinct from and not related to the formal sector and that provide income for the poor and a safety net in times of crisis (Hart 1973.Sethuraman 1976. • The structuralist school sees the informal economy as subordinated economic units (micro-enterprises) and workers that serve to reduce input and labour costs and. . thereby. increase the competitiveness of large capitalist firms (Moser 1978. Tokman 1978).Castells and Portes 1989).

. Maloney 2004). and other costs of operating formally (e. commercial regulations. electricity and rental fees.g. 2000).Schools of Thought on Informal Economy • The legalist school sees the informal sector as comprised of plucky micro-entrepreneurs who choose to operate informally in order to avoid the unnecessary and burdensome costs. • The voluntarist school sees the informal sector as comprised of micro-entrepreneurs who choose to operate informally in order to avoid taxation. time and effort of formal registration and who need legal rights to convert their assets into formal property (de Soto 1989.

and b) a mismatch between people’s skills and the structure of modern economic opportunities.Schools of Thought on Informal Economy • The dualists argue that informal operators are excluded from modern economic opportunities due to a) imbalances between the growth rates of the population and of modern industrial employment. .

subcontracting chains. off-shore industries. • the attempts by formal firms to reduce labour costs and increase competitiveness.Schools of Thought on Informal Economy • The structuralists argue that informality is due to the nature of capitalism/capitalist growth: specifically. and flexible specialization). . state regulation of the economy. and • global competition. and the process of industrialization (notably. • the reaction of formal firms to the power of organized labour.

• The voluntarists argue that informal operators choose to operate informally – after weighing the costs-benefits of informality relative to formality. extralegal norms. .Schools of Thought on Informal Economy • The legalists argue that a hostile legal system leads to informal activities and informal.

the structuralists on petty traders and producers as well as sub-contracted workers.Schools of Thought on Informal Economy • The debates between these dominant schools of thought have tended to generate more heat than light in large part because each school of thought has focused on one or another “slice of the (informal economy) pie. . The dualists focus on those engaged in traditional and survival activities.” not the whole pie. both the legalists and voluntarists on informal enterprises and entrepreneurs.

hence no intention of engaging with state – stymied by high barriers to entry • Firms: – avoiding taxation and other regulations – partially registering their workers and sales .World Bank: A Holistic Framework • Composition: “Three Pairs” of Economic Agents • Labour: – insufficient human capital to get formal job – quit formal job in order to: be their own boss + make more money + avoid taxes + enjoy flexibility • Micro-firms: – no intention or potential for growth.

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